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No. 51. 


February 2$, 1843. 


OTS. A. Goodwin, Clerk in Chancery of the sevendi 
circuit. ^ . 


Hie vBdeiagned, clerk in chancery for the 7th circoit, is persuad- 
ed, that an examinatioD into the bonsffs qt that office hj the Legisla- 
tore, will Mtaafy that honorable body that no reduction ought to be 
made in the amount of the salaiy. He therefore respectfully repre- 
wnti, that the business of the office has very much increased since 
the act of 1839, fixing the salaryi (including all expenses,) at fifteen 
hndnd doUan, «1«500.) 

The undersigned solicits attention to the following vier of the con- 
cerns of this office. 

I ^ hvtiMtt m 18^. 
Hie number of original bills and petitions filed doring the year 
1842, waa nx hnndied and fiAy-two, (653.) 

Tlte number of oiigiml bills and petitions filed in 1838, the yetw 
|>renous to the salary being fixed at its present amount, vas t^re* 
hatArtd tndforty^ (340,) which exhibits an tncreoie nnce that time 
ef newly one-half. 

[Scnata No. &1.J 




The number of decrees and special orders entered daring the year 
1843, was teven hundred and tixiy-aiae, (769.) 

The number of folios of the decrees and special orders entered dur- 
ing the same time, aa ascertuned by a careful estimate, is eight thou- 
tand and geventy-nme, (8,079.) 

The number of common orders entered during the same time, was 
t^ht hundred and ninety-six, (896,) and the number of folios of the 
same, is one thousand eight hitndredf (1,800.) 

The number of folios of papers copied on request during the year, 
cannot be accurately ascertained. But the undersigned states that it 
is very great, and requires nearly the entire time of one good pen- 
man to accomplish it. 

The number of records or enrolments of decrees during the same 
period is three hufidred, (3O0.) For the informatioo of those not 
familiar with the practice in this reelect, the undersigned begs leave 
to state, that this record or enrolment consists of a history of the pro- 
ceedings in the cause, not to exceed five folios, drawn up by the cleric 
from the papers and records of the office, containing therein an en- 
grossed copy of the final decree; and this, with the pleadings, attach- 
ed together, and endorsed an^filed, forms the record. The number 
of folios thus required to be engrossed is, (deducting some drafts 
used,) about five thousand, (5,000,) and the business minute and la- 

By the statute, the clerk is required to keep an accurate account of 
all services rendered for each solicitor. This requires a minute ex- 
amination of every paper filed, and it is estimated, requires the clerk 
about six aeekt of time during the year, to accomplish it. The ac- 
counts are required, by the lav of last winter, to he copied by items 
with the titles of the causes, and sent to the county treasurers. The 
copies of these accounts from July 1st, 1842, to January 1st, 1843, 
and mostly in figures and abbreviations, are over one thousand folios, 

There are /our stated terms of the court held in every year, which 
continue a ujetk each, and which the undersigned personally attends 
as clerk. 

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No. 61.J 8 

By the general nileS) a special motion terra is appointed on the 
uamd andjotirth Tuadayi t^ each taenth, and are held, except when 
the rice-cfaancelloi is absent on a circuit. These terms, under the 
order of the Tice-chancellor, are held at Syracvte, twenty-five miles 
distant from Auburn. The clerk is required by law to attend these 
Bpedal terms, although his cotutant attendance has been heretofore 
fiepensed with by the Tice-chancellor. He has, however, always at- 
tended the most important, and daring the past and previous year, 
hu w attended ten special terms at Syracuse, occupying from one to 
three days each, at as average expense of $3.87^ severally. And 
Dpon any intimation of the vice-chancellor, the undersigned will be 
compelled to attend all such motion courts during the year. 

By the act requiring semi-annual abstracts of the accounts of fees 
aad services to be transmitted to the Comptroller, another labor de- 
volves opon the clerk which requires the time of one individual about 
thru mekt during the year. 

One of the most important labors of the office, and requiring the 
conitant care and personal attention of the clerk, is the business con- 
aected with the receipt, safe-keeping, and disbursement of moneys 
paid into court, and the supervision of a large amount of secarilles 
taka and investments made, for the benefit of infants, unknown 
owners in partition, and married women. With an eye to this 
(among other things,] the clerk is required to give bail to the amount 
nf ten thousand dollars, ($10,000.) 

The undersigned has now in bis care and custody as cleric, about 
tightffbondt and mortgages and other securities, direct and collateral, 
n|KHi which he is continually receiving and paying out principal and 
interest, under the direction of the court, to those entitled thereto. 
And in very many of the cases the interest only is to be collected and 
paid over to the guardians of infants annually. Many investments 
are required to be amiually made. 

The annual account required by the chancellorto be examined and 
paaed upon by the injunction master for the circuit, and a copy to 
be delivered to the vice-chancellor, contains a full account current 
with the title of every cause or matter in which money has been re- 
ceived or pud out, and a list of all the securities. 

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4 [&sm 

Thfe Aecotmt for the jretu ending Jan. Ist^ 1SI3, sfaoved that in 
<UA 'b^di of bttskiedi t&e cleHc had received during that jtn $81,- 
071 .87, aird^d out (37,379.96, and ID fiftj-one difier»t causes or 

The account for the year endbg Jan. Ist, ISiZ, showed during 
tbat.year received tl6,6U. 02, and paid out $13,945.87, in forty- 
three different causes or matters. ReceiTcd from Jan. Ist^ 1843, to 
thU date, $7,306.79.1 

The undersigned has adverted to this for the purpose of tichibil- 
ii)g the amount of care sad responsibility connected «ritb this office, 
as well as the actual labor attending it. 

In reference to the amount of business he will only add, that search- 
ing, sealing process, and acting as general agent, which by law he 
is required to do for all the solictors in the circuit and State, and 
making returns to them, will be perceived to much increase the la- 
bors of the office. Beudes giving his own time and attention to the 
office, the undersigned has three clerks constantly employed in this 

Expenta of the office per annum. 
1842, Expenses to Syracuse, to attend special motion terms, 

& times, $19 38 

" 2 clerks at $16 per month each, 360 00 

" 1 " 10 " including lodgingatoffice 

and board, 120 00 

" blanks of various kinds, 20 00 

" 10 reams of paper, at $3 per ream, 3000 

" other stationery at Derby's, Ivisons & Wynkoop's, 

conrasting of steel pens, quills, ink, sand, dbc. &c. 41 36 

« rent of office, 60 00 

" 6 cords of wood, at $3.60, 21 00 

« 10 galls, oil, at $1.60, 16 00 

" 2 vols, minutes of decrees, at $8.00, record, 16 00 

" 1 " common orders at$8-00, record,. 8 00 

" 1 « causes, $8.00, record, 8 00 

Carried forward, $ 

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K«.M.] ft 

Broogfat ferwird, # 

1842, 1 vol. TOaghmiiititei,Bt^.OO, S 00 

" 1 vol. check book, 4 60 

" 1 paper case, 16 00 

" paid Dennis & Wood for repairbg press, 3 00 

" *• P. H.Perry for taking aflSdavits to county treas. 7 63 

** ** pottf^c from county treasurers, 184 

" " for iron safe for protecting >eGiuitisSi 30 00 

$762 71 

The above is a fair estimate of expenses taken from the payments 
of the pest year, and the record books, and stationery, &c. annually 
used. The items of paper, wood, and oil, may be obtained a trifle 
cheaper in future, than during this last year. Some of the above 
items are also temporary. But from long experience in the ofBce, and 
■ knowledge of its increasing business, the undersigned respectiully 
alleges that the annual expenses of this office can never be less than 
Mtvat htmdrei Mlart per annum. The items of record books and 
paper cases, press, &c. are directed to be paid out of the chancery 
fund, by the Revised Statutes; but they never have been, because 
thov is no chancery fund in the drcuit to meet such expenses. 

By a reference to the abstracts retiuned to the Comptroller in July 
and January last, it will be seen that the total amount of the feesac- 
cruing at this office for the year 1843, is me thoutand Jioe Aundred 
«ndtixtttn doUari and lixiy three cents, ($1,616.63.) 

That amount would have been much increased were it not for the 
reduction made by the Legislature of 1840, in the whole tea, and 
particularly of mortgage foreclosures, which amount to almost 
nothing, and many of the services in which are under that law ren- 
dered, by the clerk gratuitously. 

The underngned therefore prays that no reduction may be made of 
the salary of the clerk of the 7th circuit, or if that shall not seem 
meet to your honorable body, he prays that a sum may be fixed upon 
which in the judgment of your honorable body, may be just and 
proper as the salary of said clerk, and another som for the clerk 
hire and expenses of said office. And in reference to clerk hire, the 

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6 [Sehatb 

nnderwgned can trnlj remarlc, that the amoant aboTe paid bj him is 
a TBtj inadequate compensation to the cleiks employed, for their la- 
bor and services' 

Respectfully submitted. 


Cltrk m Chancery 1th Circiiit. 
.Sttbuntt Febnutry 18, 1813. 



No. 52. 


February 35, 1843. 


Of the minority of the Committee on Charitable 
and Religious Soeieties. 

Ur. Lawrence, from the minority of the oominittee on charit&ble 
•od leligious societies, has had under coanderation the petition of 
the " Seaman's Friend Socuety" of the city of New-York^ praying to 
be tdeawd from the payment of a loan of ten thousand dollars, made 
to said society from the mariner's fund or passengers' hospital fund, 
in the -winter of 1840, for the term of five years without ioterett, 
and asks leave to present the following 


It appean thst this society was incorpoiated in the jear 1833; that 
its abject was to elevate the condition, and reform the moral charac 
ter of the mariner. 

The committee are aware that this highly oseful end numerous 
class of tfae community, have foi a long series of years been the sub- 
jccte of gross imposition and abuse in the port of New-Yorlc as well 
as other ports. 

They have reason to believe that a regular system of fraud and 
swindling has been carried on with a certain class of innkeepers, 
who, upon their reaching the port, entice them to their houses, an- 

[Senate Vo. &2.] A [n. n.] 

lized by 


9 [Sdati 

der the pretence of afibrdiiig them a hoioe upon reasonable terms. 
But in fact, to rob and plunder them of the Terj last cent they majr - 
possess, and then they are turned out to the cold charities of a friend- 
less world. The committee would not be understood aa conveying 
the idea that these are robberies in the common acceptation of that 
term ; but they are robberies committed in a still more odious and 
contemptible manner, through the agency of the prostitute and the 
application of the intoiicaUiig bowL 

The committee are aware that these remarks do not apply to the 
sober and intelligent portion of that class, and they are happy to be 
able to state upon the best authority, that this class of mariners has 
been greatly increased since the commencement of the temperance 
reformation. The labors of the christian and philanthropist, eroi 
among the sailors, have been crowned with signal success. 

But it is notorious, that great numbers of men who pursue this 
callbgi are strongly addicted to the use of intozicatbg dnnks ; and 
if they are kept under restraint while on a voya^, by the discipline 
of the master, they return to the shore with sharpened appetites, and 
with a strong desire for indulgence, not only in this but in other pas- 
sions ; hence, they become the easy Tictims of these wretches, who 
•re constantly on the look out for their prey. 

The committee believe the " Seaman's Friend Society" had its ori- 
gin with the benerolent portion of the community where these dis- 
graceful scenes are enacted, with the view to counteract, and as far 
■s posrible, do away these evils. 

It appears to your committee, that the society have spared no ef- 
forts or reaw&able expense in carrying forward their pTtiseworthy 
objects. They, in the first instance, rented sereral suitable bouses 
on a small scale for the accommodation of the sailor. In these hou- 
ses, from the commencement of their operations in November 1837, 
to 1840, over six thousand seamen were accommodated ; out of 
which number about six hunilred have become strictly temperate ; 
about three hundred have risen to be mates and masters. 

The fact also, should be here stated, that the boarders at these es- 
tablishments during the short time they have been in operation, have 
depoated in the Seaman's Saving Bank, about thirty-five thousand 
dollars, including interest thereon. 

Digitized by 


He. SS.] 3 

In 1840, the lociety eommeneed, ui4 htre «iic« cenipl«t«d at wk 
e^>eiiw of aboat $40,000, a Ter; commodioos building, affordbg; 
unple accommodations for three hundred seamen at one time. 

Tlus establishment has been occupied about nine months, and baa 
■ afforded an asylum for great numbers of destitute seamen,' as well as 
ft Tcqttctable bosn&ig house for the better claaa of nilon vho hare 
chosen to resort to it. 

The committee believe the uniTersal practice has been not to turn 
any away, however destitute, unless tbey were so &r gone in profli- 
gwy and disaipatioD as to be beyond the hope of recovery. 

In numerous instances, the destitute have been leceived, and tbtit 
wants supplied, not only for board, but clothing also ; and frequently 
at a loss to the society. 

It is a rule (as it should be,) at the establishment to keep an ao- 
count with these persons. But when these men leave this establish- 
ment in debt, from the very nature of the case, the committee can 
eanly conceive that the probability of a liquidation is very remote. 

The ccmjnittee have every reason to believe that this society has 
lendered itself very useful to the mariner, and that it promises still 
greater osefolness if properly encouraged and sustained by an enlight- 
ened public, and by Badi Le^slative aid as may be connstently af- 

To what extent this may be done, is a question the committee have 
had some difficulty in determining. 

The fund from which it is proposed to take tea thousand dollars 
for the benefit of this society, it appears, has been made up by a sort 
of capitation tax upim passengers arriving at the port of New-York. 
This tax is believed to be an onerous and unjust exaction upon the 

But it is said that other countries have a aimilar r^;ulatton. In 
reply to which vre have only to say, that two wrongs can never moke 

Compelling the rich and the poor to pay or contribute slike to a 
fsad, and in general to a fund which in no way can ever benefit the 

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4 [Sehatk 

persona taxed is, as your committee beliere, in the highest degree an- 

It appears from the Comptroller'B report, page 62, that this fund 
now coDUSts of this mortgage which is sought to be cancelled of 

f 10,000 00 

State stock, S2,000 00 

Honey in the Treaaary, 25,313 46 

TotaJ, $67,212 46, 

The Comptroller further states that the commissioner of health has 
deposited in the New-York Life Insurance and Trust Company, the 
sum of $25,333 85, which was pfud to bim under protest by mas- 
ters of vessels, on account of the tax imposed on passengers arriving 
at the port of New-York. 

As to what is the best method of dispo^ng of this fund, the com- 
mittee are not prepared ; nor are they called upon to slate, but it 
does appear to them that it should be appropriated in some way 
wherein those who have contributed to it would either directly or in- 
directly be benefitted by it. 

It is said that this fund belongs to the mariner, that the State is 
merely a trustee in holding it for their benefit. The committee do 
not so understand it. Down to the year 1S31, the taxes imposed on 
the officers and crews of vessels arriving at the port of New-York, 
as well as the tax levied on passengers were paid to this fund. But 
by an act passed April 22J, 1831, this entire fund was directed to be 
paid to the " Trustees of the Seaman's Fund and Retreat in the city 
of New-York." (See section 8 of the said act.) 

The 9th section of that act repeals so much of the 7th section of 
title 4, chapter 14, part Ist of the Revised Statute at authorizes the 
commissioners of health of the Marine Hospital to recdve and col- 
lect hospital money from masters, mariners or seamen of vessels arriv- 
ing at the port of New-York ; but continued in force, that part 
which authorized thecommissioners aforesaid to collect this tax from 
passengers ; so that the entire amount of this fund as it now exists 
has been collected from passengers. If it is proper to impose this 
tax upon passengers aniving at the port of New-York, most certain- 
Digitized by 


No. &£.] 5 

ly tbere can be' no good reason for confining ita application to the 
iDstitntions of that city alone. 

So far as the tax upon mariners is coDcemed, there is a fitness and 
propriety in applying it to their benefit. But not so with this tax, 
wluch is extorted from the trareller and wrung from the emigrant. 

Od referring to the journals of last year, the committee find that a 
aoilar apptication was farorahly received by this body. This ur- 
cndstance led the committee more carefolly to examine the subject, 
lest they sbonld find their first impressions which were aDfavorable to 
the application, wrong. 

But they have not been able to find any good reason for chang- 
ing their news, or for making at this time, this donation to this so- 

Ande from other objections, the committee think the application 

It will be seen, on referring to the petition, that the mortage has 
yet two years to run ; that po interest is required or can accrue. It 
will readily be perceived, that this is equivalent to a donation of $700 
per year, and for the full term, $3,600. 

When the mortgage shall become due, if the society find them- 
selves unable to refund this loan, an application similar to this might, 
with some plausibility, be made. 

Bot what will be the effect of granting the prayer of these peti- 
tioners 1 It will place upon our journals a precedent which must 
remain there through all time to come. 

And what is that precedent* A society, (and the committee ad- 
mit a very worthy one,) apply to the Legislature for. a loan to aid 
them in carrying out their benevolent objects. The loan is made on 
the most favorable terms in accordance with tbeii request, but at 
the end of the second year, before the term fixed by themselves had 
half expired, they apply to the Legislature, to have the mortgage 

Now, if this application is granted, it will serve as a guide for fu- 
ture ^>pUcationa ; the L^^lature will be called upon for loans from 

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ft fSsiTATB 

this or Bome other fund by rimilar institutiDiu, and perhaps, satisfj 
the Legislature that they can repay at some future day. That Le^s- 
lature passes away, another occupy their places, asd the applicaots 
now appear and claim to be discharged from their obligations ; and 
they place it on the ground of justice ; tbey refer the Legislature to 
this precedent, and urge it as the settled policy of the State, that 
when a loan is made to a charitable or religious society, they have the 
right as a matter of course to be discharged from its payment when- 
ever they please. 

The committee have been told that this has been, and is now un- 
derstood to be the settled policy- 
All the committee hare to say in reply is, that in their oiunioo, 
if it is so, it ought at once to be reTersed. 

The committee do not believe in the propriety of this course of 
double dealing. There appears to be a sort of deception, to say 
the least of it, accompanying the transaction. 

If the pure and elevated principles of upright, iaii and honorable 
dealing are worthy of being adhered to by individuals, most cer- 
tainly there exists a double propriety in sustainbg such a course, on 
the part of such institutions. 

Such a policy is in the opinion of your committee, not only de- 
moralizing in its tendency, bat unworthy the Legislature. If the 
application is a meritorious one, and the Legislature have the means, 
let them give directly what b thus sought to he obtained indirectly. 
Entertaining these views, the minority think the prayer of the peti- 
tioners ought not to be granted. 

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No. 53. 


Febbitart 25, 1843. 


Of the Committee on Medical Societies and Medi- 
cal Colleges. 

Mr. Ely, from the standbg committee on medical sodeties and 
medical colleges, to which was referred the petition of certaia pbj- 
ncians of the citjr of New>York, praying for the incorpoTstton of 
ttie Kew-Toik Society for the Relief of the Widowi and Orphana of 
Medical Men, 


That the object aimed at by the petitioneri is one of the mort parOi 
beneroleat and sacred character, which can be preaentcd for the action 
of the le^lative body, and addresses itself directly to the best and 
IcindUest aympathiea of oor cohudoq nature. Its design is to atreugth- 
en the hands and cheer the hearts of the widows and orphans of a 
class of our fellow-men, whose talents, energies and services, are on- 
Tcmittingly devoted to the melioration of the condition of their kind; 
and, for that reason, are seldom directed to a close and calcnlatmg 
accnmulation of this world's goods, wherewith to leave their families 
coiofoTtable, when they themselveB, shall sink to the grave. 

Although this class of men can count among their number many 

who have been so fortunate as to leave a substantial legacy to those 

[Sennte Mo. 63.] A [a. n.] 



vboareentiUedtotheir protection, there are man;, T«7 many, vho 
with equal attainments, whose efforts have been the same, and whose 
names will be remembered with as lively emotions of gratitude, that 
have died in porerty, leaving tiicir ftuniliei destitute of the means of 

In the preBent state «f nciety, th« man ef aeience and skill, too 
often discoTers that r46kl«sstesi ud (gnorabc^ assuming an impo- 
sing form, and glossed with pretensions to a knowledge of mysteri- 
ous and inc»mmiiBicable arts of heali^, find a ready access to the 
dwellings of many, Whose fdlly and cfedulity, in relation to disease 
and its appropriate remedies, are equalled by their good sense and 
sound rrasoD, on naat other w h j e ate i 

An unlearned man, unlearned not merely in the study of the schools, 
but who never witnessed a dissection t>f the human frame, and knows 
nothing of its almost numberlessand complicated parts, with unblush- 
ing impuiJence and boldness, sets up for Isedical practice; and if ba- 
ture, in her salutary and recuperative cETorts, shall, perchance, save 
the poor victim ef his empirical doses from the earljr and speedy 
death they are calculated to produce, forthwith he trumpets forth his 
newly invented catholicon, as the grand paoeeea of all the evils of 
the body, and himself as a prodigy of nature and ait, reared and 
matured to accomplish a wonderful revolution in the art of healing. 

The pulpit and the press lend a helping band to extol tbeaxbraordi- 
nary powers of the medicine, and the wonderful cures performed by 
the t^uack. The new remedy is ushered fbrth in a pompetts adver- 
tiaeBarat, uadet the Bpeci«6b naue o£ " eM«tr i>tt«," a nane which 
iMrniag and seieace Would efate, and inscribe ib its stead, the more 
slgoi&cant a«d appropriate lah^ " txtita morti:'* 

The modest and retiring bearing of the well read scholar in medi- 
cal )ore and practice^ is shuffled off by the blustering braggadocia 
of the murderous and brazen-faced quack, who steams anil stimulates 
and stapifies, upoosome general and death-dealing principles, without 
discrimination and regardless of consequences. Is it to be wondered 
at, aside from the nature of a learned profession, which is illy cal- 
Wtated to it its papitt fbr tha law and grflvelliKg pufsiuts 6f mere 
MM«y taafekisg, tfaat, when DMSBeriim, howBpathy, Murology awl 
the kiodM ju^leries are digni^d as stuences, tnd uadCr the OOun- 

Dicj tized by 


No. S3.] 3 

tenance of the rich and influential, are levelling all distinctions be- 
tween the learned and the Qnlearned, between the scientific phyn- 
dan and the ignorant sciolist, the medical practitioner of real worth, 
and high intrinsic merit, though be may have comfortably supported 
his family dniing his life, should leave them without any adequate 
meau of support after be has been taken away? 

Ihe grstitade of a thousand patients furnishes to tbem no other 
income than an occarional thank-offering of perishable proviaons, 
aod the administrators find a thousand book accounts upon examina- 
tion, to be as worthless as the rags upon which tbey are written, 
ud which in the first instaoce, might as well have been charged to 
thcgoieral account of benevolence and humanity. 

the petitioners in the application now before the legislature, are 
tildiig tbe first step towards the effectual alleviation within their 
sphere, of the necessary misfortune and absolute poverty, to which 
the fiunilies of a class of men who have done their full share to miti- 
gate the evils and avert the calamities of life, are always expos- 
ed. It is a noble and praiseworthy undertaking, and deserves at 
least, the slight encouragement, for which they ask at the hands of 
the Legislature. 

' They ask no money; they pray for no " State credit;" th^ are 
contented simply with an act of incorporation, which shall permit 
than to carry out the beneficial and charitable object of protecting 
their own families at their own expense. They appeal to oui sym- 
pathies to enable them to provide for the wants of the widows and 
otpbans of such of the members of the society, as do not at death 
leave a competency for their education and support. 

Incorporate this souety, and when it shall have gone fully into 
opefatioD, tbe reflection that tbe sick and indigent physician will 
have, tbat his more prosperous brethren bave, by contributions or 
otherwise, created a fund sufficient, under an enlightened philanthro- 
py, to support his family, and prepare his children for nsefiilness in 
the world, will be fiill of the purest consolations, awakening in his 
bosom a deep felt gratitude to the heads and hearts of bis brothers 
in the profession, who contrived, and to the li^islatnre which au- 
thorized, such an association. 

The' committee conclude by asking leave to introduce a bill. 

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No. 54. 


^EBBUAKT St, 1843. 


Of the t^oftiitiitt^e on Claitris, bA the petilibti of 
I'ittiothy Doughty. 

Hr. Pntnam, from the committee on claims, to which wn fcAiilcd 
the petitioD of Timothy Doughty, 


that the petitioner represents he was the owner of ■ lot of land at 
the foot of the lower loch, at the upper aqueduct on the £rie canal, 
in the ttfWh of Clifttm-Ptrk, in the county ttf Saratoga; which lot 
«ai tpJiKjprifttKd by the State for the Brie eanil edlai g«B»t | that 
Ul ckifti far damagM trail nbiiitted to thfe appraifenj who MudM 
to lum the snm of one thousand dollars. 

that thert wouM fetill b« enough of the Idt left on which to pleec hit 
hmMiagB, aiidcoiitime hit btUiMttn agroou; bat that on the ooai- 
pletionflf the tiibfgaDeat^ and on a aarrey of the presuBas by engt- 
Mm, it WBS aseettuned that titfe petitiwier had not land enoogh left far 
nyblintteafl pnrpovet. 

llw petitioner Airther states, that it appears from the testimony 

taken before the Appraisers) that the land taken by the State was 

[Senate No. &4.] A (n. n.) 



valued at from three to five thousand dollars, and he asks the pftsssige of 
a law for a re-appraisemeot of his damages. 

It appears from a copy of the dedaon of the Appraisers, that the 
petitioner presented his claim for damages on the &th day of January, 
1838; that he had about half an acre of land, with some small build- 
ings upon It; that an examination was had, and witnesses as well on 
the part of the State, as of the petitioner, were sworn before them; 
that the engineer had made an arrangement with the petitioner, by 
which be was paid two hundred and ten dollars for removing his 
buildings from the lot; so that he made no claim for damages on ac- 
count of the buildings, but merely for the value of the land takeH) 
for which, and the injury of his booness, the Appraisers allowed him 
ouc'thousand dollars. 

It appeam from Mr. Veder, the en^eer, that a map of the pre- 
mises was made before the assessment of damages, which exhibited 
the amount of land taken, and also the amount cf land and its shape, 
that remained to the petitioner — end that the map was shown to the 

The petitioner received the one thonsand dollars for bis land, and 
also the two hnadred and ten dollars for removing his buildings; 
and it does not appear that any dissatisfaction has been manifested by 
him, until within a few months past. 

The law provided for him a remedy by appeal to the Canal Board, 
who had power to reverse, affirm or modify the appraisement as jus- 
tice should require. He has never availed himself of such remedy. 

' The committee are of the opinion, it would be unwise to open for 
investigation a claim after so long a time, and so questionable in re- 
ference to merits. It would establish a precedent and open the door 
for revision of claims long disposed of and settled. The foir inference 
to be drawn, is, that he considered the compensation allowed him 
equivalent to the value of the property. To open the question 
would be a disr^ard of the provisions made for an appeal to the Ca- 
nal Board, and render the limitation as to the time of appeal a dead 
letter upon the statute book. The committee believe that justice 
does not demand, and that poUcy forbids, under the circumstances, 
any review of the judgment of the appraisers. 

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No. 64.] 3 

Again, too, the committee have no other eTidence before them that 
injustice has been done, except the statements of the petitioner, not 
verified bj his o'wn oath, or sustained b; the eridence of any wit- 
ness. Receiving the damages from the State, waiver of the r^bt of 
appeal and the lapse of time, are strongly presomptive against the 
pretended justice of the petitioner's claim. 

He still, too, has a snail triangular piece of land left, on which he 
ean erect a building about the size of the grocery he now occupies. 
Tbt committee are of the opinion the case deserves no Airther ac- 
tion of the Senate, save the passage of the following resolution, 
which they recommend: 

Rtnlvedf That the prayer of the petitioner ought not to be granted. 

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No. 55. 


Febbttart ^, 1843. 

Of the Finance Committee, on the petition of Isaac 
L. Endress. 

Mr. Bockee, from the committee on finance, to vbom was referred 
tlie petition of Isaac L. EndresB, of the town of Sparta, in the county 
of Livingston, 


The petitioner sets forth that John L. Jilclfair and Darid D. 
McNair, in the year 1837, mortgaged to the CommisaiDners of Loans 
of the county of LivingBtoh, tlie two eqi&l undivided third parts of a 
lot of land in the said town of Sparta, containing 250 acres, and to 
secnre the payment of the sum of $960 ; that afterwards the two 
McMalra and the owner of the remaining third of the lot, sold and 
conveyed 100 acres thereof to Henry Driesbaclc, the grantee, retain- 
ing $1,000 of the pnrchase money in his hands, to secure himself 
against the said mortgage; and the same grantors sold and conveyed 
to the petitioner the remaining 150 acres, together with their interest 
in the $1,000, retuned by Driesbaclc. The petitioner prays the pas- 
sage of a law authorizii^ the Commisuoners of Loans of the county 
of Idvingston, to release the above mentioned 100 acres from said 
mortgage, on his paying 26 per cent thereon, and giving a lienon the 
whole of the said 150 acres, and satisfying the Commisnoners of the 
fSenate No. 65.] A [n. d.] 


3 [Senatb 

value and title thereof ; the petitioner represents the value of the 
100 acres which he deaires to have released to be $4,000, and the 
remaining 150 to be worth not less than |7,600. 

The committee have no evidence before them, of the truth of the 
petitioner's representations ; the; are, however, not disposed to doubt 
the perfect verity of the statement, and assuming it to be true, they 
are perfectly satisfied that the State now holds a good security, and 
they are also satisfied that the security cannot be made better by re- 
leasing a portion of the mortgaged premises; they commend the 
Comroissioners of Loans of Livingston county, for having done their 
duty according to law, and they deem it inexpedient and hazardous 
for the Legislature to interfere by special acts, chang^g the nature 
of the securities taken by the Commisaoners. The arrangements be- 
tween the mortgagor aod his grantees, should be made with reference 
to existing encumbrances, and the State ought not to interfere with 
their bargains. It is unreasonable to claim or expect that the Com- 
missioners should take new securities, involving the necessity of new 
investigations of title, whenever the mortgagor chooses to subdivide 
or convey portions of the mortgaged premises ; neither can the Le- 
gislature or its committees safely act in these cases, upon the mere 
statements of petitioners, or even upon tx parte proof. It is obvi- 
ous that the rights of subsequent encumbrancers, and third parties 
might be injuriously affected. No injustice is done by rejecting the 
prayer of the petitioner ; by granting it, a new field would be open- 
ed for partial, special, private legislation, embarrasnng to the Legis- 
lature, and hazardous to the interests of the State. The committee 
are of opinion that thin and all »milar applications ought to be re- 
jected, and they propose the following resolution : 

Retolved, That the prayer of the petitioner ought not to be grant- 

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No. 56. 


February 2S, 1843. 


Of tbe Select Committee, to which was referred so 
much of the Govemoi's Message as relates to 
General Jackson's fine. 

Mr. Clwmberlain, from the select committee, to which was referred 
80 much ot* the GoTemor's message as relates to Qeneral Jackson'a 
fine, makes the foIloviDg 


The subject referred to the committee, is one which touches nearly 
the honor of the American people, and is calculated to awaken and 
call forth every latent feelbg of patriotism witbb their bosoms. 
Tbe history of the infliction of tbe fine upon Gen. Jackson, for his 
opright and patriotic course in the defence of New-Orleans, is as fa- 
miliar as any event that transpired during the last war with Great 

Animated only by a high, pnre, and holy sense of duty; inspired 
with a patriotism as exalted and pervading as that which filled the 
boaom of him who was first in war, first in peace, and first in the 
hearts of bis countrymen — and possessed of a courage unsurpassed 
1^ any c^eftain of ancient or modem times, it has still been the fate 
of Gen. Jackson to encounter unmitigated obliqny and abuse; to be 
vilified and traduced; to be reviled end scofied at, for having dared to 

[Senate Ko. 66.] A (u- n.) 

' Digitized by 



adopt a measure of defence in time of war and imminent peril, and 
when surrounded bj spies and traitors, which could alone, in an im- 
partial and unbiassed Judgment of the difficulties and dangers with 
which he was surrounded, have saved the southwestern frontier from 
a general sack and rapine, and rescued his countrymen from all the 
horrors of a bloody defeat by the enemy. In the history of nations, 
there are times and occa»ODS when the great and overruling law of 
necessity, controls and takes the place of all other human law; and 
no matter how enlightened may be the civil jurbpnidence of any 
country, nor how just and imperious its claims upon the obedience of 
its citizens, emergendes may arise in which the primary and original 
law of self-defence must be interposed, and most take precedence of 
every other obligation. In such cases it is in vain to complain of the 
infraction of laws, acknowledged by all to be almost universally of 
binding and superior force, unless it be more de^rable to fall by the 
band of the enemy, than to violate a rule of action which a natioo 
has presuibed for its ordinary governance. The mandate of the ma- 
gistrate is powerless amid the din of arms ; and while in well regu- 
lated governments the civil power, except in those extraordinary and 
unusual extremities when the lives and liberties of large numbers of 
men might be endangered, is always paramount to, and above the mi- 
litary power, it would be folly and madness — nay more — it would 
be treason itself, to enforce the former to a general destruction of 
human life, and the devastation of whole r^ons of an inhabited and 
civilized country, when such dire calamities could be averted by a 
timely and discreet exercise of the latter. 

When Qen. Jackson declared martial law at New-Orleans, his 
whole available force, according to the official report, consisted of 
1,333 men, of whom only 488 were residents of Louisiana, and of 
these latter 208 were free men of color. Louisiana at this time was 
in a peculiar condition. Its Spanish, French and slave .population, 
besides foreigners and strangers from every clime and r^ton of the 
earth, were, from circumstances unnecessary to set forth in detail 
here, too feebly attached to our country and institutions, and too 
hetert^eneous in character to be relied upon as a certain dependance 
in a perilous and unequal contest ; for as may be seen on a reference 
to the most authentic and undisputed accounts of that period, the 
people of Louisiana then were of a different character and in far dif- 
ferent circumstances from those who inhabit that State at the present 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

Mo. 66.J 3 

time. Before reaching Louisiana, Oen. Jackson had h«3x advised by 
the highest anthoritj, that the State -was filled with spiea and traitors. 
Got. Claiborne, in one of his letters, wrote to Gen. Jackson as fol- 
lows: "1 have reason to calculate on the patriotism of the interior 
and western counties; I know also there are many faithful citizens in 
New-Orleans, bat there are others in whose attachment to the United 
States I ought not to confide. Upon the whole, sir, I cannot disguiw 
the fact, that if Loui^na should be attacked, we must prindpally 
depend for security upon the prompt movements of the regular force 
under your command, and the militia of the westeni States and Ter- 

In another letter of the Sth Sept. he says, "there is in this dty a 
much greater spirit of disaffection than I had anticipated, and among 
the foithful Lonisianians there is a despondency which palsies all my 

We are informed by Mr. Martin, a historian, if not unfriendly to, 
by no means disposed to give a coloring to facts that should re* 
doond to the fame of Gea. Jackson, that those who immediately sur- 
rounded Gen. Jackson on his arrival, with a view to enhance his re- 
liance on them, availed themselves of every opportunity to increase 
his sense of danger. At the head of these men were Livingston and 
Doncaa, long residents of the dly, having access to the best and 
most correct sources of information, and of the highest character for 
integrity and talents. 

If Gen. Jackson, under circumstances like these, had blinded his 
eyes to the su^icion that his movements were exposed to a constant 
e^ionage, and all his designs were liable to be frustrated by treachery, 
and had failed to take the most prompt, decisive and energetic mea- 
•ores to thwart and crush the treason in its bud, he would have been 
stigmatized aa a feeble and indecisive, if not a cowardly or corrupt 
cmumander} and in case of a defeat of the American arms from this 
cattle, his name would have been stigmatized with universal execra- 
tioD and gone down to eternal infamy and di^nce. It may be true 
that there was much less of treachery than Gen. Jackson had just 
reason to su^ect; but how does this materially alter the case or his 
duty under the circumstances in which he was placed? But that there 
was treachery to some extent may be laid down aa certain and not 
denied. Latonr, who after describing a village on the left bank of 

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4 [Sehatb 

the MisBbsippi, and near the mouth of Bayou Bienvenue, which he 
sayi contabed thirty or forty fishermeD, almost all Spaniards or Portu- 
guese, tea of whose names h« gives as he says, "to-con«gn them to 
execration and infamy ;" says "these all vere known to have aided the 
British in disembarking their troops, serving as pilots on board their 
vessels and boats, and actbg as spies from the period of their ai^ 
rival on the coast''' (p. 82-3.) 

The following letter from Mr. Charles R. Blanchard, of New-Or- 
leans, to Gen. Jackson, which may be found in Eaton's life of Jack- 
son, (p. 445) may be added as evidence on this po'uit: 

" Sib — I have the honor, agreeable to your request, to state to your 
Excellency the substance of a conversation that occurred between 
Quartermaster Peddle of the British army and myself, on the 1 Ith 
instant, on board his Britannic Majesty's ship Herald. Quartprmas- 
ter Peddle observed, that the commanding officers of the British 
forces, were daily in receipt of every information from the city of 
Nen-Orleaos which they might require, in aid of their operations for 
the completion of the objects of the expedition; that they were per- 
fectly acquainted with the situation of every post of our forces; the 
manner in which the same was situated; the number ot our fortifi- 
cations, their strength, position, &c As to the battery, on the left 
Dank of MissisMppi, he described its «tuation, its distance from the 
main fort, and promptly offered me a plan of the works. He fur- 
thermore stated, that the above information was received from seven 
or eight persons in the city of New-Orleans, from whom he could 
at any time procure every information necessary to promote his Ma- 
jesty's interest." 

The position of New-Orleans, end the country in its vicinity, in 
connection with the only feasible plans of defence which could be 
devised, armed treason in the American camp with a double power 
to do its work. A false attack from the British army, a feint, 
which should draw in a wrong and distant direction the small Ameri- 
can force under Jackson's command, thereby enabling the «iemy, 
with a full knowledge of the position, plans and condition of our 
troops, to make a sudden and overwhelming invasion in another 
quarter, would have been as destructive and fatal as any measures, 
however strong or unusual, which were calculated to prevent it, were 

Digitized by 


N0.&6.J 6 

fiiU of wisdom, and deserring all praise. About this period, dghty 
Tcawls of the enemy, filled with troops and warlike munitions, were 
off PeoEacola, and as many more boarly expected. Gen. Jackson, 
believing that entire and unrestrained liberty of peraon in the city of 
New-Orleans, so soon the expected object of attack and seat of war, 
to be atterly incompatible with disfupline or safety, applied to the 
Legislature then in session, for a suspension of the writ of habeat 

The Legislature, impressed with a sense of the critical condition 
of affidrs, passed a law. closing all the courts of justice, and one lay- 
ing an embargo on all vessels in the port of New-Orleans. Judge 
Hall himself, without law, trial or bail, deemed it proper to discharge 
all the prisoners committed under process of the United Slates, to 
fill the ranks of the army. The language of a distinguished public 
man, who belonged to the southern army, commanded by Gen. Jaik- 
(OD, in the years 1814-15, may be quoted, as affording a better 
history than the committee are otherwise able to give ; and the com- 
Dittee believe, that this quotation depicts the true situation of our 
forces^ and the prospects of a defence of New-Orleans at this criti- 
cal juncture. 

He aays, " The proposal to suspend the writ of habeas corpus met 
with oppoution, and was still under discussion, when on the 14th of 
December, the battle of the lalces was fought, by which the Ameri- 
cuts lost all the gun boats on the station, and gave the enemy unlimi- 
ted control of the entire coast, and fully prepared to select his point 
of attack. This was indeed a most critical moment, and full of peril 
nd dtatger. Recollect, neither Coffee, Carroll, Adair nor Hinds,- 
had yet arrived ; and Gen. Jacksoo^s available force was hut about 
1,300 efficient men. The force of the enemy was of coarse un- 
hiown,aud variously estimated, and reported to be from 12 to 20,000. 
One thing, however, was certain ; the same victorious army, though 
greatly increased in numbers, that four months before had wrapped 
tlic tapitol in flames, and besieged Baltimore, then the third city in 
tbe Union, was there. The same army that had marched unscathed 
tlinnigh a populous region abounding in resources both of men and 
■QoiiitionB, twenty fold greater than Gen. Jackson could command, 
ns to be encountered, and the trial hour was at hand. This was no 
tiae to waste in protracted debate upon measures to be taken ; no 

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6 fSlNATK 

time either for making lavs or UDravelling the 'nice quillets' of laws 
already made. Dismay and confimoii reigned predominast; the bold- 
est doubted, and the timid despaired of success. The commaodiBg 
general saw Uiat the fate of the atj rested upon himself alone ; and 
that vithout a resort to extraordioBry measures, it must ineritably 
be lost. He did not hesitate a moment, nor mistake bis duty to his 
country, but met this as he has done every other emergency in vhich 
he has been placed — ^promptly, not blindly. Yes, at this startling 
moment, when fresh dangers and difficulties were daily and hourly 
thronging upon him ; when the enemy, proud in their discipline, 
and confident in their strength, were pressing forward as to certain 
victory ; when the circle of fate seemed rapidly cloung around bimj 
and its very billows already breaking at his feet ; as the only means 
of escape left him, he ventured to declare martial law. He saw that 
the arm of the civil authority, though nerveless for all purposes of 
good, might, if unrestrained, become potent in evil, (nor were hia 
fears vain, as experience has proven,) and therefore he ventured to 
put it aside as unsuited for the times, and to substitute martial law in 
its stead. He knew that if evil grew out of it, that evil would iall 
most heavily on himself; but if good followed, that good would be 
his country's alone. Still he did not hesitate ; for him, such an al- 
ternative had no terrors. The defence of a noble dty had been en- 
trusted to his skill and valor ; he would have felt himself a traitor 
to the trust, had he sacrificed it by ' iroplidt obedience ' under this 
extraordinary crisis. It were jost as vain to hope for such obedience 
at such an hour, as for rigid etiquette on board a unking man of war." 

Of the beneficial effects of the prompt and dedsive course pursued 
by Gen. Jackson in declaring martial law, none at all acquainted with 
the events of that interesting period in our history can doubt. All 
eyes were tnmed to the commanding general with new hope. 

Order and discipline were instantly substituted for the confusion 
and laxity which had previously prevailed. The courage of the 
brave received a new implse, while the timid, the doubtful, the hesi- 
tating and the treacherous, were at least subdued to a harmless con- 
dition in which they could do no mischief. It was under these cir- 
cumstances that Gen. Jackson achieved the memorable victory of the 
23d of December ; when, at the head of two thousand troops, be met 

Digitized by 


No. 56.] 7 

in the open field, and rppulsed more tkin double that number of the 
proudest British Teterans> 

When the battle of the 8th of January b^n, Gea. Jackson's ef- 
fective force on the left bank of the MiBsiseippi was 3,700; that of 
the enemy was rstimated to be at least 9,000. Notwithstanding their 
heavy loss, the enemy still retreated with a greatly superior force to 
that of Gen. Jackson's, and resumed their old position, continuing 
" top;rowl back defiance from their deep mouthed cannon." 

On the 17th of the same month, they were yet bombarding Fort 
St. Philip which conunanded theMiBsisnppi,Bnd on the ISth of Febru- 
ary they were receiving the capitulation of Fort Bowyer, which left 
oncoTered the bay and city of Mobile, and gave the enemy com- 
mand of the most secure and certain point from which to renew their 
operation against New-Orleans, by calling to their aid the numerous 
tribes of the hostile bordering Indians. 

The first news of peace which reached New-Orleans, was on the 
30th of February, and was brought by Mr. Livingston direct from 
the British, then hoTering around our borders. 

Lord Cochran's letter to Gen. Jackson reached him by the mouth 
<rf the Missiasippi, two days later than the verbal information of the 
same fact by Mr. Livingston, who came by a nearer route- Infor- 
mation from tbr. enemy on a point to vital, unaccompanied with any 
propoaition for a cessation of hostilities, or any other act indicative 
of its troth, would not have justified a commanding officer, either in 
disbanding his troops, or relaxing the discipline at any time before 
deemed necessary. 

If the intelligence turned out to he unfounded, its very dissemina- 
tion might render it necessary to enforce a more rigid discipline, for 
nothing was more calculated to create uneasiaeBs and discontent 
among the troops than the news of peace. Indeed these effects did 
follow; and the French Coosal, and at! foreigners claiming protection 
mder him, doing all in their power to incite mutiny and desertion, 
Were order^ to leave the city. 

" In this condition of things," (we now quote from the authority 
above dted, to which we are already largely indebted,) " and on the 
3rd of March, Looallier's publication, arraigning the course of the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


commanding general in the Bererest manner, as oppressive and un- 
just, exciting the troops to mutin;, and giving the enemy full notice 
of the extent to which it already prevailed, made its appearance in 
the Louisiana Gazette. His friends have contented themselres with 
calling this publication ill-timed and imprudent. Gen. Jackson has 
designated it hy much more appropriate, but iar less glossing terms. 
On the 5th of March, Louallier was put under arrest, and a court 
martial ordered for his trial. On the same day a writ of habeai cor- 
pus was issued in favor of Louallier, and on that day Judge Hall 
made the usual official endorsement requiring Gen. Jaclcson to ap- 
pear before him and show cause for his detention. Qen. Jaclcson, 
instead of answering, retained the writ and arrested the judge." 

" For this arrest and this detention, the fine was inflicted. Recol- 
lect that martial law was just as much in force on this day as on the 
day it was first declared. Recollect, also, what I have before said, 
that the only news of peace had come direct from a defeated enemy; 
that this enemy, greatly reinforced, lay within a few hours' nil of 
New-Orleans, and th^ no proposition for an armistice had been pro- 
posed by the British commander." 

In such a ccmdition of a&lrs, your committee cannot but regard 
the continuance of martial law by Qen. Jackaon, as dictated hj the 
same lofty spirit of patriotism which first induced him to declare 
and establish it. And had be yielded, under the circumstances that 
Burroonded him, the firm and decided policy that had been attended 
with such brilliant and successful results — and by a mistake so fatal, 
the " beaviy and boo/y" of New-Orleans had been surrendered to the 
ravishment and pillage oi British soldiers, already maddened by a 
disastrous defeat; he would have met with one universal burst of exe- 
cration throughout the Union, and his name have been handed down 
to posterity as a traitor to his country. 

InformatioD of the treaty of Ghent first reached WashtngtoB on 
the 14tb of February, 1815. Mr. Monroe immediately prepared » cir- 
cular to be sent to the different commanding officers throughout the 
United States, announcing that a treaty of peace between the United 
States and Great Britain, was concluded on the S4th of December 
previous; that a copy of the treaty bad that day been received by 
Mr. Carroll, examined by the Preudent, and would, he had no doubt, 

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No. 66.] B 

be rhtified; that he gave tht infonnation that hostilities might imme- 
diately cease between our troops anil those of Great Britain. A co- 
py of this circular was addressed to Gen. Jackson, and a special mes- 
senger despatched for the purpose of ensuring its speedy and safe de- 
lirery; but on opening the package, he found, instead of a communi- 
cation concerning peace, an order to raise troops for a more vigorous 
prosecution of the war. Even had he received this circular, he would 
hare been informed only that a treaty had been negotiated, not rati- 
fied — and it needed the ratification ofboth the British and American 
govemments, before it altered materially the condition of the belli- 
gerent powers. 

But Gen. Jackson bad received, from other sources, the intelligence 
of the negotiation of the treaty, and had a hope that it would be ra- 
tified. He at oDCe communicated this information to Qen. Lambert, 
and proposed a cessation of hostilities. 

The following is an extract from the letter in reply: — ^" His in- 
structions woald not allow him to enter into any written stipulations 
or ^ve publicity officially to a cessation of arms, until he received 
the intelligence from an accredited person from the British govern- 
ment, of the treaty having been ratted and txchanged, aathorizing 
him to carry it into execution." 

Gen. Jackson's situation was a critical one, and the high respon- 
nbility rested upon him of taking and pursuing sucb a course of con- 
duct, as should be compatible with the safety of the country, and at 
the same time be free from the charge of an arbitrary exercise of 
power. Wlule the British general continued in an attitude of hos- 
tility, and chose to await the ratification of the treaty before bong 
willing to enter into any written stipulation, even for a temporary 
cessation of arms, the position of Gen. Jackson remained unaltered 
for all piactical purposes. 

Ur. Monroe's letter had not arrived, and it was left to surmise and 
conjectore as to what its real contents were. Under these dream- 
stances, he took upon himself the responmbility of disbanding such 
of the Loiusiana miUtia as had been levied en masse. They had 
been called out in haste, ill prepared for the service, and added but 
little to his efficient force. The following is an extract from the ad- 
dress dehvered by him on the occaaon of dismissing them. 
lSenateNo.56.] B 


10 [SUATI 

" Although the conunanding general had not receired official ad- 
Tice, that the state of 'war bad ceased, bj the ratificatioti of a treaty 
of peace between the United States and Great Britain, he has pei- 
suauve evidence of the fact, and credits it at the risk of b^g mis- 
guided by his wishes." 

When the official intelligence of the ratification of the treaty of 
peace arrived, which was on the 13th of March, Gen. Jackson did 
not heratate to yield to the civil authority and disband his army. 
The power of the magistrate was restored; and the soldier, whose 
trusty sword and strong right arm had protected him, became a wil- 
ling and obedient subject to the laws. On the 21st, Gen, Jackson 
was summoned to appear before Judge Hall, to show cause why an 
attachment should not be issued against him for the causes before 
stated. On the 24th, he appeared and attempted to be allowed the 
opportunity of showing the necessity of his declaring and enfordng 
martial law, in order to save the country; but being denied this pri- 
vilege, and required to conform to the order of the judge, by mak- 
ing his defence within strict and prescribed rules, he declined making 
any, merely saybg to the judge: " Your honor will not understand 
me as intending any thing disrespectful to the court, but as no op- 
portunity has been afforded me to explain the reasons and motives 
by which I was influenced, so it is expected that censure or reproof 
will constitute no part of that sentence which you may imagine it 
your duty to pronounce." 

A fine of one thousand dollars waa inflicted upon Oen. Jackson, 
and it was paid. Well has it been said that " this is doubtless the 
first instance in the history of the world, that a judge, while deal- 
ing out the vengeance of the law, was clinging to his victim for pro- 
tection. Such however was the excitement and indignation of the vast 
crowd assembled on the occa^on, and who where familiar with all 
the causes which led to the infliction of this fine, that Geo. Jackson 
(who had but recently protected the judge from a foreign enemy,) 
DOW found it difficult to save him from the fury of hts friends.'* 
They immediately tendered the tribute of honest and grateful hearts, 
hy spontaneously offering to pay the fine, hut Qen. Jackson declined 
it because " he deemed he had an undoubted claim upon the justice 
of the nation in whose service it bad been inflicted, and into whose 
vaults it had been paid." 

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Wlietber Jadge Hal] had the legal power or not — and if he had, 
whether that power was properly exercised according to law — is, in 
the view which the committee have taken bf this subject, of no other 
Gonseqnence than as it may exonerate him from anj wrong impata- 
tion in relation to the discharge of his duty. 

The jaatification of Gen. Jackson in declaring martial law, and of 
contK daring its continuance in enforcing it, is to be found in the great 
and trying emergency in which he was placed, which compelled him, 
eren in the disregard of civil anthority, to be mindful of the higher 
dums of bis country. Around him in every directinn bristled Brit- 
ish bayonets; pent up on a narrow strip of land, with swamps and 
morasses on each side, rendering retreat impossible and treachery 
doubly potent — with a force so small as scarcely to inspire a hope of 
safety, much less of success in case of attack — with treason and dis- 
afiection in the city, and symptoms of mutiny and desertion in the 
camp, it required the unflinching nerve and patriotic courage of Gen. 
Jackson, by a single, bold and dedsive step, to quell the growing 
spirit of insubordination; to restore confidence and light up the eye 
of hope; to still the rising murmurs of rebellion, and make efficient 
the only, the last resort, which could save New-Orleans, and with it 
the country. 

An American citizeU) if such he may be called, who could prefer 
in that hour of peril, to witness the sacrifice of the lives of thousands 
of his countrymen, and his native land overrun and pillaged and 
sacked bj a foreign and haughty foe, rather than that one " jot or 
title" of the civil law should fail of its authority, would flourish 
imtrng his kindred, if he should be transported to the more conge- 
nial clime of the enemy's country. Such an one, if such may be 
found, whose contracted viuon will not allow him to look from the 
lesser to the greater good, and whose ungrateful heart, incapable of 
a nogle feeling of return for any favors, would prompt him to tear 
the lanrels of the illustrious commander of the 8th of January, 1816, 
by conderaning and stigmatizing, with the solemn and perpetual cen- 
sure of the courts, the only means by which, perhaps, the signal 
victory of that day could have been achieved, is unworthy to be pro- 
tected by the American arms, if not unfit to be called an American 

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19 [SutATE 

On the 15th of February ,. 1816, Congresi passed a Tote of thanki 
to Qen. JacksoD, for his gallantry and good conduct at New-Orleans; 
and directed a gold medal to be struek;^ and presented to him, in (es- 
timony of the high sense entertained by Congress of erents so me< 
morable and services so eminent. 

The Senate of the U. S. have already, at the present sessiaD of 
Congress, passed a bill to Gen. Jackson the amount of the 
fine paid by him with interest; and the committee therefore recom- 
mend the adoption of the Collow'mg concurrent resolution: 

Resolved, (if the Assembly concur,] That our Representatives in 
Congress be earnestly requested to use their best efTorts to procure 
the passage of the bill now pending in the House of Representatives, 
directing that the fine of one thousand dollars, imposed upon Gen. 
Jackson at New-Orleans, for an alleged contempt of the civil au- 
thority, and by him paid, be refunded to bim vith interest. 

Resolved, (if the Assembly concur,) That the Governor be request- 
ed to transmit the foregoing resolution to our Senators and Represen- 
tatives in Congress. 

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No. 57. 


M ABCH 1, 1843. 

Of the Regents of the University. 

Hoi. Dahiei. S. DicxiHfloir, 

Praidtnt of the Stnatt. 


I bavc the honor to trannnit herewith the Annuel Report of the 
Regents of the Uuirersity to the Legislature. 

1 renuin, very respectfiiUy, yours, 

\ 1, 1843. 

[Senate No. 67 J k [n. >.] 

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6 fSuf ATX 

IB 667j being a total of 1}344, and exceeding the aggregate reported 
last year, (which vas 1)258,] by 86. The increase in the respectiTC 
departments is shown below. 

LiUniT CoUaiw. Htdlcal CoIImM. TotaL 

lnl84S, 663 605 1258 

1843, 677 667 1314 

3. ^caiemitt' 

The whole number of academies in the State, at the date of the 
present report, subject to the visitation of the Regents, including the 
grammar schools attached to Columbia College and to the Unirernty 
of the city of New-York, with the New-York Institution for ^ne In- 
stmction of the Deaf and Dumb, is 161. 

The number of academies reported by the Brents at the date of 
their last annual report, was 151. Of this namber, one, (Monroe 
Academy, in the county of Monroe,) has become extinct, leaving the 
number 150. 

Tbe R^ents have incorporated the following academies since the 
Ist of Marcb, 1842. 

1. Piermont Academy, at Fierm<Hit, county of Rockland; iacor- 
ponted March IS, 1842. 

3. De Lancey Institute, at Hampton, (town of Westmoreland,) 
On^da county; incorporated April 13, 1843. 

3. Bioghamton Academy, at Bingbamton, county of Broome; in- 
corporated August 23, 1842. 

4. Yates Academy, at Yates Centre, county of Orleans; incorpo- 
rated August 23, 1842. 

6. Champlain Academy, at Champlain, county of Clinton; incor- 
porated August 23, 184S. 

6. Alfred Academy, at Alfred Centre, county of Allegany; incor- 
porated Jan. 31, 1843. 

7. Cortlandvillc Academy, at Cortlandville, county of Cortland; 
incorporated Jan. 31, 1843. 

8. Perry Centre Inatitote, at Periy Centre, county of Wyoming; 
ucorporated Jan. 31, 1843. 

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In the njihy Bridgewater Academ;, Steuben AcadetDjr— S. 
In the iStzfA, Avon Academy — 1. 

/n the tevetUhf Palmyra Higli School, Yatea County Academy and 
Female Seminary — 2. 
£i the Eighthf—noae. • Total 17. 

These, witb the two academies quite recently incorporated| (viz. 
Monroe Academy and Norwich Academy,) make up the number men- 
tioned above, viz: 161. 

Accompanying tlus report, will be found a catalogue of alt the 
academies incorporated by the Regents, with the time of their incor~ 
poration, and also a catalogue of all the academies incorporated by 
the Legislature, with the period when (if at all,) they were received 
under the vi^tation of the Regents. These documents have been 
carefully prepared by the secretary, and are now extended from the 
1st of January, 1843, as originally reported, up to the present date. 
They will be of use not only for reference, but also as a proof of the 
interest taken in the cause of education by the people and their rep- 

A series of schedules have also been prepared, numbered from 1 
to 11, which will exhibit a view of the relative progress and condi- 
tion of the several academies in the State, from which reports have 
been received. The following is a summary description of these 

Schedule JVo. 1, contains a list of all the academies reporting, 
with the towns or incorporated villages and the counties in which 
they are situated. 

Schedule Jfo. S, exhibits the whole utimber of students taught in 
said academies, with the number claimed and allowed to be clasncal 
scholars, or students in the higher branches of English education, as 
defined by statute, and the apportionment (founded on the latter re- 
turn) of $40,000, which is required by law to be distributed among 
the academies. 

Distinct columns for the number of male and female scholars in 
the respective academies have been introduced for the first time ia 
this schedule; and although necessarily somewhat imperfect, from 
the academies not having been u yet required to dengnate these, yet 

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Tbe Regents are also happy to obaerre that the debts cfaa^^ 
able on the above amount, have not materially increased, baTing 
been in 

1842, $182,709 and in 

1843, 137,923 

The annual income derived from tuition fees and the amoont that 
is paid for tbe salaries, or compensation of teacbers, are also shown 
in the above tables. 

This last was ia 

1841, $184,419 

1842, 187,658 

And in 1843, is,.... 196,183 

Scheie JVo. &, contains a statement of the number of depart- 
ments and teachers, with the frequency of exercises in compoution 
andydeclamation, and the number of students instructed gratuitously 
in the several academies. This schedule also exhibits, so far aa can ' 
be ascertained from the reports, the number of instructors in each 
academy, that have declared their intention to make teaching a per- 
manent profession. It would appear that at least 344 out of the total 
number (676) have made this decision. 

In this schedule, there are also introduced for the first time, co- 
lumns showing the number of academic terms during the year in each 
academy, and the number of weeks of vacation during the same 

Schedalet Jfot, 6 and 7, may be considered as exhibiting the lite^ 
lary and scientific character of each academy, so far as the same can 
be illustrated by a detailed view of the subjects of study taught, and 
of the class or text books used for these purposes. 

Schedule JVo. 8, contains abstracts' from the academic reports, 
showing the various prices chained for tuition in the elementary 
branches of English education, in tbe higher branches of the same 
and mathematics, and ]iatly in the languages. A column is also ad- 
ded showing the number of volumes in the respective academic li- 
braries. The Regents feel great pleasure in observing the increase 
unce the last year. 

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IS [Seiutx 

Bj ceitain ftctsof the Le^slatnre, passed May 35, 1841, the medi- 
cal institution of Oeneva College and Albany Medical College, were 
required to report to the Regents of the University, the mode in 
which certain moneys granted to them have been exftended. Thii 
has been complied vith, and the reports will be found in the docu- 
ments accompanying this. 

The Regents cannot conclude their annual report, without adrat- 
ing to a proposition made to them by a gentleman well versed in the 
native langu^es of our continent, for preparing a vocabulary of the 
Indian names now oi late in nse in this Slate, with their ugnifica- 
tions. Mr. Schoolcraft, (whose letter is hereto subjoined,) would 
bring rare qualifications, for the accampliahment of this interestiDg 
task, and it it respectfully su^ested, that the abject is altogether 
worthy of the countenance and encouragement of the constituted lu- 

All which is respectfully snbmitted. 

By order of the Regents, 

PETER WENDELL, Oumcittor. 

T. RoHsrji Bbcx, Stcrttary. 

" Jftw-Yorkt Ftbruary 6th, 1843. 
" Dr. Thboioic Rometh Beck, Albany : 

" Dear Sir — The plan of procuring a list of the aboriginal geo- 
graphical names, to which 1 had the honor of calling your attention, 
daring my recent visit to Albany, is limited to our own State boun- 
daries, although it will necessarily, in a few cases, as in the ranges 
of some valliea and mountains, eztend'heyond diem. Where these 
names have been written and fixed by usage or legal enactments, no 
attempt to vary the orthography should be made. It is desirable, 
however, in writing those which are yet unsettled, to adopt a uni- 
form system of notation, differing as little as possible from the com- 
mon mode, or the ordinary pronunciation of the vowd souiuIb, in En- 
gUth. The origin of the name, and its meaning, are.points of prime 
importance, which will increase in interest, as the tribes pass away ; 
and it is to record these, while the means are yet in our power, which 


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14 [Seiuti 

In mentiooing thia subject to a gentlemui at Albany, who thought 
ivell of it, he sn^ested, in view of some practical objections in cto- 
nectioD with the geolt^ical snrrey, that perhaps the Board of Re- 
gents woald afford the most eligible medium for accomplishing the 
object. I shall be Tery much guided, in this particular, by your 
views of the matter ; and, indeed, after my conversation with yon, 
I rely on such turn as you may be able to give the thing, my princi- 
pal object in this note, being to furnish such data as may serve you 
as the ground of action. I will only add, that the subject is one of 
deep interest to me, and that I would assiduously execute any part 
of the research, which it might be deemed proper by the Execative, 
or by the Board of Regents, to commit to me. 

I am, sir, with much regard, 

Your ob't. servant, 

66 Gravt-ttrttti Jfeu-Tcrk. 


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16 [Sbna-^b 

were the same as during the preceding year, except that towards the 
close of it, that is to say, on the first day of August last, Nathaniel F. 
Moore, L. L. D.) was appointed President, in place of the Hon. Wil- 
liam A. Duer, L. L. D., who had previously resig;ned the presidency. 
The officers or servants of the College charged with duties therein, 
other than those of public instruction, were also the same as during 
the preceding yearj and the salaries of the several persons holding 
offices or places in said College, were also the same — except that the 
senior Professor was paid seven hundred and fifty dollars, in addition 
to his salary as Professor, in consideration of his performing certain 
duties of the President during the. illness of that officer. 

3. Jiumber of Studenti. 

KThe whole number of students, undei^raduates in said College, dur- 
ing said year, was one hundred and seven, all of whom were regu- 
larly matriculated. The nuoiber of those who left College during 
the year, was seven. The number remaining at the close of the year, 
was therefore, one hundred. The number of graduates on whom the 
degree of A. B. was conferred at the last annual commencement, was 
thirty. And at the same time, the honorary testimonial provided by 
the statutes of said College, was delivered to two members of the 
first class in the Literary and Scientific Course, upon theii successful 
completion of the same. 

The whole number of students matriculated in said College sioce 
the beginning of the present year, is ninety-one; of whom three hare 
been voluntarily withdrawn. 

It is not thought that there were more than two students in said 
College during said year, under the age of fourteen years. The ave- 
rage age of the above mentioned graduates, was about twenty years. 

4. Classification of Students. 

The students who were undergraduates in said College during said 
year, were classified as follows, viz: 

1. In the Senior class, thirty-one. 

2. In the Junior class, twenty-one. 

3. In the Sophomore class, twenty-two. 

4. In the Freshman class, thirty. 

In the first class of the Literary and Scientific Course, were . . . two. 
In the third class of the said course, was one. 

6. College Terms or Sessions. 

These, as well as the vacations, remain as stated in the last re- 

6. Subjects or Course of Study. 
The Bubgraduate course of study as actually pursued iu said College 
iluriag said year, was as follows, viz: 

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No. 57.] 17 

The Fresbman cUes parwied with the Professor of Mathematics, 
the same studies, and with the same text books as before; bnt by a 
proper diapositioa of subjects, the Professor was enabled to carry the 
class though attending him bat twice a week, through a more ezteD* 
me coarse of Algebra aud Qeometry than his time has usuallT 
permitted. The system of journalized written exercises was con- 
tinued, with rcue\t ed evidence of its good results; the amount and 
variety of the class performance being proportioned rather to its op- 
portunities of preparation, than to its actual attendance upon lec- 

In the classical department, this class attended the Adjunct Pro- 
fessor of the Greek and Latin languages three hours daily, for Gtc 
dajs in erery week, and read in Latin, the Odet, Epodet and Satirtt 
of Horace, and the Treatise of Cicero de Senectute. In Greek, se- 
lections from the Graca Majorat consisting of the Memorabilia of 
Xenophoa, the Orations of Demotthenes, and the extracts from Poly- 
biui, together with selections from the Iliad, amounting to 1,500 
lines. All other studies of this class in this department, were con- 
dacted in the tame manner as during the preceding academic year. 

The Sophomore Class, during the said year, attended the Professor 
of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy, 8lc. for an hour daily, on five 
diys of erery week, as follows: One day was devoted to English 
Composition on historical subjects, such composition being read, cri- 
ticised, and corrected in presence of the class, with careful attention 
to, ud instruction in delivery. Three days were given to the stu- 
dy tif Modem History, taking Heeren*s Outlines for a text book, but 
with reference to other original, and more detailed authorities. The 
remaining day was devoted to the examination of the students' 
note books in History, and to this was added a rigid nral examina- 
tioD. In this manner was studied the History of the 15th 16th and 
nth centuries. For further details in relation to this department, 
the trustees refer to their previous reports. This class attended also 
the Jay Professor of the Greek and Latin Languages during the said 
year, for one hour daily, and read in Greek, the 1st, 2d, 3d, 6M and 
I5(A [dylh of Theocritus; thirty chapters of Herodotus ; 1,240 linet 
efEur^Mies, from the Hecuboy Orestes, Medea and Ifypolylus. In 
Latin, they read 26 chapters of the .Snnals of Tacitus; 10 Epistles, 
(525 lines,) of Horace, and the 1st Book of VirgiTs Qeorgics. 
They reviewed their studies of Ancient Geography, and Greek and 
Roman Antiquities, and also practised Greek and Latin Composition 
in prose and verse. 

Tbe attendance of this class upon the Professor of Natural and 
Experimental Philosophy and Chemistry, was the same, and their 
studies and course of instruction with him, were the same during the 
said year, as have been detailed by the trustees in their previous re- 
ports, to which they respectfully refer. 

The attendance of this class upon the Professor of Mathematics, 
also was the same, and their studies with him were in most respects 
the same during said year, as have been heretofore detailed; but, by 
an earlier commencement than usual, of their trigonometrical studies, 

[Senate No. 57.J C 

18 [Sbsath 

they vere enabled to complete their course of Analytical Geometry, 
and vill thus, the Professor has no doubt, maintain the advance which 
they have gained upon some of the classes which preceded them. 

The Junior Class attended the Professor of Intellectual and Moral 
Philosophy &c. for an hour daily, upon five days of each week; 
and during the first term of said year, one day in each week was 
given to English Composition on Bubjecta of taste and criticism, pur- 
sued as in the Sophomore year, only with proportionately higher de- 
mands on the students, both Literary and Rhetorical. One day to 
B couse of Lectures on the principles of the Fine Arts, Taste and Criti- 
cism. Two days to the study of Whately'sKhetoric, with enlarged re- 
ferences and explanations. One day to the examination of the double 
set of note books demanded from each student. One being upon the 
course of lectures, tbe other upon Whately, each analytically arranged, 
and exhibiting not only the substance of the teaching io the lecture 
room, but also the result of private and diligent study atnome. The se- 
coDil term of the said year was distributed in like manner as to time^ 
the only variation being in Whately's L(^c succeeding to bis Rhe- 
toric, and a course of lectures on Eiiglish and Modem Literature, to 
that on the Principles of Taste and Criticism. 

This class attended the Jay Professor also^ one hour daily, and read 
in Greek, the PromefAnM Vinctux of .^ciijlMa; 800 lines of the P/u- 
tut of Aristophanes, and 16 pages of ^tckinet de CWona, as con- 
tained in the edition of Negris. 

In Latin, they read the ^ndrian of Terence; 20 pages of the ^u~ 
lulasia of Flautus, as contained in the edition of Tauchnitz; Hor- 
ace's £pwf^e to the Pisos, and 20 chapters of Cicero de OJidu. 
They also had a course of lectures on Roman Literature with exami- 
nations, and practised Greek and Latin Composition in prose and 
verse, once a week. 

This class attended also daily, the Professor of Natural and Expe- 
rimental Philosophy and Chemistry, and pursued with him the same 
course of study, conducted in the same manner detailed by the trus- 
tees in their previous reports. 

This class attended also daily, the Professor of Mathematics and 
Astronomy; were carried through a course of Analytical Geometry, 
and completed with the advantage gained by their proficiency in this 
branch of science, a comprehensive study of Astronomy, with fre- 
quent demands upon them for the evidences of their attention in the 
solution of a variety of instructive Astronomical Problems. For 
fuller details of the studies of the class in this department, the trus- 
tees respectfully refer to their previous report. 

The Senior Class, and the first class in tbe Literary and Scientific 
course, attended tbe Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy, 
&C. during the said year, for an hour daily, upon five days of each 
week; and during the first term, one day in each week was devoted 
to English Composition, on subjects connected with the course, In- 
tellectual, Moral and Religious; the demands upon the class, as re- 
garded the prepaiBtion and delivery, or the criticisms of their themes. 

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No. ST.] 19 

bong proportionately advanced beyond those made on the yoonger 

To this duty an interesting and more practical character was occa- 
aonall; given by the subtitution of studied arguments, on subjects 
given oot by the Professor — unwritten, except as to introduction and 
general heads. One day in each week was given to a course of lec- 
tures on the Evidences of Katural Religion; two days to Intellectu- 
al and Moral Philosophy, with the history of opinions and examina- 
tion of schools. Ancient and Modern. The remaining day of each 
week vras devoted to the examination of the double set of note books 
reqnired from each student; one on the Evidences,the other on Philoso- 
phy, each containing, clearly analyzed, the substance of the instruction 
delivered in the lecture room, together with the private reading of the 
student at home, and authorities examined. To this logical examination 
of every subject of the course, as to the great means of intellectual 
training of the youthful mind, the attention of the students was coa- 
ttantly directed; as well as to the habit of concentrating the results of 
general reading, and bringing them to bear, by means of well arrange 
ed common-place boolis, on each branch of study, viz: Intellectuu, 
Moral and Reli^ous. 

To these means of securing attention to duty, was further added 
i^lar oral examination. During the second term of said year, the 
course, as to method and distribution of time, remained the same. 
The only change was in the studies taken up, Political Economy 
coming in the place of Intellectual Philosophy, and the Evidences of 
Revelation carrying out the religious arguments begun in the former 

The attendance of the Senior Class on the Jay Professor, was like 
that of the Sophomore and Junior classes, daily — and they read in 
Greek, 528 lines of the ^jax of Sophocles; 217 lines of the (Ed- 
pus Coloaeut; 15 chapters of Plato's Phadon; the 1st, 2d, 3d, iik 
md 5th Olympics, and the Isl Pythian of Pindar, and 10 pages 
of extracts from Aristotle's Art of Poetry, as contained in Dalzell's 
Collectanea Grsca Majora. In Latin they read 12 chapters of Ct- 
ctro dt Oraiore, and 600 lines of Lucretius. 

They had also a course of lectures on Greek Literature and Archse- 
ology, and practiced composition in Greek and Latin, (prose and 
verse,) twice a week. The examinations in Greek Literature and 
Archaeology^ were conducted as in the trustees' last report. 

The attendance of the Senior Class and of the First class of the 
Literary and Scientific Course on the Professor of Natural and Ex- 
perimental Philosophy and Chemistry was the same, and their stu- 
dies with him were the same and conducted in the same manner that 
has beoi detailed in previous reports. The attendance of these same 
classes on the Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy was the 
same, and their studies in those departments were conducted on the 
nme principies that have been detailed in a previous report. The 
class having qualified themselves during the first term of the said 
year, by acquiring the prescribed knowledge of the calcalus, were 
enabled to study with ^ect such departments of the mixed mathe- 

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aiatics as seemed at the same time best calculated to illustrate tlie 
power of modem analysis, and to stock their minds with useful and 
practical conclusiona. The admeasurement of cnrre lines, suriaces, 
and solids, was pursued through a]l the varieties which a due selec- 
tion of subjects permitted. The determination of the Mechanical 
centres, nith particular attention to the centres of gravity and oscil' 
lation, occupied a fair proportion of their time; and aided by the 
mode in which the calculus bad been imparted to the class, the Pro- 
fessor was enabled, for the lirrt time, to present in all their interest- 
ing results, the formulas for the attraction of spheroids upon exte- 
rior and interior points. The course of the class was terminated by 
an extended discussion of the laws of linear vibrations, including the 
leading phoenomena of the musical string. 

7. Ezercisa. 

Besides the exercises in Greek, Latin and English composition men- 
tioned under the preceding head, exercises in declamation were re- 
qoired daily from the students of the College during the said year 
in the manner set forth in previous reports; and the students also 
took part in daily devotional exercisea in the College Chapel. 

Under the several heads of 

8. Eceaminatums. 

9. Mode of Ttutruction. 

10. Syttem of Ditciplme. 

11. GratKiloui Aid. 

12. Slaivia and By-Lava of the College. 

13. DacripHon and value of the College Buildmgt. 

14. Detcription and value of other College Property, and 
16. Aetintue. 

The Trustees have nothing to add to their previous annual reports; 
to which, therefore, they respectfully refer. 

16. DebU. 

The debts owing by the College at the .end of the last year vere as 
follows, viz: 

Principal due on College bonds, (55,550 

Note doe at end of year to bank of New- York, 2,500 

17. Tncomt andExpendituret. 

1. The income of the College for the said year was as follows, 


Matriculation fees of students, and fees from the Gram- 
mar School, $5^01116 

Cinied forward, | 

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No. 57-1 21 

Brought forward, $ 

Stodents' fees received last year, applicable to this year, 4,060 00 
Balance in hand at end of last year, exclusive of said 

amount of $4,060, 637 43 

Rents, 9,819 09 

Interest, 24 80 

Usosof bank of Aew-York, ,. $1,000 00 

2,500 00 

3,600 00 

Less discount, 60 57 

3,439 43 

Pud by State Treasuer for Grammar School, 936 15 

Temporary loans, 150 00 

$23,998 06 

2. The expenditures of the College for the said year were as fol- 
lows, viz: 

Salaries, $14,700 00 

Fuel, 272 00 

Interest, 3,642 50 

Annnity, 760 00 

Repairs, 676 36 

Pajment to Grammar School received from State Trea- 
surer, 926 15 

Note lo bank of New- York, $1,000 

Temporary loan, 160 

■ 1,160 00 

Books and printing, 181 19 

Expenses of commencement, medals and diplomas 309 13 

Insurance, 210 00 

Chemical substances, expenses at Grammar School, and 

sundries, 149 18 

$22,866 41 

18. Price of Tuition. 

Tike matricalation and graduation fees, which iuclode all charges, 
Knain as stated in the former reports. 

The trusteefl would respectfully recall the attention of the Regents 
to remarks contained in their former reports, on the excess of their 
aecessary expenses over their ordinary income, and to the fact that 
the ** Botanic Garden," for which the College is indebted to the 

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bounty of the State, though likely to be valuable at some future pe- 
riod, has beea hitherto, and will probably for many years continue 
to be a heavy burthen on their resources, while at the same time it 
has operated as a bar to their obtaining from the State any more im- 
mediate and effectual aid. The trustees intend at the present session 
of the L^slature to renew their application for relief, and they 
pray the R^ents to give it such official sanction and recommendation 
as Uiey in their wisdom may hold it to deserve, 

JN. L. LAWRENCE, TVeamrer. 
Clement C. Moore, Clerk. 


The Faculty consisted of a President, six professors, three assist- 
ant professors and two tutors, as follows, viz: 

Rev. Eliphalet Nott, d. d. l. l. d. President. 
" Robert Proudfit, d. d. Professor of Greek and Latin languages. 
" Ai.oifzo Potter, d. d. " Rhetoric and Moral Phi- 

" JoHH A. Yates, d. d. " Oriental Literature. 

Isaac W. Jacksos, A. M. '' Mathematics and Natural 

Rev. Thomas C. Reed, a. m. " Political Economy and In- 

tellectual Philosophy. 
J. IjODIS Telllamff, j. v. d. " German language and Li- 

terature, and lecturer on 
Civil Polity and History. 
Rev. John Nott, a, m. Assistant Professor of Natural History and 

Jonathan Pearson, a. m. " " Natural Philosophy 

and Chemistry. 
John Foster, a. m. " " Mathematics, 

RoBEET. M, Brown, Tutor. 
William Kclly, " 

That the other officers, servants, &c. consist of a librarian, a clerk 
to the board of trustees, a treasurer, a register, a post-master, a car^ 
penter, a smith, a gardener, a farmer, three bell-ringers and four men 
That the whole number of under-graduates during said year, 

was, 254 

The number that left college during the year was 10, of which 

there were honorably dismissed, 4 

Left from causes unknown, 6 

Departed this life, 1 

Carried forward, — 

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No. 67.] 23 

Brought forward, 10 

Number remaining at close of the year, 344 

Number of graduates at the last. commeDcement, 91 

Number in college February 1, 1843, 213 

The students were classified as follows: 

In the Senior class, 91 

" Junior class, 74 

" Sophomore classs, &4 

" Freshman class, 25 

Subjectt or Courtet of Study. 
These will be seen by the annexed schedule. They are the same 
u in former years, with the following exceptions: 

1. In the Sophimutrt clasSy occasional recitations as often, usually, 
as once or twice in a week, have been required during the last year, 
in the Elements of Katural History; especially in Geology and Bota- 
ny. The object of this arrangement is to develope at an early period 
a taste for these studies, so conducive to health and innocence, and 
requiring so much observation and experience. In the third term the 
same class read Abercrombie's Intellectual Powers, instead of Whate- 
lej's Logic. 

2. In the J%mioT class, Flautus was read in addition to Terence 
in the second term, and a portion of Fischer's Fby^cs in addition to 
Whevell's Mechanics in the third term. A voluntary class in prac- 
tical surveying was also formed of members of this class, who, in ad- 
dition to the regular course, were instructed more minutely in the 
use of instruments, in constructing 6eld books, and in making calcu- 

3. In the Senior class, in addition to the usual course of Physical 
instractioD, a full course of Lectures on Electricity, Magnetism, Gal- 
nnism and Electro-Magnetism, was delivered, illustrated by the la* 
test and most approved apparatus^ Lectures were also delivered on 
Normal Insffuction, and extra classes were formed in Latin compo- 
sition and the Greek Tragedies, with special reference to a prepara- 
lidn for teaching. So many graduates engage in this employment, 
that it is thought important to furnish them with some theoretical and 
practical instruction in regard to the objects of teaching, the best 
methods, &.c. &.c. 

The embarrassment vrhicb is occasioned by diversity of talent and 
attainment among the different members of a class, requiring that the 
progress of the whole should be too much retarded in respect to some, 
and loo much hastened In respect to others, has been partially obvia- 
ted in two ways. 1. By providing more difficult text books for a. 
portion of the class, and mdufing the more advanced members to 
adopt such text books. 2. By furnishing instruction without ex- 
pense, in studies not belonging to the regular course, but additional 
to it; which shall entitle those pursuing such studies, and at the same 
time maintainiDg their full standing in the regular course, to some 


The objects kept steadily in Ttew io the course of hUelUctual Tn- 
ftrucHon in this College, are 

1. To secure thorough elementary iostractiou by subdividiag class- 
es, by daily and searching examinations, by familiar but well digest- 
ed expositions, and by frequent reviews. 

2. To develope the thinking and investigating powers, by means of 
animated discussions in the recitation rooms, by questions proposed 
for inquiry, and to be answered at some future time, and by assign- 
ing subjects (historical, critical and philosophical) to be discussed in 
elaborate essays and dissertations. 

3. To cultivate the powers of expression by frequent exerdses in 
composition, declamation and extemporaneous debate. 

College Buildings, lAbrary and Apparatus, andotker College property. 

These remain as at last report. 

Graluiious Aid. 

The annual income nf the charity funds belonging to the institu- 
tion, amounts to $3,300, from wlucb 71 students hare been assisted 
during the past year. 


Amount charged for tuition, room rent, &c. during the year was 

tS,542 50. 
Of which amount was collected or is collectable, .... $6,406 87 
Interest on the permanent funds invested in bank 

stocks and secured by bond and mortgage, 13,734 00 

Total, $20,140 87 

income and Expenditure!. 

Total income as above stated, $30,140 87 

Total expenditures as follows, viz: 

Officers, agente and servants, $18,776 03 

Charity students, S,143 00 

Library and apparatus, 530 07 

$21,449 10 

Note. — The usual dividend on some of the stucks, as well aa the 
interest on certain bonds and mortgages have not been fully paid du- 
ring the last year. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

ALEX. HOLLAND, Treamrer. 


No. 6T.J SS 

The followingistheannexedsdiedale referred to in a preTious part 
of the aboTc report. 

Cowrse of Sfudiet pr^araloryfor admiuion into Vhioa Coltegt. 
Latio Grammar, and Latin Ezerdsea. 
Selects e Vet., Eutiopius and Clark's Introdnction. 
Conelius Nepoa, Cebkit's Commentaries, Sallust. 
Vi^l, Cicero's Select Orations, Greek Grammar, Greek Testament, 

Greek Introdaction and Greek reader, or Grseca Minora. 
Aiithmetic, English Grammar and Geography. 

Gmne 9f Audits puraued after admUtion into Dmon College. 

Fkeshkas Class, 
litT»m. Livy. 

Horace and Latin Prosody — tjnih OmpatUieK tmd 

Xenophon's Anabasis, Cleveland. 
2d Term. Herodotus and Thncydides, Grata JUiij, 

Horace, Roman Antiquities. 

AJgehra, to chapter i)d. 
3d Term. Cicero de Offidu — teith Compotttion attd De^ataetiim. 

Algebra— continued, Bourdai, 

Ljaias, bocrates and Demosthenes. 

SopAomort Cimti Clastictd Courie.* 

IttTenn. Tacitus' History, and Geology, twice a week. 

Xenophon's Mem. Packard?* ed. ■ 

Plane Geometry, Legendre. 
2d Tend. Gneca Majora, ^rittotle. 

JuTcnal, or Terence. 

Solid Geometry, Legendre. 
3d Term. Hosier's Iliad- 

TrigononetiT and Application!, Legendre. 

Aberciombie's Intellectual PoweiB — and Botany twice 
a week. 

Sophomore Clots, Scient^ Cotirte.* 
lit Tens. Twntut and Geology. 


Plane Geometry^ Legendre^ 
Sd Term. Natural Theology. 

Juvenal, or Terence. 

Solid Qeometry, Legutdn. 
3d Term. Natnral HlBtory, Ware. 

TrigoDometrr and Applicatioot, Legendre. 

Abercrombie's Int^ectoal Powers — and Botany twice 
a week. 

[Senate Mo. 67.] 


26 [Skhatm 

Junior Clatif Clattiaii Omrit. 
Ist Term. Conic Sections, Jackson. 

He^od and Sophocles, Graca Maj. 

Rhetoric, Blair. 

Heeren's Ancient Greece, twice a week. 
2d Term. Cicero de Oratore, or Plautus. 

Chemistry, Turner. 

Natural PhiloBophy— {S/o/tcf.} Whevi^. 

Heeren's Greece, completed. 
3d Term. Political Economy, Say. 

Medea, &c., Oraca Maj. 

Natural Philosophy, — {Dynamiet, Ifydroijlfc.') 

Technology, Potter. 

Scimt^c Count. 
Ist Term. Conic Sections, Jaekion. 

Algebra, Bourdon. 

Rhetoric, Blair. 

Heeren's Ancient Greece, twice a week. 
Sd Term- German. 

Chemistry, Thmer. 

Natural Philosophy — {Statici.) Whewdl. 

Heeren's Greece, completed. 
Sd Term. Differential and Integral Calculus, BottcAarlat. 

Analytic Geometry of three dimensions, JSoucAariof. 

Natural Philosophy — {Dynamiet, Ih/dros^ ^c.) 

Technology, Potter. 

French, (extra study,) Moliere^t Comedies. 

Senior Clast, Clasticai Cowrie. 
Ist Term. Psychology. 

Astronomy, and Lectures on Electricity. 

Technology — completed. 
. Elements of Criticism. 
Z& Tenn. Optics, Fischer. 

Moral Philosophy. 

Kameg, and Guizot. 

Lectures on Magnetism and Electro Magnetism. 
3d Term. Hebrew, or Law. 

Greek Testament, with Lecturea on Biblical Literature. 

Botany, Geology, and Mineralogy. 

Anatomy and Pby^ology. 

Scientific Course. 
Ist Term. Boncharlat's Mechanics. 

Astronomy, and Lectures on Electricity. 


Elements of Criticism. 
Sd Tenn. Optics. 

Moral PhiloKmhy. 

Eamcs, and Ooiset. 

, Google 

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S8 [Sbrats 

3. Mmber t^f StudmtM. 
The whole number of under graduates daring said year vaSj. . . 116 

Of whom left College during the year, 9 

The number of stmlents at the cloie of the year, 106 

The number of Graduates at the last annual commencement,.. 23 
No student was in College, who was not in the full and regular 
eourae of Collegiate study, and none whose age did not ^weed 14 
years. The average age of the members of the graduating clanwat 
S3 years. 

4. Clatr^ation of Studentt. 

In the Senior class, S6 

" "Junior " 26 

" " Sophomore class, 33 

" " Freshman, " 31 

Total, , 116 

6. Cdlegt Ttrmt imd Settiont. 
As reported last year. 

6. Count of Stwiy. 

The Freshman class were engaged most of the year in the study of 
the Mathematics and Ancient Languages. Algebra was completed, aod 
Geometry commenced. In X^atin, selections were read from Liry's 
Roman History, together with the odes of Horace : and in Greek, 
selections from Xenophon's Anabasis and Memorabilia. In connex- 
ion with their cliissical reading, this class were required to review the 
Latin and Greek Grammars, and to exhibit weekly written transla- 
tions from the authors read. They were also constantly exercised 
in applring the rules of syntax to the analysis of sentences, and the 
principles of prosody, in explaining the structure of Terse ; it being 
made a special object in the clasxical studies of this year to lay a 
foundation for the pleasant and profitable reading of the languages 
in the subsequent parts of the course. 

The Sophomore CSaiiy in connection with Mathematical and Cks- 
ncal studies, attended also to the study of Rhetoric. Geometry was 
completed ; also, Day's Mathematics, embracing Logarithms, Plane 
THgonometry, Mensuration of Supei^des and Solids, Mensuratioo 
of Heights and Distances, Navigation and Surveying, Spherical Trig- 
onometry and Comic Sections were also completed. In Latin most of 
the Satins and Epistles of Horace were read together with a part of 
Cicero de Oratore. In Greek, the class nearly completed the first 
fire books of Homer, together with the selections from the ora- 
tions of Demosthenes contained in the Graca Majora. Blair*s Rhe- 
toric was also studied, while weekly exercises in compomtion were 
required from members of the class. 

In the Junior Clatt, the study of Mathematics and of Ancient 
Languages was continued. With these, the class also attended to 
the atui^ of Logic, Natural Philosophy and Modem Laogoagea. In 

Digitized by 


Mo. 57.] 29 

Latin, the class read four books of the History of Tadtos, together 
vith the second and a part of the third book of Cicero de Oratore. 
In Greek, selections from the Dramatic writers were read, embradne 
the Alcestes of Euripides and the Oedipus Tjransus of Sophocles. 
Ib the study of modem languages the class wereallowed to take 
their option between French and German. In the departments of 
Mathematical and Natural Philosophy, the Difierential and Integral 
Calculus were studied, together with Mechanics, Magnetism, Electrici- 
ty and Optics. In consequence ofa new arrangement m the order of stu- 
dies, Astronomy, Chemistry and the Natural Sciences, usually embrac- 
ed in the studies of this year, were deferred to the Senior year. 

In the Senior Clatt, the course of study was much the same as re- 
ported last year. Embracing Logic, Rhetoric, Moral and Intellectu- 
al Phdomphy, Political I^:onomy, Natural Theology, Christian Anal- 
ogies and fividences, together with Ancient and Modem Languages. 
In the study of Ancient Languages, the class were confined to a re- 
view of authors read in previous parts of the course, while in the 
Modem Languages, the option was nven them during the second 
tenn between French and German. Id this class three recitations or 
lectures were attended daily during the two first terms, and two du- 
ring the last. The three lower classes were unifomaly required to at- 
tend three exercises on each day. In this, as also in the other classes, 
all the studies of the year were thoroughly reriewed previously to 
the exaounations at the close of the second and third terms. 

^le order in which the above studies were pursued in the several 
classes, and the T^t Books employed, were as follows : 

Freshman CHtui. 
1st Term. Folsom's Livy. 

Cleveland's Anabasis of Xenophon. 

Day's Algebra. 
Sd Term. Livy continued. 

Anabasis of Xenophon continued. 

Algebra completed. 
3d Teim. Anthon's Horace. 

Packard's Memorabilia of Xenophon. 

Legendre's Geometry. 

Sophomore Clots. 
1st Term. Horace completed. 

Geometry completed. 

Blair's Rhetoric. 

Day's Mathematics. 
2d Tenn. Eingsley's Cicero de Oratore. 

Day's MathematicB continned. 

Homer's Iliad, Cambridge edition. 
3d Term. De Oratore continued. 

Orations of Demosthenes from Groca Majora. 

Conic Sections, and 

Spherical Trigonometry ixom the Cambridge course. 

, Google 

1st Term. Kinsley's Tacitus. 

Woolsey's AJcestes of Euripidei. 

Differential and Integral calcului from the Cambridge 

2d Term. Tadtus continued. 

Stevart'B (Edipus TyraaDua of Sophoclei. 

Olmstead's Natural Philosophy. 
3<i Term. Natural Philosophy coatinued. 

Wl'ately's Logic. 

French and German Language!. 

Senior Ctatt. 

1st Term. Whattly's Lwic. 

Stei^art's InteflectuRl Philosophy. 

Say's Political Economy. 

French Language. 
2d Term. Intellectual Philosophv continued. 

Wayland's Moral Philosophy. 

Paley'n Natural Theology. 

French and German Languages. 
3il Te-tn. ButleHs Analogy. 

Whately's Rhetoric. 

Review of the College course. 

The report under the (general heads of 

7. Ezercisa. 

8. Examinaiioiu. 

9. Jlfixie of Instruction. 

10. Ditciptine. 

11. OratuUotts aid, 

U the same at last yiar. 

12. 7%e College BuUdingt. 

Are the same as described in the report of the trustees of Jan. 10) 
1839. During the year ending August 15, 1B42, the window sashes, 
casings, the doom and other wooden work, (excepting the floors, 
partitions and stairways,) hHTe been painted three times, viz: of 
Haroihnn and Kirlcland Halls, at an expense of about $S00. 

The number of volumes of books is about the same aa at the date 
of the last annual report. 

No material alteration has been experienced in the value of the 
Philosophical and Chemical apparatus. A number of drawingt de- 
Hgned to illustrate certain principles and fads in Geology were con- 
tracted for during the year, and hare been received, so as to be 
ftvailsble during the present year. To meet the cost (200 were ap- 

, Google 

No. 57.] 31 

13. College Property. 

The other property belonging to the College consists of the fol 
lowbg items, viz: 
"vlst. The Permanent Fund invested as follows, viz: 

In bonds and mortg-ges amounting to, $34,967 93 

In a bond, " 1^66 66 

In a permanent lease of a lot of laud, 463 00 

In a loan secured by a lot of land containing a dwelling 

house, and yielding more than 7 per cent interest, , . 700 00 

$37,697 59 
Id cash uninvested, 2 34 

$37,699 93 

In notes of hand amoimting to upwards of tvo thousand two hun- 
dred dollars, of which about $400 a'-e of doubtful value. 

The interest of this fund is to be forever appropriated to the sup- 
port of the College Officers. 

2d. The hood of $16,000, of S. Newton Dexter, given for the en- 
dowment of the classical professorship and for the increase of the \\- 
brar}', $1,000 of the interest being annually appropriated to pay the 
niary of the professor, and $60 annually to the purchase of books, 
appropriate to his department. 

3d. Ibe Maynard fund, consisting of bonds and mort- 
gages, and. of mortgages without bonds, $3,307 75 

Notes, of which $1,000 are secured by a hypothecation 

of bank stock, 1,400 00 

Of Bondry lots of land and buildings in the city of Utica, 
appraised by disinterested persons at $13,950; but 
actually worth at the present time probably not more 
than $10,000 .00, perhaps less than that sum, 10,000 00 

$14,707 75 

The treasuier expresses htsprivate opinion that the last &amf>d pro- 
perty will not, if sold within a year, sell for more than $10,000; and 
probably not for so large a sum. 

4th. A lai^e amount of notes of hand and book debts, due al- 
most wholly fiom students and graduates on account of term bills, 
from which may bs ultimately realized about $2,600. A portion of 
this will not be paid under several years. The amount is partly con- 

6th. A balance due on bond from Union College, payable in in- 
stalments in August, 1843-4-5 and 6, which with another bond, 
securing at about the same periods sums equivalent to the interest, 
nlued together at $4^. 


6tb. There is a considenible balance due on subscription to the 
Permanent Fund- It is difficult to estimate with exactness the amount 
which will be collected, a part of it depending on the result of suits 
yet pending. 

U. TitUion Fia. 
The amount charged for student's term bills during said jear wai 
as follows, viz: 

Taltionftdeira*. Boomnnl. Oonl'i. atp'n. ToUL 

1st Term, $758 00 ♦262 11 $204 26 

2d Term, 660 00 209 99 200 55 

3d Term, 917 00 244 48 284 38 

$2,336 00 $706 58 $689 19 $3,730 77 
Deduction on account of 
indigence, 708 00 708 00 

$1,627 00 $706 58 $689 19 $3,022 77 

Amount of term bills collected daring the same period, viz: 

Ist. Term, $662 67 

3d do 822 93 

3d do 1,05861 

$2,544 21 

15. 7%ebieoiM 

Received from all sources during the same period, viz; from Au- 
gust 16, 1841, to August 15, 1842, both inclusive, was as follows, riz: 

From students, term bills and graduates, $2 ,644 21 

<' Interest of permaDeDt fund, 2,684 16 

« Interest of Dexter fund, 1 ,578 16 

" Maynard fund, principal and interest, 236 99 

" Rents of buildings and grounds, 160 16 

" Union college and payment on bonds, 6 ,366 30 

« State grant, 3,000 00 

" MiBceTlaneous items, 114 73 

" Collection on subscriptioDs to permanent fund,*. 170 OO 

" Principal of permanent fund repaid, 784 06 

(' Loan accoun^. S96 60 

$17,833 25 

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No. 5T.J ' 33 

Tht ExpendUuret <aid Investments durii,.g the same period, were as 
follotcSj viz: 

Amount paid College officers, ^ $7,417 27 

Miscellaneous expenses, 1 ,520 57 

Amount paid for library, 5U 00 

Paid on bonds and moitgages due on account of loans, 6,779 69 

On note account, due to a former College officer, 150 00 

Paid on Maynard property, (taxes and repairs,) 22&. 63 

Loan account, 300 00 

116,438 16 
£y iarestment of permanent fund, 1 ,340 00 

$17,77S 16 


Amount of receipts, $17,833' 26 

Add balance on band August 16, 1841, 536 82 

$18,369 07 
£xpeiidituTes and inreBtments, 17,778 16 

Balance on hand August 15, 1842, $590 91 

Of this balance, $312 had been set aside as a payment on a bond 
and mortgage due from the trustees, but which Imd not been paid> 
owing to the absence of the persons holding the same, and that 
amount is not included in the list of debts. 

16. The aggregate amount of Debts 

Due from the tnistees on the 15th August, 1842, exclunre of $212 
alluded to above, and for payment of which funds bad been set apart, 
was about $9,850, (exclusive of a balance due to one at the Profes- 
sors, sustained by en endowment,) consisting of the following items, 
Tiz : 

Balances doe on bonds and mortgages, $5 ,464 38 

Balances due on a bond and note, about 872 00 

Due to College officers, about 2,600 00 

Due to the penuanent fund on loan, 700 00 

Sundry bills not presented, for shingles, nails, carpen- 
ter work, &.. &c> supposed to be about $3l5, say. .. 313 62 

Carried forward, $9,850 OO 

[Senate No. 57.J 

34 [Sknats 

Brought forward, $9,860 OO 

The meaas of pajrment are, 

The bond of Union College, payable in one, two, three 
and four years from August last, $4,000, and a bond 
securing the amount of interest: 

Sundry notes due from graduates, and book debts due 
from students, worth eTentually, as is supposed, as 
much as $2,500, 6,600 00 

$3,360 00 

The interest which on the 16th August last, had accu- 
mulated, (but was not payable until some time after 
that,) on bonds and mortg^es belon^g to the per- 
manent ftmd, 1 ,326 00 

Leaving a balance of debt, for which no provision has 

been made, of $2,034 00 

I have not taken into account the balance of cash on hand*, after 
deducting the $212 referred to on the preceding page. A part of 
the remaining balance belonged to the permanent fund, and has been 
aince invested. 

Enough will remain to justify the estimate of debts due from the 
trustees, for which no provision has been made, at $2,000. 

17. Tuiiion. 

The charge for tuition is, 

For the Seniorand Junior classes,. $30 each per annum. 

Sophomore and Freshman, 21 '^ " 

. For room rent, about, 9 " " 

■ ■" ', Contbgent expenses, .... 7 50 to $8, " 

'l8. lAbraria, ^c. 

The students possess ttoo Sociely Libraries, deposited in appropri- 
ate rooms in the college buildings, comprising aboui 7,000 volumes. 
These societies have cabinets of minerals, consisting of upwards of 
4,000 specimens. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

Treas. and Sec'y of Hamilton College. 

Chairman of Executive CirmnUttee. 
HanUitm College, January 2, 1843. 


So. 57.] 35 



1. JVumber and descriptifm of Professorships. 
Same aa in last report. 

2. Faculty and itther College Officers. 
Bsr. BsNJAWH Hale, d. d. Pre^dent. 

Department of ^rts. 

Ret. Benjahis Hale, d. d. Sbirtin Professor of the Evidences of 

HoBACE Webbteb, ll. d. Professor of Mathematics and Natui^l 

Qex. Joseph Gardhsb Swift, m. a. Professor of Statistics and Civil 

Datid Prentice, ll. d. Professor of the Latin and Greek Lan- 

guages aud Literature. 
IWoDOBE laviNG, M. A. Professor of History, Modern Languages 

and Belles-Lettres. 
Jakes Hadlet, m. d. Professor of Chemistry. 
Ret. Edwaxs Boitrks, h. a. Adjunct Professsor of the Latin and 

Greek Languages. 
HENRf Lokekzo Low, m. a. Tutor. 

Medical Department. 

For the names of the Medical Faculty, see second part of this 

3. Jftitttber of Students. 
The whole Dnmber of students, under-graduates during said year 
was 66. 
Classified as follows, viz: 

Seniors, 6 

Junior*, on the full course, , 11 

English Juniors, 1 

— 12 

Sophomores, on the full course, 14 

Idglisfa Sophomores, 1 

— 15 

Freshmen, on the full course, S9 

Edglbh Freshmen, 4 

, Google 

36 |SCMTC 

Left during the year for the following causes, 9. 

To continence professional study, 2 

To enter another college, 1 

In consequence of discipline, 2 

failure of health and means, 3 

sudden death of parents, S 

— 9 

Number of graduates of the first degree in Arts, 6. 

The number of Medical students during the same year ending Aagnst 

3, 1S42, was 156 

Of under-graduates, as above, 66 

Total, 222 

4. College Terms or Setsumt. 

1st. From Sept. 16, 1841, to Dec. 22, 1841, ... 14 weeks. 

2(1. From Jan. 13, 1342, to April 20, 1842, 14 do. 

3d. From May 12, 1842, to Aug. 3, 1842 12 do. 

5. Course of Study. 
Senior Clatt. 

Cousin's Psychology, through, about half twice, 38 

Butler's Analogy, tbrough Part I. twice, ^3 

Locke on the Conduct of thft Understanding, twice, 14 

Dissertations on the History of Ancient and Modern Philosophy, 

by each member of the class, ^ 

Constitution of the United States, H 

Discussions, extemporaneous, before the President, 30 

Whateley's Rhetoric, through twice, accompanied themes,.... 24 

Three Lectures on Belles-Lett res, ^ 

Paley's Natural Theology, finished from preceding year, 7 chap. 7 
Norton's Astronomy, 175 pages, twice, accompanied with in- 
struction in the use of Astronomical instruments, and frequent 

practice in making the more useful observations, 4S 

Lame's Cours de Physique de I'ecole polytechnique, 834 pages, 

(Parii edition) twice, with experiments, IC"^ 

Chemistry, lectures, accompanied with recitations in Beck's 

Chemistry, ^ 

Geology and Mineralogy, lectures, 2^ 

Architecture, lectures, with a few practical exercises in drawmg 

the Orders, '^ 

Cicero, de Natura Deomm, book 1, and 14 chap, of book 2, 

(part twice,) . . ., , ^ 


No. 57.J 37 

No. of LcMoni. 

Lucretius de Renim Natnra, book 1, and 1000 lines of book 5, 
vitb a lecture on Lucretius, and full analysis of the ail- 
ment, &c 30 

£schy1us, Agamemnon, 1000 lines, 15 

Guizot, Histoire de la Civilization en Europe, 203 pages, trans- 
lated and recited, 24 


Junior Class. 

Davies' Surveying, twice, accompanied witb frequent taerciscb 

in the field, 37 

Davies' Differential and Integral Calculus, 192 pages, twice,. . . 56 
BoDcharlat's Mechanics, 185 pages, twice, accompanied with ex- 
periments, 79 

Paley's Evidences of Christianity, through, (taking the place of 

the mathematical recitation on Monday morniiig,) 35 

Cicero de Oratore, books 2 and 3 through, 56 

JuTenaPs Satires, 3, 10, 13 and 14 (the 3d twice,) 19 

Tacitus' Annals, books 5, 6 and 11, and 17 chapters of book 

IS, books 6, and 4 chapters of book 6, twice, 36 

Thucydides' History of Greece, book 2, first 54 chapters, \7 

Euripides Orestes, through, 1000 lines twice, 33 

^schines against Ctesiphon, 64 pages, 30 twice, 28 

Demosthenes de Corona, 67 pages, 36 twice, 36 

Whatelcy's Rhetoric, through twice, with themes and other ex- 
ercises, 31 

Lectures on Belles-Lettres, with recitations thereon, 10 

Wayland's Moral Philosophy, through, book I twice, with com- 
positions on su!^ects in Moral Philosophy, 30 

De Tocqueville's Democratic en Amerique, Part IL, 213 pages 

translated and recited, 25 

Say's Political Economy, witb themes and lectures, through, 324 

pages twice, 42 

Exercises in Composition, besides those connected with Politi- 
cal Economy, &c 12 


Sophomore Class. 

Davies* Legendre's Geometry, commencing with book 7, through 
twice, 27 

Trigonometry and Mensurations, (in the same volume,) through 
twice, 25 

Davies* Analytical Geometry, through twice, 103 

Davies' Surveying, through twice, and with frequent exercises 
in the field, la surveying, taking heights and distances, and 
levelling, 34 

38 [SiHAT/. 

vo. or UMi 
Horace, from Ode 17 of book 2, through the Odes, Epod«s 

and Epistles, twice, with a lesson in Latin Prosody, daily Id 

connection with the recitation, &1 

Terence, the Andria am! Hecyra, entire, (600 lines of the An- 

dria twice,) , ^^ 

Plautus, Captivi and Miles Gloriosus, (the Miles Glor., twice,) 3'' 

Cicero's Brutus, entire, (20 chap, twice,) i" 

Homer's Odyssey, from 253d line of book 4, to the end of 

book 6, 37 

Stuart on Accent and Quantity was recited in connexion with 

Homer, , 

Euripi<les, Hecuba and PhtEnissse, entire, twice, 61 

Aristophanes, Ares, entire, (5jO lines twice,) 27 

Greek Testament, Ep. to Romans, from chap. V. and I and H 

Epp. to Corinth: Epp. to Galat. Ephes. and Phil 36 

Whately's Logic, through twice, with exercises in constructing 

Syllogisms, from Butler's Analogy, 4^ 

Gil Bias, 83 pages, 13 

Exercises in Composi'ion, distinct from other lessons, 1^ 


IVes/unan Ctast. 

Bourdon's Algebra, by Davies, the class recited the first term to- 
gether; the seqond, in two divisions. One division completed 
and reviewed the volume; the other went over 197 pages, four 
times. No. of lessons of each division, 116 

Legendre's Geometry, by Davies, 6 books, twice, 44 

Ovid's Fasti, books 5 and 6, through twice, with careful study 
of prosody, two lessons in prosody each week, 54 

Livy, books 1 and 2, completed, (27 ch. of book 1, twice,).. 73 

Adams' Roman Antiquities was recited daily, in connexion vrith 
the lessons in Ovid, and 5 times a week with Livy, about i 
pages at each lesson, and was completed, excepting the arti- 
cle on the particular laws of the Romans, 

Horace; 3 books of the Odes, twice, with the same careiul stu- 
dy of the metres, as mentioned in former reports, 57 

Roman Antiquities, including Mythology, Geography and His- 
tory, as referred to in Horace, recited, 

Latin Composition, weekly during the first term, occasionally 
afterwards, from Murelus, 

Xenophon's Hellenica, three books, (to chap. 6, § 20, of book 
1 , twite,) about* 55 

Anthon's Greek Grammar, was daily recif'd in connexion with 

* Wf HT siMtMnimnr Ininii to XeDophanutd Hen>4i>tiii. Tb« whale nnmber in toU n- 
119. "nuircordirHn logiirc tbG precise No. in «ciL TbeaumbcngiirerKre rarr neHrtlKiniib 

, Google 

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Soiiorg, 224 

Juniors, 172 

Sophomores, 189 

Fresbmen, 160 

Total, 745 


2. Latin tmd Greek Languages. 

Senior Clots, 

Cic. Nat. D 32 

Lucretius, 30 

^schylus, 16 


Junior Clait. 

Cic. de Orat. 56 

Juvenal, 19 

Tacitus, 36 

Thucydides, 17 

Euripides, 33 

-Sscnines, 28 

Demosthenes, 36 

Plautua, 37 

Cic. Brutus, 42 

Homer, 37 

Euripides, 51 

Aristophanes, 27 

Gr. Test 35 


Pireshman Ctast. 

Grid. 64 

Livy, 73 

Horace, 67 

Xenophon, 55 

Herodotus, 64 

Homer, . 

S26 Gr. Test. 


Sophomore Class. 

Horace, 64 

Terence, 24 

Seniors, 77 

Juniors, 325 

Sophomores, 317 

Freshmen, 373 


3. Bttelltetuali Moral and Political Philosophy, and Rhetoric. 

Senior Class. 

Cousin, 38 

Butler, 53 

Locke, 14 

Hist. Phil 24 

Const. U.S 11 

Discussions, 20 

PaleyN. T 7 

Guizot, 24 

Junior Class. 

Paley, Erid 35 

Wbately, 24 WhateleyRc 31 

Lee. on Belles Let 3 Lect. B. Let 10 


, Google 

42 |S£KATE 

Englith Clatsu. 

The English Classes recite generally with the other classes. The 
English Course embraces all tne parts of the Collegiate Course, ex- 
cept the Latin and Greek languagt^s. It is arranged as follows: 

First year. In the first and second terms, students on this coursere- 
;ite with the Freshman class, Algebra, and separately in Geometry 
md French. In the t/iird term in JVencA, with the Freshman, and 
n Mathematics and Logic, with the Sophomore class. 

Second year. Two recitations daily with the Joaior class, and one 

Third year. With the Senior class. 

As there are sometimes variations in the order of the studies, and 
ilso inequalities in the attainments of the members of the English 
ilasses, &,c, this arrangement cannot always be rigidly adhered to. 
The above statement will show the character of the course. 

The facts in regard to the English classes, of the year to which 
:his report relates, may be thus briefly reported. 

The English of the third year, (of Junior standing,) went over 
:he whole course of studies of the Senior class, except those in the 
Latin and Greek languages. 

The English student of the second year, (of Sophomore standing,) 
left College soon after the commencement of the year. 

Of the English class of the first year, (of Freshman standing,) 
iiree entered at the commencement of the summer term, in May, and 
itadied Geometry and French with the Freshman class, and Davies's 
First Lessons in Algebra, in a class by themselves, preparatory to 
commencing Algebra with the next Freshman class. 

The remaining member of this class was present but a short time, 
!>eing obliged to leave his studies on account of ill health. 

6. Exercises. 

Declamations in rotation, ten each week, on Wednesday afternoon. 
Each declaimec rehearsed in private the day before, before the instruc- 
tor in this department. The declamations of the Senior class, and of 
the Junior, in their third term, were as usual original. 

Deliberative discussions by the Senior class weekly, extempore, 
md after the forms of deliberative assemblies, as above reported. 

Essays on the History of Philosophy, by the Senior class, as above 

Compositions by the Junior, Sophomore and Freshman classes, and 
English classes, once each fortnight, on the same general plan as 
mentioned in the last report. 

The Senior class were exercised in the use of the Sextant, the Re- 
peating-Circle, the Transit Instrument, and the Barometer, apd ac- 
quired a good degree of readiness in making the more important ob- 

, Google 

No. 67.] 43 

Hie Sophomore and Junior classes were exerdsed frequently in the 
Geld, in sarveying and levelling. 
Ezerdses in writing Latin, Greek and French, as above refer- 

7. ExammatioM. 

From Wed. Dec. 15, 1841, to Tues. Dec. 21, 6 days. 

" « Apr. 13, 1842, to Wed. Apr. 20 7 " 

" Mon. July 25, « to SaU July 30, 6 " 

8. Discipline. 

The disupline of the College is kind but strict. Those who after 
patient trial, are found to be incorrigible, are sent awayj and those, 
who by their negligence, fail to maintain a respectnble rank in ibeir 
classes, and to prepare themselves properly for advancement, are at 
the examinations, especially at the end of the year, put back into an 
inferior class. During the last year it was not found necessary to de- 
grade any in this way. 

9. College Buildingt. 

Trinity and Geneva Halls have been described in former reports. 
A new building has been erected for the use of the Medical Depart- 
ment, and that formerly occupied by the Professors in that depart- 
ment, will be fitted up for the Department of Arts. 

Real estate, including Collide buildings, valuedat,,,, $45,176 75 

Libraries and apparatus not estimated. 

Bonds and mortgages, 901 94 


Rents, 342 00 

Interest, 204 61 

Term bills, 2,133 99 

Allowance of Prot. Episc. Society, 500 00 

« « State of New- York, 6,000 00 

$9,180 60 


Salaries, 7,150 00 

Incidentals, repairs, Janitor, &c 1 ,571 53 

Carried forward, 9 

, Google 

44 [Sbatb 

Brought forward, t 

Medical Faculty, (interest and principal,) .... 600 00 
Interest on debts, 266 00 

$9,476 63 

Debta, $6,807 84 


This Report, so far as relates to the Medical Institution of this 
College, is lor the year ending January S4tb, A. D. 1813, the day of 
the Medical comniencenient, and of the close of the annual e 

1. JV^MnW and Vacriptifm of Profatonhips, and JVomet o/" the 

Thokas Spemcek, m. d., Professor of the Institutes and practice of 
Medicine, and Dean of the Facalty. 
Chables BaoADHEAD CoTENTBT, M. D., Profcssor of Obstetfics, and 
Medical Jurisprudence. 
Jahes Wkbster, m. d.. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. 
James Hadley, h. d., Professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy and 
Registrar of the Faculty. 
JoHH D&lamateb, m. d., Profcssor of Materia Medica and Gene- 
ral Pathology. 
Feams Hastihos Hahilton, h. d., Professor of the Principles and 
Practice of Sui^ery, 
Tqouas Rush Spencer, h. d., Adjunct Professor of Materia Me- 
dica and Qeneral Pathology. 

S. Other Ofieeri. 

A Board of Curators was constituted by the Board of Trustees, by 
the statutes under which the Faculty, was organized, to unite with the 
Faculty In examining and recommending candidates for the degree 
of Doctor of Medicine. 

This Board does not consist of any fixed number. It is at present 
composed of the following gentlemen of the Medical Profession^ 
whose names are underwritten, and of the censors of the State Me- 
dical Society for the^th, sixth, seventh and eighth Senate districts. 
Three are required to be present at the examination of candidates. 

Dr. William Taylor, Dr. Lester Jewett, 

" Lake G. Tcft, " Venoni W. Mason, 

" Lansing Briggs, " Warren Patchen, 

** Con^der Kinjr, " Edson Carr, 

" Augustus WiilaiH, " John B. Elwood, 

" Josiah Trowbridge, " Bryant Burwell, 

" John Cotes, " Sumner Ely, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

N0.S7.1 45 

Dr. Jofaa Sbnler, Dr. John Stevens, 

" Orson Nickerson, " Nathan Boynton, 

" Onestmus Mead, " Joha D. Wiggins, 

" John Staats, " John Miller, 

« John W. Francis, " Gardner Wells, 

" Joshua Lee, " Patrick H. Hard, 

« David D. Hoyt, " Peter B. Brooks, 

« Gavin L. Rose, " John Steams, 

" James Jones, " Asahel Clark. 

A demosBtra'tor of Anatomy is annually appointed by the Facnlty, 
to assist the professor, and to superintend the private dissections of 
the students. This office has been held the past year by Corydon 
La Ford, M. D. 

3. JAtmber of Siudmtt. 

Medical practitioners, attending part of the course, 10 

Third course students, 20 

Secood " « 38 

Firat « « J07 


Graduates, 38 

4. TBrm or Segiion. 

The only sesrion commences annually on the first Tuesday of Oc- 
tober and c»>ntuiues sixteen weeks. 

6. Count of Study, 

The conrse of instruction consists of lectures, by the several pro- 
fessors. At each lecture, there is an examination upon the preceding. 
The average number of lectures in each department, is from 70 to 
15. The number each day is 5. 

In addition to the lectures on Anatomy, the students who wish, 
study practical anatomy, under the demonstrator. 

6. Expmdiiurts. 

The ordinary ezpenditures are, for Janitor, fuel, library, apparatus, 
printing and other contingents, and are provided for as will appear 
in a Bubaequent statement. 

7. Salarw. 

The aggregate fee for all the tickets is uxty-two dollars, "nie 
ticket fees constitute the perquiutes or salaries of the professors. 

Medical graduates, and those who have attended two full courses, 
are admitted free of charge. 

46 [SmuTE 

During the term just closed, four students have been admitted free 
of charge, to the seTeral courses of instraction, one from each of the 
fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth Senate districts, in accordance with 
section 3d of the act of fifaj 25, 184X, " to endow the Medical In- 
stitution of Geneva College." 

^ 8. Revmues and Escpen^turet. 

In obedience to the second section of the same act, requiring that 
a " Report shall be annually made by the Medical Faculty, through 
the trustees of said College, to the Reeeuts of the University, of the 
mode of expenditure of such moneys," as were given by said act of 
endowment, the following account of such expenditures, received by 
the said board of trustees from the said Medical Faculty, is transmit- 
ted to the R^ents of the University. 

" Ist. Revenue* Expended. 

" There have been recdved by the Medical Faculty, throogh the 
Trustees of Geneva College, the amount of the first two instalments, 
which have been expended in manner shown by the following ac- 
count, viz : 

" The State endowment fund in account with the Medical Faculty 
of Geneva College, 

1841. Vr. O. 

July. By amount of first instalment,. $5,000 00 

To amount for site of building,. $1,277 00 
" " ifor Dr. D.L. Risers' 

museum, 635 72 

To amount for chem. apparatus, 1 ,000 00 
" " of balance of first in- 
stalment applied towards new 
building, 2,087 28 

1S42. 6,000 00 

July. By amount of second instalment, 5,000 00 

To amount expended on new 

building, 5 ,000 00 

$10,000 00 $10,000 00 

Since the last annual report, there have been received on the bond 
of the trustees, mentioned under head of " 2nd Revenues, unexpend- 
ed and Debt," the following sums, viz: 

July I. By cash, interest and principal, $250 OO 

Jan. 1. " " *' 250 OO 

To am't expended on building, 600 00 

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No. 57.J 47 

2d. Reeenuei vntxpendtd and 2)ebt. Gea. Fund. 

Jan. I. There will fall due on the State endowment 15tb June, 1843, 
the third instalment of, 5 ,000 00 

There is also due on the bond of the trustees, 
mentioDed in last year's report, of principal, 
Jan. 1. 1843, 5,086 65 

This bond is payable semi-annually, (of princi- 
pal and interest,) in sums of (250, until paid. 

Total of unexpended funds, $10,086 65 

Iq anticipation of these funds, the Medical Faculty 
has effected loaos of individual Professors and from oth- 
er sources, for the completion of the building, as the 
present debt of the Medical College, the aggregate 
aomof, $7,244 67 

Take this from the aggregate of unexpended funds, 
and there remains a balance infavor of the Institution, of $S,841 98 
applicable, after extinguisbiDg the debt, to the general 
purposes of the Institution. 

3i^. Revenues Permanent. {Cmitingent fSmd.) 

These are derived, as reported last year, (3.) 

1st. From graduation fees, 

2d. From matriculation tickets of $3, paid by each studenl. 

Af^er the general settlement, Ist. of October, 1841, there were re- 
ceived for graduation fees at the close of last 

jear's term, the sum of, $540 00 

and expended for Library, apparatus, and con- 
tingents, $500 00 

There have been received for graduation fees 
thisterm, 720 00 

For matriculation tickets, 441 00 

There have been paid out for Library, appara- 
tus, and contingent expenses, 993 00 

Thereare outstanding debts still to be paid from 
these revenues, of the estimated sum of . . . . 300 00 

having a balance agains^ the Institution, of. . 92 00 

11,793 00 $1,793 00 

48 (SufATK 

4M. Recapitulation of Revmtutf and Proptrty. 
Balance of geDeral fund. 

Library, 364 vols, and moseum, estimated, . $500 OO 

fSchedA.) Chemical apparatus, (cost) 1,000 00 

f do B.) Dr. Rogers* museum, (cost) 636 72 

( do C.) Dr. Francis' museum, Prof's, eodowment, . 1,200 OO 

Building lot, tcostj 1,277 00 

Medical building, (coot) 


The Bchedulps referred to in the margin, are attached to the report 
of the Medical Faculty lo the board of trustees, -which is herewith 
sent to the Regents of tfae Unirersity. 

This report is made by a committee of the Board of Tnulees, ap- 
pointed at the meeting of the board, January S4th, 1843. 


C%'n of tht Board qf Tntsieu. 



OF JULY, 1843. 

During the collegiate year vbich closed at the last commeocemeDt 
of the Imver^ty, on the third Wednesday of July last, the number 
of students connected with the institution, amounted to 136; of which 
there vere 

In the Senior class, S6 

In the Junior class, 34 

In the Sophomore class, 43 

And in the Freshman, 32 

1. The Senior class have been instracted in the departments of 
Moral and Political Philosophy and Rhetoric, by the chancellor. 

In Optics and Astronomy, by Professor Joslin. 
In the Evidences of Revealed Religion, by Professor Mason. 
In Chemistry, Geology and Botany, by Professor Draper. 
In Logic and Natural Theology, by Professor Henry. 

2. The Junior class in Intellectual Philosophy, Belles-Lettres and 
Hieitory, by Professor Henry. 

In Natural Philosophy by Professor Joslin. 
In Greek by Professor Lewis. 
In Latin by Professor Johnaon. * 

Digitized by 


No. 57.J 49 

3. The Sophomort clau in Sfothemattcs hj ProfetaoT Jotlin. 
In Greek by Professor Lewis. 

In Latin by Professor Johnson. 

4. The FVethman clau in Mathematics and Latin by ProfesMr 

In Greek by Professor Lewis. 

1. The Senior tlau read as text books, 
WaylaDd and Paley in Moral and Political Philoaophy. 
BlaiT and Whateley's Rhetoric 
Faley's Evidences of Revealed Religion. 
Story on the Constitution of the United States. 
Whateley's Loeic 
Foley's NatuiarTheol<^. 
Butler's Analogy. 
Lyell's Geolc^. 
Gray's Botany. 

Liebig's Agricultural Chemistry. 
Turner's Chemistry. 

3. The Junior clau read as text-books, 
Ranch'* Psychology. 

Locke's Essay, and Henry's History of Fbilosophy. 
Cambridge Mechanics. 
Brewsters Optics. 

Cicero de Oratore, and Plato's Republic. 
Roget's Electricity and lectures. 
Olmsted's Astronomy. 
Eames' Elements of Criticism. 
Guizot's History of Civilization in Modem Europe. 
SchleeePs Philosophy of Histonr. 
And Lectares on Taste in the Fine Arts. 

3. The Sophomore clau have read as text-books, 
Plays of Terence. 

History and Life of Agricola, and Satires of JnTenal. 

Euripides' Alcestis. 
Sophocles' Philoctetes. 
Eschjlos' Prometheus and AgamemDon. 
Divies's Surveying. 
Analytical Geometry and Calcnlos. 
Legend re's Trigonometry. 

1. The FVunman clau read, 
Homer's Odyssey, eight books. 
Odes of Horace. 

Cicero de Amicitta and de Senectute. 
Bourdon's Algebra, and Legendre's Geometry. 

The Senior, Junior and Sophomore classes have regularly attended 
to weekly declamations in the chapel; and the Freshman class have 

[Senate Ho. 67.] Q 

60 [$BlfJkTX 

been untraoted in tbe^sme bnodi hj- ProfiEHOr JotenMi in ioB lec- 
ture room. 

The two literary societies of the University tbsrt meet weelcly, give 
ccnatant attentioii to Bnglinb oorapontion and ezuviMs ia Bpekking. 
All the classes have also regular times in which to prepare and ex- 
hibit themes of their own coDnpoBilioti. 

There is a daily religious service - in tbe diapel for half an hosr, 
immediately before the lectarei and recitations. 

All the classes were examined at the oltwe of the segsensj in De- 
cember, March and July. 

Revenm for the year ending July, 1843. 

Oraot from the State, |6,000 00 

Income from rents, •-... 5,478 00 

Income from stadents, 6^88 10 

Income from graduation of medical students, 765 00 

$a9,9ai 10 

Ditburtanentsfor the year tMdmg.Jvly 1842. 

Salaries of Professors, $12,670 00 

do. other ofiScers 772 52 

Insurance, repairs, &c 1^076 00 

Interest on debt, , 6,300 00 

120,617 62 


During the last Vear, another effort has been made by the Council 
to reduce their debt, and-the friendj of the Uoiverstty have geoeioualy 
subscribed towards that object, the sum ot tkirty-Jivethotaand dollars} 
that sum is now in the course of collection and payment, and will re- 
duce the debt of the institution to sixty-eight thousaai Mlart. 


The couDcil hold tbe following property, viz: 
The University Building, fronting on Washington 
Square, and extending from Waverly Place to Wash- 
ington Place, and vuued at, ^!00,000 00 

Philosophical apparatus, valued at, 10,000 00 

Libiary, valuedat, 7,000 00 

$277,000 00 

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No. 57.] M 

The Dumber efljoying the betefiiU of 'ixee,acli«)Brihi|H.U4(Mwted 

to fifty^Uiree. 

Twenty-two members of tbe Senior cImb graduated in July IwU 

The pTe9«it umber of stadents is one faundicd and fifty-eight, of 

which sixty-five are on Bcholarships. Of the students there are in the 

Senior class, 34 

Junior class, 44 

Sophomore class, 34 

Freshman, ., 36 


The Mtdieoi UtadPg of ike 'IMhertitjf, eontiBoes to flsutttli, and 
is realizing the best hopes of ita^frmids. Its present number of stu- 
dents is two hundred and eizty-eigbt. 

Fifty-one students graduated from this department in March last. 

For a particular statement of its condition, the council refer the 
R^nts to the aiumal report of the Medicftl Faculty, made to .the 
council and hereto annexed. 

TAe Gramjnar School of the University, sustains its high refiuta- 
tion for the means of elementary and classical instruction: its pre- 
sent number of pupils amounts to two hundred and sixty, .aAd the 
council refer to uie specific report of tbe Rector for further and full 

, 'Goveming Faculty, 

Tbbodore Fkelinghdysen, Chancellor and Professor of Moral Phi- 
losophy and Rhetoric. 

Rev, Cyeus Mason, n. n. Professor of the Evidences of Re- 
vealed rRcU^on. 

fiurjAUIK F. JOSLIV, Jl. < D. 

Tatloh Lewis, a. u. 

E. A. JoHHSOH, A. M. 

Rev. C. S. HehkTj.o. d. 
johu w. d&apek, m, d. 

MathoMtici, Nat. Ehiktso- 
'phy uridjAslronony. 

Greek Language and Litera- 

Latin Language and Litera- 

Intellectnal Philosophy ,«nd 
'Belles Lettres. 

Chemistry and Nat. History. 

Prqfettort not of the Governing faculty. 
S. F, B. MoBSE, Professor of the Literature of the Arts of Design. 
Rev. Gbo, Bush, " Hebrew. 

JcLio SoLER, " Spanish ' Language. 

M. GiBAUo, *' French " 

F. FoBESTi, " Italian " 

All which is respectfully submitted- 
Ihivtrtity of the city of Jfeto-York, Jan. 25, Jj. D. 1848. 

B8 [Sbhats 

Reioiped, Bj the council, that the foregoing report be entered on 
the minutes, signed by the president and transmitted to the Regents 
of the University of the State of New-Yorlc. 

JAMES TALLMADQE, Praident of Council. 


The Medical Facul^ respectfully present the following report of 
the condition of the Medical Department to the coundL 

Jfumber and dacription of Profestonhipi and JVama of the 

Talbntine Mott, h. d. Professor of the Principles and (^erations of 
Surgery, with Surgical and 
Patibological Anatomy. 

QRAinnLLxSaAKPBPATTiBOir,M. D. " aeneiaI,DeBcriptiTe and Sur- 
gical Anatomy. 

JoBir Retehi:, H. d. " Theory and Practice of Medi- 


MAKTTif Paine, m. d. " Institutes of Medicine and 

t-'iMfl Materia Medica. 

QoHmso S. Bedford, h. th " Midwifery, and the diseases 

of women and children* 

John Williah Dkapes, h. d. " Chemistry. 

JWnn&cr of Students. 

Whole number of students daring the present session, .... 268 

Number of graduates nnce the last report, 61 

None of the students are under 16 years of age. 

College T^rmt. 

The winter session begins on the last Monday in October, and ends 
on the last Friday in February. 

The spring session begins about the 30th of March, and ends earl j 
in June. 


The examinations for d^eea take place at the close of each ses- 
The mode of instruction is by lectures. 

Ben^dary foundation. 
Im students are annually admitted as benefidaries on payment of 
the iom of $20 to the College expenses. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

No. S7.) 

Coilegt building and Property. 

Since the last report the Faculty have purchased the building in 
Broadway which Ibey formerly occupied under lease. The expenses 
of its purchase and putting it in suitable condition irere about 

liie Museums and apparatus chiefly belong to individual Profes- 
sors. Their value is estimated at about |3O,O0O. 

A matricalatioa fee of $6 . 
A graduation fee of $30. 
Fees for one full course of lectures, $106. 

Janwtry 20, 1843. 

JNO. W. DRAPER, Seeretary. 



1. JVumber and Detcr^tion of Profetsonfnps. 
The Professorships are 

Principles and practice of Sui^ery and Surgical Anatomy. 
Theory and Practice of Physic and Clinical Medicine. 
Obstetrics and diseases nf women and children. 
Materia Medica and Medical Jurisprudence. 
Chemistry and Botany. 

S. I^iculty and other College Cheers- 

The Faculty consists of a Professor of Physiology ; a Professor 
of the Theory and Practice of medicine and clinical medicine ; a 
Professor of Obstetrics and diseases of women and children; a 
Professor of Materia Medica, and Medical Jurisprudencej a Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry and Botany; a Professor of Anatomy, and a 
Demonstrator of Anatomy. The other officers and persons chained 
with duty therein, other than that of instruction, are a President, a 
Vice-President, a Treasurer, a Registrar, a Librarian and a Janitor. 

The names of the persons holding offices or places, and of their 
offices or places; the salaries for official services, allowed to each dur- 
ing the past year, were as follows: 

N4iDn. FnnBiionliip* ot Offlect. 

De. J. A, Suits, Prest. and 'Prof, of Physiology, Fees. 

** J. M. SwiTH, Prof, of Theory and Prac. of Medicine, 

and Cainical Medicbe. Fees, 


A4 [SutiTi 

" J. B. Beck, Prof, of Materia M«dica asd Medical Juris- 
prudence. Fees. 
" J' To&asY. Prof, of Chemistrj and Botany. ** 
** R. Wattb, Prof, of Anatomy. ** 
" W. Parkxh, Prof, of Principles and Practice of Surgery, 

and Surgical Anatomy. Feei. 
" Dr. C. R. Gilham, Prof, of Obstetrics and diseases of 

women and children. Fees. 
" Dr. J. QuACKEMBusB, DemoDstiutor of Anatomy. " 

" T. Cock, Vice-President. None. 
Mr. F. Smitb, Treasurer. " 

Dr. N H. DsaiNG, Registrar " 

" N. Shooe, Librarian. ** 

J. Bendersom, Janitor. (Salary.) |250 

The aggregate amount recuTed by the Professors for tickets of io- 
stniction, is |4^S3. 

There are, moreover, some fees hereafter to be received, the amount 
of which is uncertain, it may probably somewhat exceed $100 for 
each Professor. 

3. JV^aaber of Studenli. 

The whole number of students, under-gradnates during the past year, 

(1841-2,) was,...,. 109 

The graduates since the last report, were 9 

No. of students have left the College, 

The whole number of students now is 120 

There are no students under fourteen years of age. 

4. Claitification of Studentt, 

There is no clasuGcation of Stndeots. 

6. College Terms or Setriont. 

The terms or sessions for study, commence on the first Monday of 
I November, and end on the last d>iy of February. £Sght months of 

vacation are authorized by the charter. 

6. The Sixth article is presumed to be inapplicable. 

7. The Seventh article is presumed to be inapplicable. 

8 and 9. Bx:anunaii4ms. 

The examinations are preparatory to the recommendatiMis far de- 
grees. The first examination is before the Facul^. Tlic aecoml is 
before the trustees, and is conducted by the Frofesaors^ and sadi of 
the trustees as choose. Some of the.Professors are in the habit of ex- 
amining their respective classes upon the subject of the previous lec- 
ture^ with these exceptions, the mode of instruction is by lectures. 

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No. 57.] 55 

10. Diieipliae. 

There are no established rules of discipline; general propriety and 
decorum are required, wbicb each Professor is expected to enforce, 
should it become necessary. 

11. Gratvitout Md. 
GratQitous stadents are not admitted as a matter of right; but stu- 
dents of Theology, and missionaries, who are bona fide such, are, up- 
(m application, admitted to the lectures. Indigent medical students 
are, uoder peculiar circumstafK:es, admitted on easy terms. The ma- 
triculation fee of five dollars belongs to the College, and is required, 
except from students who have already paid for three matriculation 

12. By-Lam. 

The by-laws are those approved by your honorable body on the 
28th Feb. 1814. 

13. College Buildings and Property. 

For the description and valne of the College buildings, and the se- 
Teral matters directed to be stated under the thirteenth article, we 
beg leave to refer to the reports of the two previous years, no change 
having taken place in relation to them; only respecting that the ac- 
commodations, both for the Prtufessors and students, are ample, com- 
modious, and well arranged, and that they afford the most convenient 
fecilities for every purpose of study or illustration for which they 
were deugaed. 

14. Price of Tmtim. 

The College possesses no other property, [books excepted,) but the 
let ffld College building in Crosby-street. The price of tuition, in- 
cluding the Qiatriculations, is $113. 

16. Rmenue. 

Amount of annual grant from the State, $600 00 

HatricuIaUon fees collected 638 86 

Graduation fees collected, 635 00 

Rents coUected, 387 31 

Sundries, contribution of Dr. Torrey, 69 43 

Balance from last year, 173 14 

16. Debit. 

Bond and mortgage to W.W. Fox, $18,500 00 

" " DrJ.A.Smith, 6,000 00 

Carried forward, $. 


Broueht forward, I 

Due Dr. Francis comingeDtly, ^out 2,000 00 

Dae Drs. Delafield and Rhinelander, and 8om« of the 

other ProfesBorB,* 

Interest due on 1st Feb. and 3d March, next, 612 60 

17. Iiuome. 
The whole income of the College, collected and collectable, is con- 
tained in article No. 16, and amonnts to, $2,030 60 

Collectable for rent, but doubtful, about 150 00 

Exclusive of balance on band at the commencement of 

the year, 67 83 

$2,248 43 

18. Expeadiittret. 

The whole expenditure for the year past amounts to $1 ,634 18 
and consists of the following items: 
See treasurer's annual report for items. 

19. Reinarki. 

In concluding this report, the trustees ask leave to refer your hon- 
orable body to some of the most prominent facts contained in the 
two last annual reports under this head. In the report for the year 
1840, the unfavorable consequences, owing to the indebtedness of the 
College, were particularly described. They were then, and are still, 
of a nature rather to impede the improvements it is desirable to make, 
than to cause any ^eater anxiety. The museums, for instance, re- 
main as private property, and in some respects are deficient; the li- 
brary is not increased; the revenue, so far as it is derived from rents^ 
is uncertain, and the greatest exertions are required to maintain the 
Institution by means of its resources. 

The report of 1841 contained a compliment to the Faculty. It 
consists now of the same Professors, and there is much satisfaction 
in stating, that at no previous time have they made a more enei^etic 
and efficient effort to advance the interests and reputation of the Col- 
lege. Indeed, their high attainments, zeal, and talents, are constant- 
ly contributing to raise its character, and extend its usefulness; one 
proof of this IB derived from the gradually incieanng number of stn- 

It will appear from the three last annual reports, that the improve- 
ment in this essential particular, has been uniform and gradual. 
The general condition of the College is considered hy the trustees. 

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No. 57.] 57 

u satisfactory. They are Dot aware that tbey can render any great- 
er service, nor that anything further is now required, than to secure, 
in a reasonably permanent majiner, the advantages it already pos- 
sesses, and the reputation it is well entitled to enjoy. Changes may 
take place in the Faculty; the museums may be partially removed, 
and much valuable instruction which is now imparted to the students 
voluntarily, and which the trustees have no right to exact, may be 
withheld. It is partly in the hope of being prepared for such con- 
tingencies, and also to perform a duty, that we talce leave again to 
impress upon your honorable body, that if tbeclddebt of the College 
were removed,therewould then be no canseof apprehensions on these 
accounts, and that it would be la the power of the trustees and Profes- 
sors, not only to secure for the future, as far as it is practicable, but 
also to give a new impulse to its present improving condition. This 
debt is not permitted to increase; to prevent it, however, absorbs 
much of the revenue and occasionally imposes extraordinary burthens 
on the Professors. No expenditure can be allowed from the treasu- 
ry to enlarge the museums nor the library, nor can a sinking fund be 
established to extinguish the debt. 

The trustees have no new suggestions to offer upon this subject; 
M they have heretofore stated, it ia only by legislative aid that 
thej can hope for relief — and they trust a fit time will arrive, when 
with the influence, and by the advice of your honorable body, surb 
appeal may be successfully made. 

The voluntary course of instruction commenced the last year by 
the Professors of Snidery and Obstetrics, and known as the Cliniquef 
it continued by them, and is attended with the greatest success. This 
mode of instruction cannot be too highly estimated, nor, perhaps, can 
too much praise be bestowed upon the manner in which it is conduct- 
ed. The advantages derived from the Clini^e are so manifest, that 
that acknowledgment is due to the above Professors. It is found by 
experience, that greater facilities for instruction and means of illus- 
tration continue to present themselves, to the mutual advantage of all 

Respectfully submitted. 

(Signed.) JOS. DELAFIELI), 



Prat. Coll. Phjf't and Surg's U. 8. JV. Y. 

N. H. Dxxino, M. D. 


JftwYork, Jan. 4, 18i3. 
[Senate No. 57.J H 


6S [Sbuts 


1. J'fumier and detcripfion o/' Profestorthipt. 
The Professorships in said Coll^;e during said year, as established 
bj the tniBtees, were the following. 

A Professorship of the Principles and Practice of Surgery. 

A Professorship of the Theory and Practice of Medicine. 

A Professorship of the Materia Medica. 

A Professorship of Obstetrics and Natural Histoiy. 

A Professorship of Chemistry and Pharmacy. 

A Professorship of Anatomy. 

A Professorship of the Institutes of Medicine. 

A Professorship of Medical Juiispntdeuce. 

3. I\tetUtj/ and othtf College Q^ert. 

The Faculty of said college, iocluditig all persons charged with 
the dut^ of giving public instruction therem during said year, were 
the individiuls holding the above eight professorships. 

The names of these seTeral indiridnals holding places in said col- 
lege, during said year, with the offices held by them respectively, and 
the salaries or annual compeoiatioii for official serricca allowed to 
each of them, were as follows: 

daat MMmliai Ua. 
Aldeh Makcb, m. d. Professor of the Principles and 

Practice of Sui^ery, President of the Faculty,. .. $10 per ticket. 
Jamks McKadgbton, h. d. Professor of the Theory 

and Practice of Medicine, 10 " 

T. RoBOETW Beck,ii. d. Professor of Materia Medica. 8 " 
Ebehbzeb Eiofoira, h. d. Professor of Obstetrica and 

Natural History, 10 " 

Lkwis C. Bcck, h. d. Professor of Chouistry and 

Pharmacy, 10 " 

Javu H. AjufSBT, H. D. Professor of Anatomy, .... 12 ** 
Thoius Hcv, m. d. Professor of the Institutes of 

Medidne, 6 " 

Axos Dear, Esq. Professor of Medical Jurisprudence, 5 " 

3. JVumber nf StudeiUt. 

The whole number of students attending the lectures duringsaid 
year was, 92 

For the names of said students, the trustees respectfully refer to 
the accompanying printed catal<M^e of their names. It should 
be added that one name (Obed Hoffcvi,) was accidentally 
omitted, which will explain the difference between the number 
on the printed catalogue and the above number. To these 
we add, as is customary in all Medical Institutions, the names 

Carried forward, . 

, Google 

No. 6?.] 59 

Bnxight forward, 

of 13 phjrnciaiu, attending either the whole or a part of the 
abore courses of lectures, 12 


The number of graduates at the annual commencement for the 
year ending in 1843, and which has not been reported as yet 

to the R^eots, was, 38 

(The name of Ira Zeh is omitted in the printed catalogue.) 

The number of graduates at the close of the colle^te year, end- 
ing January SI, 1843, was, 10 

All the students in said collie during said year, were above the 

age of 14 years, and the.great majority average probably from 19 to 

31 years of age. 

4. CtoM^Uatim of StmdtaU. 

There is no classification of students in this institution, further than 
that some are attending their first coarse of lectures, others their 
second, and again some their tlurd course. 

6. Oolltge Ttnm or Stttiom. 

The term or session for stadies in said College during said year, is 
a si^Ie (we of sixteen weeks, commencing on the 1st Tuesday of Oc- 
tober, 1812, and ending on the 31th of January, 1843. 

6. Suhjectt or Courts of Stud}/. 

IW is explained by a reference to the branches of Medical Sci- 
enoe whicb are taught in said cotl^e. 

7. Exerdte*. (Not applicable.) 

8 & 9. Examinatumt and Mode of Ifatruction. 

The mode of instruction is by lectures. The Professors daily ex- 
amine such of the students that desire it, on tiie subject of the lec- 
tnte of the preceding day. 

Candidates for graduatim are examined by ea^ Professor on . the 
blanch which he has taught. Thev are also publicly examined be- 
fore the Faculty and Curatmrs on their Theses. 

10. Diteipline. 
The Facnlty exerdse the power of cxpnlsion for crimes or gross 
offences of any description. The students are also liable to excmrion 
on account of any improper conduct <hiring attcodance on lectnrss. 

11. Gratuitous Jlid. 
Three students have received free tickets on the recommendation 
of the Censors of the State Medical Society, m compliance with the 
provisioos of the act of the Legislature endowing this institution. 

60 ^ntATE 

The Faculty are also obliged every year to take notes in payment 
for tickets from a considerable nnmber of tbe students attending. 

IS. Statutet or By-Latet of the College. 
The College has not formally enacted any. The regulations con- 
tained in the accompanying circular, may possibly be deemed to be- 
long to this head. 

13. Description otuJ V^ue of College Buildings. 

The Collie building and grounds adjacent, belong to the corpora- 
tion of the city of Albany, and have been leased to the Trustees of 
the College for tventy years at the nominal rent of one dollar per 
year. They are located on Eagle-street, a short distance from the 
Capitol, and occupy an eligible and commanding position. The build- 
ing is three stories high, 120 feet in front, and 50 feet in depth and 
has been fitted up in the most commodious and substantial manner. 

The value of Uie College grounds and building is estimated at$60, 

The Library contains 965 volumes, moat of them new and all in 
good state of preservation. Their value is estimated at $2,560. 

The Chemical apparatus has cost about $1,800. 

The museum contains a great number of specimens of healthy and 
morbid anatomy; a s»t of models of Pathological anatomy by Dr. 
Thibert, and a number of models of healthy anatomy of Dr. Auzoux. 
It contains specimens of comparative anatomy and zoology and a lai^e 
collection of minerals. Its value is about $20,000. 

Value of College grounds and buildings, $50,000 

" Library, 2,550 

" Chemical apparatus, 1,800 

" Museum, 20,000 


14. Descfyttion and value of other College Property. 

The College possesses no other property than that mentioned in 
13, except |S,(HM), to be received from the State during the present 

16. Revenue. 

The revenue is derived from the sale of tickets and from matricu- 
lation and graduation fees. 
From the nie of tickets during the last year there bag 

been collected, and is considered collectable about, . . , $4,200 OO 
From matriculation fees has been received, 425 OO 

■' graduation fees, 400 OO 

« rent of cellar,.... 17 OO 

$5,042 OO 


No. 57.] 61 

16. Debts.— Noae. 
17. Income and I^enditure. 
The whole income collected or collectable for the last 

year (see No. 15,) i $5,043 00 

The whole expenditure for fuel, tight, attendance, &c. 
&c. is, 780 10 

Balance, $4^61 90 

$5,000 received from the State aodexpeoded for library, muieum, 
&c. are not incladed in the above. 

18. Price of J\(tfton.— See No. 2. 

JARED L. RATHBONE, Pretideal. 
John Datis, Secretary. 

The treasurer of the Albany Medical College, respectfully reports 
to the Board of Regents, that he has since his last Bnnual report, re- 
ceived from the Comptroller the further sum of five thousand dol- 
lars, beisg the second instalment of their appropriation, under the 
act of May 25, i84l. That the same has been expended by a re- 
■olutioii of the trustees upon the recommendation of the Faculty 
and under the supervision of a committee, in the manner following, 

Cash pud balance of last year's accounts, $433 06 

" cases in museum, cases in laboratory, repairs 

to building, $1,006 49 

" anatomical preparations and 3d aeries of Thibert's 

human pathology, 1,266 01 

** appropriation for library, (see Prof. T. R. 

Beck's catalogue, 1^00 00 

** Chemical apparatus, 538 80 

'' specimens in Materia Medica, cases, &c. see 

Prof. T. R, Beck's catalogue, 162^27 

$4,906 63 

Leaving a balance in the hands of the treasurer of, ... . $93 37 
All which is respectfully submitted. 


Treaturer Jlbany Med. Cbl. 













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Being a catatogue of the Jiadanies reporting tn 1843, un'M the towns 
or incorporated milages, and counties in which they arl established. 

Jfames of Academies. 



Firtt District. 

Erasmue Hall Academv, 

Grammar School of Columbia CoK 


Grammar School of the University 

of the city of New-York, 

N«w-York Distitution for the Deaf 

and Dumb, 

Rutgers Female Institute, 

T^tal, 6 

Second District. 


City of New-York 




Elasthampton, .... 
Poughkeepsie, .... 





Dutchess county Academy, 

Farmers Hall Academy, 





tfount Pleasant,.. 



North Salem, 


Upper Redhook,.. 








Mount Pleasant Academy, 

New Paltz Academy, 

North Salem Academy, 

Peekskill Academy, 




West Town Academy, 


^any city, 






Total, 17 

Third District. 

Albany Female Academy, 

Albany Female Seminary, 

Cozsackie Academy, 


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Hudson city, 








Lansingburgh Academy 

Schenectady Lyceum 4 Academy, 

Schenectady city, . 


Troy city, 

dn. . 

Troy Female Academy, 

Total, 18 

Fmirih Diatriet. 





Amsterdam Female Seminary, . . . 


Cambridge Washington Academy, 



Essex county Academy, 



E'ort CoviniFton, . . 
Malonc, ........ 


Fort Corington Academy, 

Franklin. , 


Glen's. Falls,. ... 


North Granville, . . 




^gdensburgh, .... 





Union Village,.... 


GoQTenK'ar Weileyan Seminary,. 

St. Lawrence. 



St. Lawrence. 

St. Lawrence Academy, 

Schuylerrille Academy, 

St. Lawrence. 

Union Village Academy, 





Cherry.Valley, ... 


Tota 26 

Black River Uterary and Reli- 

Cherry Valley Academy, 



AVMm* qf^eadtmiet. 





Clinton Seminary, 

do :::::::: 


Hampton, town of 

Westmoreland. . 


De Ruyter Institute,. ,. ,'. 



GilbertsviHe Academy and Colle- 
giate Institute, 

Gilbertsville, .... 



Holland Patent,... 






Hobart Hall Institute, 


Oneida Conference Seminary, .... 
Oneida Institute, 


Union Literary See. of Elliaborgh, 




Utica dty, 



Utica Female Academy, 



Whitesboro' Academy, 

Total, 22 

Sixth JHttrict. 
Alfred Academy, 


Alfred Centre,.... 


Elniira, . ... 





Bin^hamtom Academy, 


Genessee Wesleyan Seminary,. . . 


Ithaca Academy, 

Livingston County High School,. 





Sherburne Union Academy, 

Total, 1) 

Sevenih Ditbfict. 





Auburn Female Seminary^ 


Cortlandville Academy, 

East Bloomfield Academy, 

CortlandviHe, .... 
East Bloomfield,.. 
Fayetterille, • . . . . 



Hanltua Academy, 



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3nonda^ Hollow, 




Ontario Female Seminary, 



Seneca Falls, 




Seneca Falls Academy, 

Total, 19 

Eighth Dittnct. 


Alexander Classical School, 


Aurora, town of 





Buffalo city, 


f redonia, 


Batavia Female Academy, 



Brockport Collegiate Institute,.. 
BuSalo Literary and Scientific Aca- 



Jamestown Academy, 

LeRoy Female Semmaiy, 









MillYille Academy, 

Perry Centre, . . . . 


Phipps Union Seminary, 

Rochester Collegiate Institute,. , , 
Rochester Female Academy, .... 
Sevaid Female Seminary, 


do .... 

do .... 



Yates Centre, 





Total, 26 




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Containing Ahttraett from the Ataiemic Riportt/br 1842, made to 
the Regenti of the Vniveriity, exhibiting the varioui text or clat$ 
bookt lutd during laid year, in the Academiet from which meh re- 
portt mere received, on the d^erent niJgecti of itud^ taught w 
taid ocademieM. 


Subject* of Stud}/. 

Book-keeping, . , 


Eiighih laagoage, gmnour) 




Bazelej, .... . 






Dewey's Pike,. 
Efflersoii, . . . . . 


Oreenleaf} . . . 




Ruger,..., ... 










Hitchcock, ... 
















No. 7. — (CuNTlHUlD.) 

Suijectt itf StuSy. 

faglinh langugn^graniBMir, 

i^. lugnage, dietionary,. 

EktcntioBf . . . 

Gtograpby, . 


Books vted. 

BulKoDs, .-....-....•,-, 






Webster, ..,; ..i. ... 


Cobb's Walker, 

Johnson and Walker, . 





Walker and Webster,. 


Town^s Analysis,..,.. 







Porter, .... 



Sweet, .■ 






Maltebran,. ............ 








Woodbtidgeand Willard,. 


Chann, .,,,..,.. ■ 

Cobb, ,.. 










No. 7. (COBTIBDKD.) 


Subject* of Study. 

Ortbc^tsphjr, . 

Pronunciation, standards,. 

Reading, . 

Books uted. 








Webster, „ 

Webster and Walker, 



Ajuerican First Class Book, 

American Manual, 

Angell's Series, 

Beauties of Bible, 

Child's Guide, 

Child's Reader, 

Cobb's Reader, 

Combe's Physiology, 

Dick's Christian Ptulosopher, 

De Tocquerille, 

Dwyer's Elocution, .... 

El«.^rson's Reader, 

F^r^er's School Book,. 
Goodrich's General Hbtory, 

Goodrich's Series, 

General Class Book, . , . 
Hale's History U.S.... 

Hall's Reader, 

Intelligent Reader, .... 
Irvine^ Columbus, .... 

Jack Halyard, 

Lovell's U. S. Speaker, .... 


Murray's fhiglish Reader,. . . 
National Preceptor, .... 

National Reader, 

New Testament, , , , 

North American Reader, .... 
Olney's Easy Reader, . . . 


Parker's Exercises, 

Parley's History, _ . _ 

'Pierponf B Young Reader, , . 
Political Class Book, ... ' 




I Ko. 67.J 


No. 7. — (CoMTINDED.) 

Subjectt of Stud!/. 

Booki used. 



Pollock's Course of Time, . . 

Porter's Rhetorical Reader,. 


Science of GoTernment, .... 
Sigourney's Girl'sRead. B'k., 

Sweet's Elocution, 

Village Reader, 


WaiSngton, Life of, 

WiUwn^s Am. Clasi Reader, 

Worcester's Books, 

Young Ladies' Class Book,.. 



Aitronomy, . 



" ' ..Bailey, 




Colbum, . .■ , 


Daviea' Bourdon, .... 

Day, , 



Ryan, .' 















WUbur, , 


, . iDaTies, 

Calculus, intq^,. 






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Ko. 7. — (CoHTurocD.) 


Subject! of Stttdjf. 

CalcolnS) bt^ial, 

do differential, .. 

Conic SectioiM, 

Eng^oeertng^ . , ^ 

GnMuetiy, plane, 

Geometry, analytic, , 

Geometry, deacriptii 






Nautical Astronomy, 



Natural Philosophy, 


Voung, , 


Young, , 

Bridge, , 

Daviea, , 


Jackson, , 

West, , 

Mahan, .....*.•■.< 
S^BDzin, . ....... 


Daries' Legendre,. , 

Brewster, , 



Play&ir's Endtd, . , 







Flint, , 

Davies, , 

Da vies, 

Day, , 

Toung, , 



Davies' Legendre,. . 

»«y. •■ 

Gunuoere, , 









Enfield, , 



Wilhton, , 

AjTlOtt, , 



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SubjecU of Study. 

Books uied. 


Hebrew language, 





Andrews & Stoddard, 










French Language, grammar, . 

German Language, grtunmar, 

Italian Language, grammar, 
Spanish Language, grammar, 


Bolmar, , 


LeTizBC, , 

Manesca, , 

Noel & Cliapsal, . 


Wanostrocht, , . , 

Perrin, , 

Folten, , 




Vergani, , 


Jose,. , 

Sales, , 

Aoatomy, . 
Botany, . . 



, ISmith, , 


Comstock, , 




Phelps, , 

Child's Botany, 





CbaptaPs Agriculture, . 





y Google 

No. 57.] 


No. 7. (CoMTISClD.) 

Subjeett of Studg. 

Chemistry, . 

Sookt med. 


Natural History, . 

Physiology, . 


Jones, ,...,, 


Renwiclc & Lieblg's, . . . 


Brown, .,,.,,,,,,,,,, 




Bri^ewater Treatise, . . 







, Comstock, 



Frost's Class Bk. of Natuie, 


Good's Book of Nature, 


Smellie, , 

Trimmer, , 



Comstock, , 







Christianity, EvidenceB of,,. 

Ecclesiastical History. 

Law, Constitmional, and Gi 

[Seaat« No. 67.J 



No, 7. — (Cbhtihtub).) 


akbjtett of Stiuly. 

Law, Cotutitutional, and Go- 


Hiftory of England,. , 


Nltunl Theolt^, .... 

BiAoTj of France, 

Hiatoi7 of United SUtei,. , 

Booki «tt4. 

Mansfield, , 

Stansboiy, , . 

Sto^, , 

Salliran, , 

WUlaoa, , 


Young, , 




Lardner, , 

Parley, , 

Pierce, < 


Rollin, , 



Whelplej, , 




Qoldsnuth, (Pinnock,) . , 









Goodrich, , 





Willard, , 


Hedge, , 







QaUaudet, . 


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Containing a statement of all money g appropriated to academies from 
the lAterature F^nd h/ the Regents of the IMiversityyfor the pur- 
chase of books and philosophical apparatus for the use of sach aca- 
demieSf pursuant to the act of the Legislature relative to the dis- 
tribution and application of the revenue of said Fund, pasted Aprii 
22, 1834 ; such appropriation having heen made to sw:h academies 
only as had themselves raised by contributionj from sources other 
than their own corporate properly, funds eqwii to the amount so 
appropriated, to be expended in the same Tiumner, 

Time tohen granted. 

July 1, 1835, 

January 19, 1836, 
February S6, 
April 29, 
May 10, 

February28j 1837. 

March 31, 1837, 

May 16, 1837. 

September 1837, 

March 6, 1838, 

Jfames of Academies. 

, Lowrille, 

St. Lawrence, 


Albany Female Seminary, . 




Rensselaer Oswego, ...... 


Albany Female Academy, . 





Albany Female Academy, . 




Ontario Female Seminary,. 
Rocheeter High School, , . , 
Albany Female Seminary, . 

Albany Academy, 

Amenia Seminary, 



Clinton Liberal Institute, . . 

Oneida Institute, 


Albany Female Seminary, , 


1112 00 
160 00 

90 00 
260 00 
260 00 
260 00 
260 00 
250 00 
260 00 
250 00 
260 00 
S60 00 
260 00 
183 00 
260 00 
260 00 
250 00 
260 00 
200 00 
250 00 
250 00 
260 00 
100 00 

60 00 
125 00 
250 00 
250 00 
260 00 
250 00 

Carried forward,.. $6,270 00 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

No. 67-1 

No. 9 — (Continued.) 

Time lehea granted. 

January ]0, 1839, 

February 5, 

Hitdi 15, 

Febniai]r29, 1840, 

JVome* of jScaitmitt. 

Bro't forward, . 

Rochester High School, 

Albany Female Academy, 

De Ruyter Institute, 

Gouverneur High School, 


Troy Female Seminary, 




Amenia, , 

, Hamilton, 





Ontario Female Seminary, 

Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, 

Galvay, ,. 




Fulton Female Seminary, 





Black Rirer L. and R. Institute,. . 


Batavia Female Academy, 


Poughkeepsie Female Academy, . , 


Schenectady L. and A 


Fort Covington, 


Clinton Grammar School, 

Fulton Female Seminary, 

Eobart Hall Inatitute, 


Auburn Female Seminary, 


»6,270 00 
260 00 
260 00 
250 00 
100 00 
S»0 00 
260 00 
250 OO 
250 00 

63 00 
149 90 
200 00 
250 00 
250 OO 
250 00 
110 00 

20 00 
250 00 
260 00 
250 00 

50 60 
100 00 
100 00 
134 00 
250 00 

78 00 

75 00 
250 OO 
126 00 

94 26 
250 00 

62 64 

59 00 
50 00 
86 OO 

118 00 
100 00 
218 00 
65 00 
65 00 

60 00 
260 00 

Carried forward,. .|tl2,791 79 

Digitized by 



No. 9 — ^(CoSTIITTlED.) 


Titaewhea granted. 

Haich 31, 1840, 
May 18, 1841, 

JVoflMf of Academies. 

BroH forward,.. 
Seneca Falls, 
Gaines, . 
Phipps Union Seminary, . . . , 


Farmer's Hall 

Troy Female Seminary, 



Cambridge Washington, .... 





Redhook , 

Amenia Seminary 


Delaware Literary Inst 

Rutgers Female Institute, . . . 



MoriiTia Institute, 

Rensselaer Oswego, . . . . v . . 


Millville , 


Oneida Conference Seminary, 
Gouverueur Wesleyao Seminary . . . 
Cambridge Washington,. 

Utica Female 


Greenbush and Schodack 



Troy Female, , 

Genesee Wesleyan, 



Hohart Hall Institute, 

Carried forward,. .I$18, 836 S9 

!,791 19 
139 50 

63 OO 
160 00 

70 OO 

60 00 
300 OO 

40 00 
250 OO 
125 00 
100 00 

125 00 
51 00 

160 00 
30 00 
260 00 
60 00 
141 00 
250 00 
260 OO 
260 00 
260 00 
150 OO 
96 00 
250 OO 

too 00 

260 OO 
150 00 
260 00 
100 00 
60 00 
60 OO 
160 OO 
160 OO 
160 OO 
250 OO 
250 OO 
250 00 
160 OO 

126 OO 
150 OO 

, Google 

No. 57.] 


No. 9 — (CONTIMCED.] 

Tm* toAen granted. 

J^ames of Acadetmet, 


May 18, 1841; 

January 25, 1842, 
April 13, 1842. 

Bro*t forward, , . |18,836 29 

Kingsborough, 92 00 

Aurora, 250 00 

Troy, 250 00 

Buffalo Lit. and Scientific Academy, 100 00 

Le Roy Female Seminary, 75 00 

Stillwater, 101 00 

Gilbertsville A. and Coll. lost 250 00 

Essex County Academy, 50 00 

Livingston County High School, .... 106 00 

Union Literary Society of EUJEburgh 75 00 

Glen's Falls Academy, 260 00 

Coxsackie, 25 00 

Knoxville, 118 00 

Amsterdam Female Seminary, 350 00 

Delaware Academy, 250 00 

Cayuga, 22,00 

Augusta, 250 00 

Broclcport Collegiate Institute, 250 00 

Syracuse Academy, 206 00 

Lowville, 50 <i0 

Vernon, 100 00 

Oneida Conference Seminary, 250 00 

Black River Lit. & Relig. Inst 171 00 

Ontario Female Academy, 30 00 

QourerneurWesleyan Seminary,. .. 100 00 

Amenia Seminary, 220 00 

Troy Female Seminary, 250 00 

i22,976 29 





br U» Rwau- 

In the 

rear 1835^ 

tl,862 00 

»1,862 00 

$3 ,7m 00 



1,183 00 

1,183 00 

2,366 00 



2,110 00 

2,110 00 

4,220 00 



2,476 00 

2,476 00 

4,960 00 



4,049 16 

4,049 16 

8,098 30 



3,697 14 

3,697 14 

7,194 28 



4,337 00 

4,337 00 

8,674 00 



3,373 00 

3,373 00 

6,746 00 

122,976 29 

$22,976 29 

♦45,962 68 

The Regeots are in possession c^ testimony, duly authenticated, 
showing that the whole of the above amount has been devoted to the 
purchase of books and apparatus, with the following exceptions : 

Of the moneyB raised and granted in the 

year 1835, unaccounted for, |20 96 

" 1836, " 600 75 

" 1837, « none. 

" 1838, " none. 

" 1839, " none. 

" 1840, « 429 09 

« 1841, " 510 67 

« 1842, " 917 27 

*2,4T8 64 


No. 5r.] 


CmUtmmg extracti from the remarks stAmitttd by tht inuteeM or 
teaehert of Academies in their reports to the Regents of the ESm- 
«erri^, for the year 184S, on the peculiar modes of mthvcfion 
adopted oy Mem, and on other special matters relative to education. 

[Nan.—" Tha S«(enrt, 1> tUi and Id finmei nnuti, U 
■focDhtinTlaviof •da«ll«B,a*inll ■• oeMtunMltr 

tuT book* otDf modal ofinotiBotiaoi, donol 

odnlte" — ' ' — ■ -■—- J «^.»kii_ 

InpRKUtwtlieMiaDcnluid k 

M tbott OVD, tbo 0| 

nw4 penoBs onwlaroi Id uid&I InimcdaD, whidi ntB If it aono it 

koTeoobDioornuUtr tniDtitlD((ba>tt*DtloBoftboo«OD|uo4lDtbon 

jMmilau'of[aplBilDipi>iUaitst1wbaMiBlmeM*DfoaelMT; ut irbleh, It eo , 

ht Uiiint ukI moot olnct vtltitT, In dUTQolDt Ttlublo iBfonnoluo uumat Ibooe, who, bo- 
pncaeallT smnloro' in the bdilnm of iDUrnGtlon, mof make in Imnadlito lod benMelal 

HIT smnloTod in tl 
of tha tnovUdge 


GftAHUAR School of tbs Universitt of the Citt of New- 
Ydme. — The gTBinmar school was begun on the experiment of con- 
ducting a day school (for boys residing at home) od a new plan aa 
to its discipline. We received those pupils only, vhose parents 
would engage to co-opeiate vith us in the government of their sons- 
We have assumed that corporal punishment Tras the duty and pro- 
Tice of the parent. We supposed that the moral education of a ooy 
vas safe for himself, only while there was a perfect understanding 
between his parents, hia teachers, and himself. We have kept pa- 
rents fully informed of the moral and social history of their song 
while under our care ux hours of the day. We have invited paren- 
tal interpoution whenever the interests of a pupil or of the school 
wemed to call for it ; and where the parent has refused to co-operate 
with our discipline, we have declined the further care of the pupil. 
For six years our plan has worked well ; the results have more than 
folfilled our expectations. Parents, who care little or nothing for 
the moral habits or tempers of their sons, have sometimes thought 
OS troublesome, and have taken their sons from the school I but the 
general result has been a lively interest of parents in the education 
of their children, and a cordial co-operation with the school under 
this plan. It has often been our privilege to bring parents to a timely 
knowledge of dangerous tendencies in their sons, and sons to a saie 
and happy intercourse with their fathers. Our pupils leave us with 
feelings which di^ose them in after years to a grateful and friendly 
remembrance of tnar teachers and their alma mater. The coDse- 
([nence of our plan has been to give us the sons of well ordered fami- 
lies. Long periods occur in which no case of discipline calls for 
inore than a passing notice from the immediate teacher ; and quarrels 
of any land are extremely rare among nearly three hundred pupils. 

rSmateNo. 61.) S 


13S [Sksatk 

The dread of a private interview with his parent and teacher, or the 
altimate dismission or expulsion from the school, is found to have a 
stconger and Iiappier loHuence on the mind of the pupil, than any 
fear of school chastisement. 

To ensure diligent study, we have relied chiefly on vigorous in- 
struction and honorable emulation. Under proper guards, we have 
applied the strong stimulus of hourly competition in classes as nearly 
matched as possible. In a room of eighty boyS) fifty may be seen in 
a morning, an hour before the time, at voluntary work. We have 
watched this matter with solicitude, especially afler hearing learned 
and good men condemn it ; bat in six years we have not su&red any 
of the evil results so confidently jn'edicted. At this hour we do nor 
suspect one boy in the school of enmity towards his competitor ; not 
do we know one boy who has as enemy in the school. 

We have made large use of vocal music among one-half of our 
whole number of papils, as a daily study and exercise ; and after 
five years experience, we are convinced that all its effects are saluta- 
ry and conservative, whether they respect Character, temper or scho- 
larship. Being made the last exercise of the day, it becomes a grate- 
ful change of employment, and sends the boys home in a temper 
adapted to the social scene to which they are to return, and to the 
recreations of the last hoars of ibe day. , 

N. York Institution for the Instetjction oe thb Deaf aso 
Dumb. — In presenting to the R^ents the annual returns, the Board 
take occasion to say that they have, during the past year, carried in- 
to effect the design long cherished, of erecting a building for the ac- 
eommodatioo of the mechanical trades, for store-rooms and stable. 
The building in ita ground plan, is one hundred and forty feet long, 
and twenty-five feet wide, and in its elevation consists of a main 
building and two wings, the former three, and the latter two stories 
in height. 

All the male pupils in the intervals of study, work at one or the 
other of the following trades: 

Cabinet-Malting, Shoe-Making, Tailoring, Book-Binding and Gar- 

So lai^e a proportion of the pupils, however, are small boys, 
whose labor is unproductive, that the income from most of the trades 
is scarcely eqoal to the amount of expenditure. 

Ample iacillties are afforded to such of the female pupils as desire 
to learn dress-making and tailoring. 

The general health of the Institution has not been inferior to that 
of former years, although four of its inmates have been removed by 
death; three by diseases of the chest, and one from an affection of 
the spine. 

The receipts into the treasury, during the year, from all sources, 
amounted to 934,582.23} and the disbursements, $31,696.78, leav- 
ing a balance in the hands of the treasurer, of $3,985.45. 

In the intellectual department, the board have no change to re- 

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No. 67.J 139 

The numbet of pupils eoibraced in the last retarns was one hund- 
red and sixty-two. Duriog the year, twenty-eight have beeo admit- 
ted, sod thirty-six have left; showing, as by the foiegoing list, one 
hundred and fifty-four names. 

'Hiey are supported as follows: 

Kalai. FraalSf. TouL 

Pupils supported by the State of Mew-York, . . 66 51 117 

« " " Corporation of N. Y. 6 6 18 

" " « Institution, 2 7 9 

" " " State of New-Jersey, 4 16 

" « « their friends, 7 4 11 

Total, 86 69 154 

These are divided into nine classes, under Ike following officers of 
(he Institution, viz: 

Principal of the Butttution^ 



EiioxTn.LE AcAusuv. ^Extent of ISementary Siudiet. — From a 
want of the diTision of labor, less attention has been pftid to the ele- 
nentary studies than could be wished. Yet they have not been 
wholly neglected. Orthography is not attended to as a distinct and 
general exercise; but where opportunity is offered for exercising par- 
ticular classes, as English Grammar and Town's Analysis, it is im- 
proved, though in the ordinary way of " viva voce" spelling; which 
■cents to me to be only better than none. For it is a curious fact, 
that a [tersoD learning to spell in that way, learns to spell more by 
tbe ear than by the eye; so that he who spells correctly when gui- 
ded by sound, spells very indifferently when guided only by sight. 
This fact, because be could not attend to it in the manner he wished, 
lias led the principal to recommend, and insist on the use of a dic- 
tionary when composing either exercises for the school, or letters to 
Aiends; directing them never to jrue», but always to consult their 
standard, without hesitation, upon the lightest doubt. Where these 
directions have been followed, (as they have been in some cases,) the 
results have been highly gratifying; but those who follow them are 

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UO [Sbhatc 

not of the majority. Webster is our standard both in orthc^aphy 
and in pronunciation. 

All the students are exercised in reading every morning. We get 
more bad readert than bad spellers. Nor have we to contend so 
much with careless reading as with horrid, I had almost said ua 
earthly tones, drilled into the child at the common school, (and some- 
times at home] by making him " spealc up like a man." In correct- 
ing these tones, the principal has succeeded best, by directing the stu- 
dent to read a sentence, then asking him what be has read. He tells 
it, giring proper tone and emphasis. Bis attention is called to this 
fact, and he is required to go over it again in the same manner and 
note the difference. In the last place, he is asked to read just as be 
related it. The process is sometimes tedious, requiring several repe- 
titions, especial]; with lads of from ten to fourteen years of agej but 
the end intended has ^ways been gained. 

In arithmetic, while analysis is dwelt much upoO) learning the rules 
is considered wholly indispensible; no student is permitted to proceed 
without taking this, with us, absolutely necessary stepj and here, even 
with those who have taught for several winters, we fod a great defi- 
ciency, so that we are compelled to take those over the first parts of 
arithmetic, who came professedly to get a knowledge of the higher 
parts. The practice of cancelling both in fractions and in proportion, 
IS followed to its fullest extent. Examples are daily given on the 
bladcboard. Those who remain as permanent students, are required 
to pass over the whole subject several times, unless it be thoroughly 
understood. While particular pains are taken to have the subject 
thoroughly understood, strict attention is also paid to the manner of 
performing an operation^ all the slates being examined, and no stu- 
dent allowed to go through a process without making use of the pro- 
per signs. This is deemed 8 matter of no little importance, as arith- 
metic calculations are often laid by for future use. 



Canton Academy. — Gratuitout Irutruction. — ^There are no scho- 
lars admitted gratuitously in the said Academy, the trustees believ- 
ing that a proper spirit of independence and self-respect, on the part 
of students, would be injured by such a charitf distinction among 
scholars. But in all cases of indigent students who purpose to 
qualify themselves for teaching, and from their future wagts as 
teachers to pay their tuition, a liberal credit is given. 

The tuition is rated so low by the trustees, that few young per- 
sons are unable, on such terms, to pay their own tuition, perhaps 
none, who should pursue the higher studies. 

Galway Academy. — During the past year, no change was made 
in the text books, except by the introduction of Bullion's English 
and Latin Grammars, his Greek Grstnmar having been adopted years 
before. We have no hesitation in coinciding with the opinion so ge- 

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No. 57. j 141 

nenlly expressed, that the grammars as a whole, are decidedly the 
best in use either in EnglaDd or America. 

As usaal, the number of students of both sexes, that attended the 
Academy as prospective teachers, wasvery considerable. Every ef- 
fort was made, as heretofore, to realize for this important class the 
advantages, without the name of a teacher's department. Many 
left the instituUon with qualifications far above mediocrity, and by 
their mode of instruction have introduced substantial improvement 
into the neigfahnring schools. And yet, in the spirit of candor ^hich 
the nature of the subject demands, it must be confessed that this com- 
mendation is due relatively, rather than absolutely — i. e. in view of 
what teachers f;enerally are, rather than of what they ought to he. 
Even this cannot be said of all. There are those, and doubtless the 
same may be affirmed more or less of every stmilar institution in the 
State, who, attending for the first time, remain only two or tbiee 
mouths, a period scarcely sufficient for them to acquire their initia- 
tory lesson, viz; the necessity, first of all, of unlearning the very 
litUe they had learned so miserably amiss. Yet such present them- 
selves, and are accepted as teachers. How truly painful to reflect 
that individuals, thus qualified, are placed in situations in which they 
are made to dineminate, over a surface of almost indefinite extent, 
the seeds of ignorance, error end misconception, that must spring up 
and multiply a thousand fold. 

Such a state of things, all admit, calls for a remedy. The trus- 
tees are more anxious than ever to establish a teacher's department, 
which they consider eminently desirable, from the peculiar location 
of the Academy, and the wants of the surrounding country. Such 
departments no doubt enable aoademies to operate more beneficially, 
because more excludvely in behalf of teachers, than those destitute 
of such means; they are, and must be, advantageous as far as they 
go. Yet all they do or can accomplish, as now constituted, or rather 
perh^n as ther now operate, is little, compared with the exigencies 
of the case. The time, the means and appliances employed, are al- 
tt^ether inadequate to the momentous interests involved. They 
reach not the main evils they are intended to remedy, the defectt of 
Itacheri, which lie at the very foundation, the first principles of 
knowledge. " To render a atmmary for Uachen really vseftil, the 
instructor most go back to numeration and the ^, B, O, for it is 
Kere that the great deficiency lies." 

Remembering that, " as the twig is bent the tree's inclined," we 
had almost said that no means whatever could convert the existing 
generation of young men and women into teachers at all compe- 
tent for the work. They have passed the state of ttoigg in which is 
got the fatal bent, that determines the inclination of the tree. But 
the ingenious anali^ of the poet cannot be carried farther. And 
though it may he imposnhle wholly to eradicate, the effects of early 
edncation, yet those who suffer from these effects, may not only ho 
come sensible of their existence, but prove, as teachers, the most 
careful to guard against similar errors, the juvenile minds intrusted 
(o their culture and cere. 

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143 [Sbhatb 

All the evils connected simpl; foith teacherty may, it is preBntDed^ 
be briefly stated thus: 

Ist. Their defective qua) ifica lions. 2nd. Their youth and inex- 
perience. 3rd. The alternating system of males and females. 4tfa. 
The frequent changes of teachers. 6ih. Their inadequate compen- 
sation, and 6th. The fact that teaching is not a profession. 

Now these evils are all connected with, if not resulting from each 
other; and could any scheme be devised, remedial for one or two, it 
could not fail to do away with the rest. Thus, if the qualificatioo 
of teachers could be raised to the desired standard, their compensa- 
tion would rise also; changes would necessarily be less frequent; 
teachers of both sexes would be engaged for a lengthened period; 
teaching would become a profession, and youth and inexperience be 
excluded from situations so responsible. 

Vice verta, were adequate compensation held out as an induce- 
ment, teaching would at once be followed as a profession, a high de- 
gree of qualification be aimed at, as an object of ambition, or pre- 
requisite to success, while the changes and alternations of the pre- 
sent system would be done away, by constant employment and fair 
remuneration being furnished to teachers all the year round. 

It is not too much to anticipate that such results might, to a con- 
siderable degree, be brought about by the establisment of teacher's 
seminaries, a measure advocated by the most distinguished American 
writers on education, and to which new importance must be attached 
in this country by its having received the public official recommend- 
ation of such men as Col. Young and Dr. Potter of Union Collie. 
Nor is the sDccess of such institutions problematical. In the most 
enlightened states of Europe, Prussia, France, Holland, Great Brit- 
ain, they have been in operation for many years, and proved all that 
the friends of education could desire. The demand for teachers thus 
trained, has been uniformly greater than the supply, and the compen- 
sation has of course kept pace with the demand. The writer can 
state from his own personal knowledge, that such was the avidity 
with which teachers were sought for from the Normal school in Glas- 
gow, some six or eight years ago, that a young man's services were 
frequently engaged months before the time he could leave, or obtain 
his certificate of qualification. The salaries thus obtained were ex- 
cellent, and proved an inducement to many, who htid never dreamed 
of such a thing, to study teaching as a profession. Making the ne- 
cessary allowances for difference of country, would not the same 
cause produce similar results here ? Certain it is, that something is 
neetied of a character different from any plan hitherto adopted. 
" Aa institution is needed in which the students shall be dealt vjiih 
timply as teachers preparing for their work, and in which the lessons 
they daily receive in the theory of teaching, can at once be reduced 
to practice^ under the eye of an accomplished superintendant.*'* 

• 1lM8olno1brnr.Pi)U«r,Fa(aMe. 

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I Ko. 57.] 


Black RiysB Litsbast and Religious Institute. Declama- 
tionand Composition. — There are no objects of attention so universally 
dreaded as these; none which require more earnest efforts of the teach- 
er to secure compliance -with the regulations of the school. So great 
have we found the aversion to these branches of education^ that a 
considerable number of persons, we are assured, every year attenif 
select or common schools in preference to ours, for no other reason 
than the dread of being required to declaim and prepare composi- 
tions. An anna al pecuniary loss is thus incurred, of some importance 
to our financial prosperity. Declamation is more dreaded than com- 
position, and its importance is with more difficulty impressed upon 
the scholar. After all our efforts, with many students, declamation 
is so attended to as to be of scatcely any benefit. None but those 
who have some liking for it, ot some sense of its advantage, can be 
induced profitably to attend to it, while to many it is a source of 
QDConquerable disgust, and rather than compbi with the regulations 
of the Regents in this matter, they de«ert the institute and forego all 
its other advantages. JIfajr it not hecome a fair subject of inquiry 
with the RegeTits, whether U is not expedient no longer to require de- 
clamation as indispensibUj but to leave the matter to the discretion of 
the teacher. Composition should not be dispensed with; but in ma- 
ny cases, great gain rather than loss, would accrue from omitting the 
exercise of declamation. The greater part of those who attend with 
any interest to declamation, of their own accord connect themselves 
with a literary society, in which debating, declamation and composi- 
tion are regular exercises, one of the teachers generally acting as 
preading officer. If unwearied pains are not taken by the teacher, 
those who declaim will fall into the habit of speaking in an artificial 
manner, that will prove highly injurious to their future influence. 

Mode of Gmemment in the First Female Department. — The aim 
is to lead pupils as much as possible to govern tliemselves. Care is 
taken that they shall not feel that they are watched, or that they are 
suspected of an intention to do wrong. When new regulations are 
introduced, they are usually fully stated to the school, and each pu- 

fil it encouraged to express her opinion in some way concerning them. 
f there be much hesitation, they aie asked if they do not think the 
regulationswould tend to the improvement of the school, though they 
do not feel disposed to obey them. There is seldom a dissenting 
voice from what ig rights An appeal is then often made to their be- 
nevolence, and before the subject is dismissed they formally pledge 
themselves to the observance of the proposed regulations. If, after7 
wards, one is found remiss, the school is asked if she has done right 
or vnmg. They are thus led to place a high value upon each others* 
good opinion. 

JVo motives are heldotti to induce one to excel another. They seem to 
rejoice in each others' prt^ress in study and good behavior. If one sub- 
jects herself to reproof, the scholars are requested not to speak of it. 

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144 [Senate 

Every suitable occasion ta improved to impress them with regard for 
each others reputation. 

Unwearied pains are taken to eradicate those hdnts of art^cey 
which in many schools, are so popular among the pupils, but vhich 
detract so greatly from the simplicity and beauty of the female cha- 
racter. Attempts to deceive the teacher with regard to lessons and 
other exercises are so frowned upon, that it is seldom that a new scho- 
lar ventures a second time to brave the contempt of her associates. 

faults are reldom publicly noticed at the time, but in general in- 
struction the fault is described, and the opinion of the school is asked 
concerning it. If this is not sufficient, the young lady is spoken to in 
private. At the close of each day an account is given orally to the 
teacher, by each pupil, of the communications made, and of various 
other things affecting the good order of the school. 

The pupils have permission to ask any questions in wiitine con- 
cerning any matter of duty and propriety, and a portion of time is 
allotted weekly for the discussion of such questions. 

Hoto to lave timt. — Teachers often find great difficulty in main- 
taining order and stillness among their scholars. The latter must, 
indeed, be required to keep their' position, whether sitting or stand- 
ing, for a suitable length of time, but care should be taken not to 
violate the laws of the physical economy. They should have such re- 
creation at such intervals, and of such length as experience proves to 
be best adapted to the ends of education. The teacher should also 
occupy some portions of every day in the endeavor to interest lus pu- 
pils when they become weary or restless. The time thus employed 
IS not to be considered as thrown away — it will give the happiest re- 
sults. In proof of thisi position is presented the following account 
of the course pursued with a class of young lads from eight 
to nine years of age, by the teacher of our primary male depart- 

" In May, 1842, 1 had a class of youngs lads eight and nine years 
of age under my instruction, twelve in number. After arranging my 
classes and hearing them for a few days, I observed that those ooys 
became weary of their studies, notwithstanding the recreation allowed 
them in common with the whole department. 

To prevent a growing distaste to study and to the school room, I 
adopted the following plan to which they had not been accustomed; 
as soon as I saw uneasiness taking the place of study, I called them 
forward to the recitation seat, and related to them interesting anec- 
dotes about the settlement of this country — the war of the revolu- 
tion — the late war — Napoleon and Washington — St. Paul — ^incidents 
in scripture narrative, all interesting to any child when related in a 
manner level to its capacity. At other times I would question them 
concerning the anecdotes and incidents related previously. 

At length the inquiry was made, " can you tell me the use of 
wordst" An answer was promptly given. Placing my hand upon 
my desk, I asked "What is this?" "Desk," was the reply. 
" What does the word detk mean V jItu, " A thing to write upon.** 
** What is this V (holding up my knife in my hand.) " A knife.** 

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No. 57.J 145 

" What does this -word mean 1" .dfu, " A thing to make peas with," 
cried some. "A thing to whittle sticks vith," said others. Plac- 
ing mj hand on the bead of one of the boys, and asking, " who is 
HaV " William," was the reply. After other qaestions respecting 
the word William, I proceeded. " Well boys, you see here are three 
things, and three names, why not call them all by one oamel" ,^u. 
" Because they are different, and no one will know which we mean." 

" Now, if you will remember it, I will tell something about words 
that you have not known before." Every ear was awake, as if great 
interests were pending upon that moment. 

" The names of things, as knife, table, Sec. are called nouns." 
" John, can you tell what a noun is?" ,^m. " Names of things, as 
knife, &c." cried half a dozen. After this exercise, which usually 
lasted from five to fifteen minutes, the scholars were permitted to re- 
sume their own seats, when I invaiiably found them as willing to study, 
as at any previous period of the day. When they again became 
weary, resort was had to the same, or a similar exercise, when the 
several kinds of nouns, their gender, number, and case were present- 
ed. Thns, during a term of eleven weeks, this young class were 
made capable to distinguish the part of speech to which any word 
within their comprehension belonged, without reference in a single 
instance, to any author, and without spending a moment's time t£at 
would not otherwise have been lost, and worse than lost. 

The benefits of this course were two fold. First, the scholars 
were interested and kept in good order, and prepared for the advan- 
tageous nse of their books. Second, a habit vras formed of occupy- 
ing every leisure moment in the acquisition of useful knowledge, a 
habit of incalculable benefit. At the close of the following term of 
eleven weeks, they were able to parse any simple prose sentence; 
then Bullions' English Grammar was put into their hands, and made 
a regnlar study. In about five weeks they were able to correct a 
good share of the examples of false Syntax therein contained. 

By attending to young scholars in some such way as that detailed 
above, a teacher may save an immense amount of time in the course 
of a yearj may preserve good order in his school room; interest and 
and please, as well as instruct, and be of incalculable benefit to his 

senting our second annual report, we are highly gratified to state the 
continued and growing prosperity of this institution. The number of 
students has greatly increased, both in the aggregate, and compared 
with the respective terms of the preceding year. 

During the first term, the whole number of students was 135, and 
upvrards of 100 for each remaining term. Seventy students who 
have been connected with us during the year, have been during some 
portion of the year, or are now, engaged in teaching. 

During the fall term, a course of lectures were delivered by the 
Principal to a large class of students, who were preparing to teach 
common schools; and so far as information has been received from 
[Senate No. 57.] T 


146 [aaouxE 

those studoiti, they ue conducting their B^oola with flattering sac- 

During each term of the past year, a class in Latin Grammar has 
been o^anized, embracing all those pursuing Latin studies, for the 
purpose of gaining a more accurate and critical knowledge of thelan- 
guage, than is obuioed in the usual study of the Qrammar; the class 
being additional to, not superceding, the regular grammar classes. 

Students in Cicero and Horace, have been required to present fre- 
quent translations ia writing, thus leading them to acqiure the habit 
of reading those authors with ease and flnencvt giving perspicttons 
and intelOgible translations^ while in their daily recitations, the ob- 
ject is to elidt an accurate and literal translation of the text. 

The exercises in declamation and composition, have been attended 
with unusual interest and dedded improTement; a large portion of 
the students regarding them as of great utility, and as a privil^e, 
rather than an irksome task. 

We have also adopted the practice of keeping a daily record, and 
making a weekly report of the retutatioos of each student, noting also 
their absence from their classes, end from the general ezerdses of the 
school. This report is read weekly before the school, and at the 
dose of the term, the aggregate of the weekly reports is read. 

This system has exerted a highly beneficial influence over the 
school, securing a very general and punctual attendance upon the va- 
rious ezerdses of the school, and proving a strong incentive to dili- 
gence and accuracy, in the commiauon of their respective lessons. 


LrvHTGSTow CoDMTT HioH ScBooL. — During the past year, a class 
consisting of thirty-five young gentlemen and ladies intending to 
teach, have received particular mstniction, all of whom, (with two 
or three exceptions,) are now successfully engaged in teaching^ with 
compensations, varying fVom fourteen to twenty-two dollars per 
month and board. Although many Composing this class, bad pa»ed 
from the lower to the higher branches, it was thought advisable, in 
order to thoroughly prepare them for teaching the branches prescri- 
bed by the Regents of the University of the State, to have them a se- 
cond time exercised in the very first elements (as it were) of an edu- 
cation. For this purpose, the whole class were daily employed in 
reading, spelling, defining, and the analysis of the sounds of letters. 
Talcing Dr. Webster's standard, ibvariably as our standard of conect 
orthography and orthoepy. The method pursued in the analysis of 
letters, was in some degree our own. In addition to the classing of 
the letters in a word — defining their respective sounds — showing 
whether the word is a monosyllable, dissyltoble, trisyllable, or poly- 
syllable — whether it is primitive, derivative, simple or compound — 
which syllable is accented — by what figure defined — and how pro- 
nounced} the student was required during the analytical process, to 
apply each definition, in its respective order. In pursuing this meth- 
od, we found the study of orthography, to pais from an unmeaning 

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No. 67.] 147 

and idkwme exercue, to that of an interesting and pleanng employ* 
ntent. Next in or4er, the clan were exeroHed in the studv of giam- 
Dur. Great exertions were made, to have this most useAil ana pop- 
ular branch, tharimghly anderatood. Wdl knowing, that many b^ 
loDging to the class, miist aecessarily meet in the course of th^ 
teaching, with text-books difiering in some rei^ects, materially fron 
those used in the Academy, all were required to make themselTes ac- 
quainted mth die pecaliarities of all Ae mogt p<^ular works now in 
nse. lo puaing, suitable defer^ce wag given to all printed authori- 
ties, yet n<Hie was regarded as infallible. Eadi student was encoor- 
aged to oSer his own opinion, and the reasons for it. These optH- 
ions were then discwsed, aid either establi^ed or confuted. £very 
one was permitted, and frequently called upon, to ask as many que»- 
tions relative to Uie study in whichhewBsengaged,as be might think 
proper. In pursning the above course, mostof theclassnot only be- 
came good pnctica) grammarians, but in some ^gree critical. Geo- 
cra[^y ana history were ttnight in connecti<». Each acholar, in 
faia torn, was required to draw from imaginatioD upon the blackboard, 
the outUnes of the country which might happen to be included in his 
lesson. This was followed by the explanation of the globes — the 
cosatroction of maps, and with aevcral lectures on physical geogra- 
phy. Penmanship and book-keeping received conudexeble attention. 
Experience having taught us, that m penmaDship, a free and open 
band could not be acquired without first practisbg upon the very 
fiist elements of the course, specutl pains wwe taken to instruot 
each member of the class in the art of making pens — to r^;ard his 
po«ti<») at the desk — and to practice upon the larger text, until a 
Goirect taste and an easy movemoit of die hand should be acquired. 
In mathematics, the course was as diorough and extoisive as the 
time and ability of the pupil would permit. Commencing with Col- 
bun's admirable little woric on mental arithmetic, the whole class 
were rigidly exercised, mentally, and upon the blacjcboard, until each 
became tboroughly ecquauted with the principles and various modes 
of operation is the science of numbers. Nor did the student's matb- 
cnutical course stop here; Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, Astro. 
Bomy, Surveying, and the natural soiences in their proper order, re- 
ceived frcHD jnoet of the students a pnuier degree of attention. 

SEYMOUilMESSER,£nf. Teacher. 


Watkbixio AcucKr. — Orthography, Reading, Geography, Wri- 
ting and the elementary part of Arithmetic, caB be most easily acqui- 
red in youth. They are well adapted to the powers of tbe unfolding 
intdleGt: for the pow'er of imltatioa and remembrance, upon which 
these prunary studies depend, ts greatest previous to the full develop- 
nent of the reflective faculties. 

Spelling depends entirely upon observation and ^ memory; hence 
the great difficahy in leaming the oombinations of letters in words 
^ the age of childhood has passed. Those who obtain this taIu- 


148 [SxirATE 

able accomplishment at an earl; age, never lose it; aod those who 
do Dot, seldom, if ever, by the greatest perseverance, learn to spell 
veil. From this fact, we leam that nature directs the best order for 
studies to succeed each other, and demands that each subject should 
be thoroughly mastered before the pupil should pass tn another. As 
the child grows aud the mind expands by tboiougb drilling in the 
primary, more severe branches of study should succeed. 

All the recitations in the three upper departments are one hour 
long, which enables the teacher to be careful aod particular in hear- 
ing them. A fluent recitation of an author, is not all that should be 
required of the student. The subject should be entirely dissected, 
and all its features fully delineated. Truth, and not sentiment, is 
the gem to be sought; and it is usually so deeply buried in the au- 
thors peculiar opinions, as to make it difficult to be discovered, ex- 
cept by a careful analysis. The most important use of the recutation 
room is lost, when the lesson is hearil in the shortest time possible, as 
is the case in too many schools and academies. The teacher should 
unfold all the principles involved in the subject, explain its collate- 
ral truths, and alvrays point out their application to useful purposes 
in life. 

Females attending the Academv, enjoy the retiremoit of an isola- 
ted female seminary, being entirely separated from the male students 
by the excellent construction of the building; and yet receive the 
advantages of reciting, in the two higher departments to tb« male 
teachers. This arrangement tends to give energy to the female 
mind without any injury to the pursuit of those accomplishments ne- 
cessary to a finished female education. A pleasant and profitable 
competition is usually excited between the two sexes in the same de- 
partment of study, and good order preserved by the natural restraint 
which is ever found to exist in such a society. In this way, the male 
mind is refined, and the female intellect invigorated. In compou- 
tion, it creates an ambition to excel each other, which, while it does 
not destroy friendlv feeling, is highly beneficial; and its results are 
fally acknowledged by large aod attentive audiences on each Wed- 
nesday afternoon. 

All the useful branches of education from the simplest elements to 
the higher branches of study, can be pursued; yet no pupil will be 
permitted to pass superficially over primary studies for the purpose 
of entering the higher departments. In the selection of studies, re- 
ference should be made to the capacity and to the future vocation of 
the student. There is a great amount of unavailable educated capi- 
tal in this country: rendered so by either superficial or misdirected 
acquirements. The same studies cannot be adapted to all the differ- 
ent employments of life. In this respect, our Collegiate system is 
evidently very defective. Candidates for the different professions, 
for commercial, mechanical and agricultural life, are compelled to 
pursue the same course of study, or forfeit the honors, perhaps the 
privileges of the College. If young men who design to enter upoa 
commercial pursuits, could have a course of study equally well adapt- 
ed to the development of mind, and yet increase their knowledge of 

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No. 57.J 149 

the principles upon which they are to transact their business, it would 
much improye that honorable and useful calling. It is the same with 
regard to mechanic duties. Let the study of architecture in its end- 
len rariety, be added to a more extended course of mathematics and 
philosophy, and soon this exalted branch of industry would rise in 
importance, and greatly promote the bappifiess of society. If this 
position be true, the pupil should, .as soon as he has decided upon his 
future occupation, be directed to such studies, in preference to oth- 
ers, as will best qualify him for its peculiar duties. Such a course 
will tend to make men more useful and eminent in all the diverufied 
pursuits of life. In this country, all industiious and useful vocatioDs 
are honorable, and shouJd receive aid in our systems of education. 

All the students spend one hour in each day in an elocutionary ex- 
ercise. They receive a gymnastic training of the voice, by expell- 
ing sounds, which imparta sweetness and variety to its intonations. 
All the graces of refined elocution, including a correct pronunciation, 
are taught. 

The male students are divided into three classes, one of which pre- 
sents e skeleton of a subject, which is corrected and returned to be 
vrritteo out and furnished as a composition for the next week; an< 
other class furnishes a composition which is read before the teacher 
and criticised; and the members of the third class declaim in private 
before one of the teachers, with criticisms. The ladies are divided 
into two classes, each of which alternate in fumishiDg a skeleton and 
a fMmpositian. These exercises are in private each Saturday fore- 
noon. The compositions are carefully corrected and returned, and 
after being copied are read in public on the next Wednesday after- 
noon, in connection with declamation. A large number of spectators 
ttsoally bear testimony to the efficacy of this plan in securing good 
preparations and excluding all improprieties. 

The students assemble at 8 o'clock in the morning, and aHer a por- 
tion of Scripture is read, and prayer, recitations commence, and are 
held hourly until 12 o'clock, lley recommence at 1 o'clock, and 
continue until 4 o'clock. In the summer, recitations will be held af- 
ter tea- 


Rochester Coujgiate Institute. — ^The Principal respectfiilly 
sabmits the following remarks. 

In the Institute the teachers have attempted to carry out a thorough 
system of instruction. In Latin and Greek,' great effort has been 
made by the associate Principal, N. Brittan, in the drilling of the 
cloaKs in the grammars of the languages. 

In teaching the reason of the rules for the extraction of roots in 
Arithmetic, we have relied entirely on the arithmttical demonstra- 
tion, to the exclusion of squares and cubes, for the Snd and 3rd 
roots. Indeed, where the purely arithmetical method is so much 
the easier, plainer, and more natural, it is tdngular that it should be 
generally unknown, and the more dimcult ones by means of geome- 
trical figures be resorted to. We are not in tbe practice of the me- 

y Google 

IfiO [Sekatk 

tfaod in Perkins' Higher Arithmetic, by separating a nnoDber into its 
equivalent parts, as 46 into 4044, and then squariog that niunber 
under that form. This ia nearlv aa blind to most pupils, a« if it 
was all algebra, as it is the algebraic-arithmetico method. But we 
take the foUowing course with a number, aa 46. First, square it, 
keeping all the products distinct and in their proper places, thns: 

jg Here it is seen that 16 in hundredths 

^g place is the greatest square in the left 

^ hand period, and its root 4, ia tenths 

-- place, the square of which exhausts the 

2^ 1600. 

24 ' The next two are S4intenthsplace, and 

. g ' the ej|e sees that the two 24 are composed 

_ " of twice 4 into 6. If we double 4, and 

^2116^4 niake it 8, and by it divide 51, the qao- 

'.g ^ Uent most be 6, the next figure of the 

root; and we see that 8 times 6, in traths 

g.g place, and 6 times 6 in units place, moat 

exhaust the power, from the manntr im 
wA*c& the power it produced. It is obvious, that the rule is only the 
reverse of the process by which the power is formed. 

The advantage of this method is that it is wholly etithinttiealf and 
far more easily comprehended by students, thui that by squares, pa- 
rallelt^rams, cabea and parallelopipeds. 

The rule for extracting the cube 
root is equally well derived. 
46 Here it is seen that 64 ia the whole 

46 (^ the cube ia the left hand period, 

— and the root 4. If square 4 and 

36 multiply the square by 3, as a di- 

S4, visor of the three 96', it must give 

S4, 6 for the next figure of tiie root. 

16,, The next figures are thrice 144, 

whidi is made up of 6*x4>^, and 

46 must be this part of the rule. The 

last is 216, Uie cube of 6, the last 

216=6* figure. 

144,^3l>^* Sucbisa brief view of this mode 

144,=i^>c6* of demonstrating the rule for the 

% , ,=k4*><6 roots- It may be carried on for the 

144,^34x6* still higher powers. A short ezs- 

96,,=a4*x6 mination wul show the excellence 

96,,=»4*x6 of the method. A more full view 

64,,, ^al* of the rules is found in the later 

— editions of Pike's Arithmetic, 8to. 

97336 The first exhibition of this method, 

that I ever saw, was by G. S. 
Olds, then Professor of Mathematics in Williams College. 

It should be noticed that the name of Rev. Charles F. Soldao, 
aged 39, and educated at Salle, who teaches German in our Aoa- 

Digjtized by 


Ko.67.] 151 

demy, waa omitted in the list of teschen. He receives only the 
pay from his pupils. 

Krading of the ScriptureB mi prayer is the daily opening of tlua 
Academy, and sometimes sacred music 

The Ecnenil state of the institute is rery good. 







From the reports of the teveral ^cademiet tn which dtpartmenta for 
the instruction of teachers have been established. 


Of Academies endowed by the Regenttfor the abooe purpose. 


MoKTOOHERT AcADGHY, {Ofonge couatj/.) — The department was 
organized by a resolution of the board of trustees, oa the third day 
of February, 1835. 

The sum of $309 was received from the Regents of the Univera- 
ty on the &th day of April, 1836, for the first endowment of the de- 
partment. This sum has been expended in the purchase of appara- 
tus and maps, which are in good condition and still on hand. For a 
detailed account of which me trustees and prindpal beg leave to 
refer to their report of 1835-6. 

That Rev, Jonathan Huntingdon has been employed on account of 
the department, and is allowed $250 for six months, teaching five 
daTE each week. 

The amount of expense incurred on account of department, is 
$342. The amount of tuition received, $40.00. The chaise Cor 
tuition for those who belong to the department, is a mere fracUon. 
Some prefer paying a small sum, and some two or three a full chai^ 
per quarter. 

We have established the principle to make no charge for tuition, 
at least as long as the appropriation from the Regents will cover the 
expense, or the most of it. 

Applicants have been examined on English Grammar, on Arithme- 
tic and reading. The declaration of the applicant, or the declaration 
of the parents, that they intend to follow common school teaching 

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No. 67.] 163 

Bt least two yean after they hare left the departmeDt, is the only 
evidence required. This field of labor is the " Empire State." 

For a statement of the subjects of study pursaed, and the text books 
used, the trustees would respectiiilly refer the SuperintenHent of 
Common Schools to their last annual report from their common 
school department. A department for the education of common 
school teaicbers, has been maintained in this institution since the first 
day of May, 1836. The whole number of pupils admitted into this 
department, have been fifty-fire. A large majority of this number, 
hare, or still are engaged in teaching common schools. Two havft 
been dismissed, two have died. A few, af^er teacbiog a short time, 
have turned their attention to other occupations. Several persons 
have succeeded so well, that they have not had time to return to com- 
plete their intended course. 

The whole number of students who have belonged to the depart* 
meat during the year, and the number of weeks each pupil has at- 
tended, is SI. 

Circumstances have rendered it necessary that we should depart 
from the precise course, as given in the late instructions from the 
R^ents of the University, in regard to the particular time in which 
this department for common school teachers should be open for the 
reception or admission of pupils. 

The time allotted or named, is between the 16th of May, and the 
15th of December, in each year. We keep open the department the 
entire year, and twve pledged ourselves to the public, that we will 
take uiy young man or woman, (who is desirous of qualifying him- 
self or herself for teaching in common schools in the State of New- ' 
York,) into this department at any period of either session, and fur- 
nish them tuiticHt and text-books yVee of am/ charge. Some young 
men and women are better quaufied to teach in summer than in 
winter. During summer our schools are filled with small children and 
those less advanced in knowledge, than in winter. This tact furnishes 
a good opportunity for the timid aitd inexperienced to test their know- 
l^ge and qualifications. In winter these same persons return to the 
institation, and make up the deficiencies discovered in teaching the 
previous summer. Others are forced to leave the institution for 
want of the pecuniary means, which they wish to procure by teach- 
ing a common school, and you will see, that should we have con- 
formed strictly with the directions and instructions of the Regents of 
University, tlUt ipust necessarily here cut c^ many, whom the de- 
partment can in this way benefit. The department is intended to 
iNDefit the cause of common school education, and I have pursued 
that coarse, which, in my humble opinion, will afford the greatest 
advantages to this great national and social question — common tcHool 
tdueation. I have taken this course irrespective of the prt^s or 
louts in a pecuniary point of view, believing, that an intelligent 
community, and the fostering supervision of the Regents of the Uni- 
Ternty, will sustain a cause so intimately interwoven with all our 
social and domestic relations, as well as identified with the stability, 
safety and glory of our civil and religious institutions. 
[Smate No. 57.J U 


IM [Sbuh 

With due deference to the opmiona of the Regents of the UiUTer 
Bity, in the matter of text books, I beg here to differ from tbem- 1 
portioD of the books selected by the Regents for their common school 
departments are good and very appropriate, but the larger portion 
will not answer our purpose; beaidea they have omitted to send iu 
any books for some of the most important branches taught in the de- 
partment. We need a good work on English Grammar, the analysis 
of th& English Language, on the Geography of the World, on tbe 
Elements of Arithmetic. Mr. Perkins* work is first rate, but 
rather designed for advanced scholars. Willett's Geography is not 
adapted for the department. We have more copies of Uphun's 
Mental Philosophy than necessary, but it is a superior work. More co- 
pies of De Tocqueville's Democracy than needed as a text book. 
Several of these might be exchanged, and tbe same of Tytler's Ao- 
cient and Modem History, for suitable works on Grammar, Arith- 
metic and Geography, but this can only be done by the content of 
the Rtgetita. I have furnished at my oum exptTue, during the past 
year, all needed works on English Grammar, Arithmetic, analysii of 
the English Langnage. I herewith send you one of out circiuars, b 
copy of which Iplaced in every school district in this county. I 
hope it will prove good seed, from which the conoty may reap an 
abundant harvest. I am also lecturing twice a week on the subject 
of common school education, in every school district in this coaoty. 

I am fully satisfied that the people are waking up to the subject 
of education. Many of them begin to feel that each American dti- 
zen is a co-partner in this matter, and that to educate all is the best 
political ^onomy for the entire community. Every dollar judi- 
fuously expendeci for education, not only advances social happuess 
and national prosperity, but saves double that sum by diminishing 
crime and pauperism, and thus saving the community froin onerous 

I am fully convinced that the standard of common school educa- 
tion is raising in this section of the country, and tbe question " how 
cheap wilt you teach," is now exchanged for the question, "how 
much do you know, and what can you teachi" The practice of 
meeting the people in their respective districts and lecturing in a fa- 
miliar manner on their (^parent neglect of education, on the errors 
existing and the appropnate remedies ior their removal, is attended 
with most gratifying results, and augurs well for the r^eneration of 
our common school education. 

JACOB C. TOOKER, Prmcipai. 
Board of ISmstta. 

Deeember 30, 1842. 


So. 57.] 166 


KiHDEKHOOK AcADEMY, {Columbia county.) — The Trustees and 
PriDcipal of the Kinderhook Academy, established at Kinderhook in 
the county of Columbia, submit the following annual report, respect- 
ing the depaitment for the education of teachers of common schools, 
established in their institution for the year ending October 20, 1842. 

The candidates for teachers are dispersed through three depart- 
ments, according to age, sex, &c. and are taught chiefly by the teach- 
ers of the department in which they are received; but the trustees 
would represent, that the services of Mr. George Van Santvoord, were 
retained for the last half of the year mentioned in their report, to 
enable the Principal to give more of his time to the teacher's clfus, 
than would otherwise be in his power. Half year's salary of Mr. 
Van Santvoord, $200. 

The number attending at the date of the report, October 20, 1842, 
was fifteeo. 

Not having reported any regularly pledged members last year, or 
since the new organization of the department, of course we do not 
report any as having been heretofore connected with the department: 
but of those who have attended during the past year, 

3 have attended, one half quarter, 11 

6 " one quarter, 6 

4 *' one and a half quarters, 6 

7 " two quarters, 14 
1 *' two and half quarters, SI 
1 " three quarters, 3 
7 " four quarters, 28 

Total, 29 pupils. 61 quarters. 

A department for the education of teachers of common schools has 
been kept open during the whole year mentioned in our report. We 
have found it impracticable to confine the operation of the depart- 
ment to the summer term, as it would exclude many who can best 
attend in the winter. We therefore present to the community the 
nme inducement to join the department in the winter as in the sum- 

A teacher's department was originally established in this academy 
in 1835, and has been kept open since that time. The number of 
persons who have heretofore been connected with this department, 
and who have become practical teachers, is not definitely known^ 
bat it is believed that about two-thirds of the whole number have 
^tent a portion of time in the business of teaching. 

The examination of candidates for this department has been about 
the same as is usually required for receiving a certificate from the 
town inspectors. Those advanced in years, whose early advantages 
were limited^ have manifested a much greater degree of ignorance 
than younger persons, who have been kept more closely at tchool. 
Od this account} we have deemed it for the mterest of the department 

, Google 

1&6 fStBtn 

not to exclude applicants for adnisnon, on account of their age, per- 
suaded that of the young persons vho, from indigence, are iodund 
to apply for the benefits of the department, a greater portion will 
become teachers, than of older persons who have had greater oppor- 
tunities of judging for themselres. 

The proficiency of pupils is so different, that it is impossible to 
bring all to the precise course of study prescribed by the Superintend- 
ent of Common Schools, in his written instructions: but we have en- 
deavored to follow the spirit at least of the directions. We have 
taken unwearied pains to render the members of the dM)artmeDt 
thoroughly acquainted with the principles of English Gramniar, 
Arithmetic and Orthography, believing that no amount of skill in 
other branches, will compensate for a deficiency here. 

We also attach great importance to Reading, and have frequent 
and stated exercises in this elementary branch of education. 

Penmanship is one of the post showy as well as one of the most 
useful branches of education; and the common school teacher wbo 
fails of securiug an elegant hand-writing, (ails in that which strikes 
the eye of every beholder at the first glance, and produces a power- 
ful impression. 

Our students still have the benefit of Mr. Carter's instructjon ia 
. penmanship; and a large number of tbem avail themselves of his skill 
and perseverance. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

Pruident of KinderAoek Acaitm^. 

Kindtrhook Mademy, Dec. ISM, 1842. 

Delaware Academy, (Ddaaart county.) — ^Tbe Trustees and 
Principal of the Delaware Academy, established at Delhi, in the 
county of Delaware, submit the following annual report, respecting 
the department for the edncation of teachers of common schools, es- 
tablished in their institution. 

The instructers employed exclusively on account of the department 
were two, viz: Robert F. McAuley, A. B., compensation |66.00; 
and Charles H. Andms, compensation, $66.00. Mrs. Emeline P- 
Ten Broeck has also been employed, though not exclusively on ac- 
count of the department, (being one of the regular teachers in the 
academy.) She has given instruction in drawing, &c. to the members 
of the department; salary increased from the opening of the depart- 
ment to 976.00. 

The department has been entirely under the care and instruction 
of the Pnncipal of the Academy, and the gentlemen above named 
have taken the place of the Principal in hearing the recitatiims that 
would otherwise devolve on him. 

The expense actually incurred daring the year on accoont of, or 
occanoned by, the department over and above what the institution 
would have expended if no department bad been eatabUsbcd, vrould 

db, Google 

No. 67.] 157 

thus amount to $187.00, besides the Inition fees of all the members 
of the department, which, by a vote of (he trustees, have been en- 
tirely remitted. 

Nothing has been recaved or charged for tuition of students be- 
lon^ng to this department. 

All the students of the teacher's depactment, in addition to the 
studies above spedGed, have been regularly exercised in orthogiapby, 
punctuation, use of the capital letters and composition, and the males 
in declamation. The engagement required of the pupils to become 
teachers, has been exacted, though without the guaranty of another 
person. The treatise or Grammar used, is Greenleaf's; on Geogra^ 
phy, Olney's, on Arithmethic, Daboll's; as mo&c used in the common 
schools in the county, though other works are constantly referred 
to, and the comparative merits of each discnssed. The members of the 
department have occasionally aided the younger classes in their stu- 
dies, yet no regular system of instruction has been adopted in which 
thepupils of this department have engaged. 

The number of students who have belonged to the department 
during the year, is Ifi. The time of the attendance of each, as spe- 
cified in the accompanying ibt, the number actually attending at the 
close of the tenn, which was immediately before the date of the re- 
port, was four; the others, or most of them, having commenced their 
winter schools. 

The number of those in the department, who have heretofore be- 
longed to it, is four. They have been connected with the depart- 
ment two terms. 

The whole time a department has bet^ maintained in this iustitn- 
tion is two terms. The number of pupils admitted the first year was 
19; the second year 16. 

Of the 19 students reported as belonging to this department for 
the year 1841, all except one, namely, Walter W. Sherwood, have 
been subsequently engaged in the business of teaching cnmmon 
schools; the males havmg taught during the winter, and the females 
during the summer season. The average time of the continuance of 
sud schools was about 4 months. 

Genera/ Observatums. — Examinations of the applicants for admis- 
sion have been made in strict conformity to the " instructions" from 
the Superintendent of Common Schools. A majority of the appli- 
cants had been employed previously in the busioess of common 
school instruction. In Geography they were generally well versed. 
In Arithmetic they evinced a good practical knowledge, but were 
very deficient in what may be termed the theory of the science. Aod 
vhen they literally followed the rule of any author, they were often 
profoundly ignorant of the more important principle on which it was 
based. In Grammar, they were not generally versed in the princi- 
ples of our language, and they possessed a mechanical method of 
syntactical parsing, yet the reatimt were but imperfectly understood, 
or altogether unknown. Eut the most apparent defects were ob- 
served in orthography, and what is generally termed dtmmtary 
friaeiptet. With the knowledge of these facts in advance, it has 

, Google 

168 [Seitatk 

been the object of the trustees and principal to remedy the defects as 
far as possible. And the principal has adapted his mode and kind 
of instruction accordingly. 

The course of studies prescribed by the Superintendent in his in- 
structions has been carefully pursned, so far as the proficiency of the 
students and the time allotted to study would warrant. 

There have been daily recitations and exercises by the mem- 
bers of ihc department, accompanied with familiar lectures and piuc- 
tical illustrations by the principal. The students have been re- 
quired to write sentences and propose difficult questions, which any 
of the class were permitted to correct or answer. In short, our ob- 
ject has been first to impart a thorough knowledge of each branch 
pursued; and secondly, the best method of imparting knowledge to 
others. We are confident that an interest has been awakened in the 
common schools of our county, which was apparent in our recent 
"educational convention," and is more substantially evinced by an 
increased desire for better qualified teachers. 

PreiideTit of Board of TYtatees. 
Prmdpat of Ddavmrt Academy. 

DelMy Dec. 15, 1842. 


Washhtgtom Academy, ( WatMngl<m co«n^.)~ The Trustees and 
Principal of Washington Academy, established at Salem, in the 
county of Washington, submit the following annual report, respect- 
ing the department for the education of teachers of common schools, 
established in their institution. 

At the commencement of the summer term of the Academy, May 
9th, the trustees committed this department, together with the 
other department of the Academy, to the care of Rev. James H. 
Carruth, and Miss Lucy L. Smith, and during the fall term of 16 
weeks, in order to give the Principal more time to attend to the sta- 
denta in this department, Mr. Henry R. Pierson was employed for 
one-balf of each day for the sum of $50. Mr. P. would not have 
been employed, but on account of this department. 

During the fall term of the Academy, the students in this depart- 
ment have been formed into a class by themselves, under the instruc- 
tion of the Principal, who has also taught them in English Gram- 
mar, Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, Surveying, Abercrombie 
on the Intellectual Powers and Botany; also in Arithmetic dun^ 
the summer term, and in Chemistry during the fall term. Miss S.. 
has taught them in General History and Watts on the Mind, and 
during the summer term in Philosophy and Chemistry, there being 
then only young ladies attending to those studies. 

Mr. Pierson has taught them during the fall term in Arithmetic 
and Natural Philosophy. 

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No. 57.J 159 

In the Teacher's class, the subjects of attention have been Gew- 
nphy, particularly that of our own State; the Constitution of this 
State and the United States; the analysis of the sonnde in our Lan- 
guage, punctuation, abbreviation, prosody, tbe principles of the 
rules in Arithmetic, and some plain and familiar lectures on teach- 
iBg. The srudents in tbe department have tvritten compositions onc« 
in two weeks, and the young gentlemen hare declaimed on the alter- 
nate weeks. 

Tbe expense incurred on account of this ilepartment, orer and 
ebove what the institution would hare expended if this department 
bad not been established, cannot be told with perfect accuracy. It 
consists of the wages of Mr. F. $60, and so much of tbe compensa- 
tion of the other teachers, as tbe trustees would not have had to pay 
if this department had not been establisbed. This is $150. Also a 
portion of the difierence between tbe amount of tuition money 
charged to members of this department, and what tbey would have 
paid bad this department not existed; for most of them living in 
town would probably have amended and paid full tuition. 

The amount charged to students in this department is,. $34 00 
The amt. at the usual rates of tuition here, would have 
been, 91 00 

Difference, $60 00 

Gentlemen are charged per academic term, $S 00 

Ladies " " " 1 60 

Other students pay for common English branches, .... 3 00 

« " higher " ....- 5 00 

Tbe whole number belon^g to the department this year is e^h- 

The number now in the .department is *ight. 

The number who have been members of tbe department hereto- 
fore, is as follows, viz: four. 

Tbe statement of those who have applied for admission into the 
department, respecting the amount of their previous studies, has 
been relied on as evidence of their fitness or otherwise without a for- 
ma) ^camination. A few had not gone quite so far in Arithmetic as 
required, but being otherwise qualified were admitted. The deport- 
ment and prepress of the students in the department generally, has 
been good. The department has been brought to conform more 
nearly to the directions of tbe Superintendent, than heretofore, but 
not entirely; nor so much as probably hereafter, should tbe depart- 
moit be continued. Owing to the pressure of other duties on tbe 
Principal, tbe written pledge was not presented to the students at 

the opming of the department; afterwards one wasunwillmgto nsn 
it,and in the case of two others it was deferred till they left. For 

zed by Google 

the omission to procure the guaranty of tbe parents, no reason can 
be given, but tbe trouble attending it, and the apparent inutility of 

160 [Senate 

it, in the case of those sufficiently advanced in life to plan for them- 
selves. It has been seen that the requisition in respect to age has 
been complied with, bnt it is reepectfally suggested whether it might 
not be expedient to admit stadenta at so early an age, that the de- 
sired preparation could be nearly or quite completed by the time 
they are old enough to teach. Females often teach at 16 and mairs 
at IS: those who deugn to teach if able to obtain a certificate will 
usually commence as soon as their age will admit; consequently, a 
portion of the females who would otherwise be in the department, 
are absent during the summer, and males leave to teach about a 
month before the end of the time as^gned for keeping the depart- 
ment open. Males also over 18 can earn so much more in the sum- 
mer, that few of them will attend till fall. If in addition to the 
preparation now required on entering, females could have the ad- 
vaotages of this department at the age of 14, and males at 16, it is 
thoaght that their attendance would be more regular, and their pre- 
paration for their duties more complete. 

Four of the students in this department who were already pretty 
well advanced, have been allowed to spend a small portion of their 
time in studies foreign to the object of this department, v'lz: French, 
Latin and Greek. It is not supposed that this would be generally 
advantageous, and it will not probably be repeated. 

It was thought better for the classes taught by those in the depart- 
ment, that they should have the same teacher several days in succes- 
sion, instead of changbg every day, as might be necessary if the 
teachers were called on to hear classes at regular intervals during the 
whole time. Before the arrangement was made some had left, so 
they were not all thus employed, and others were not employed quite 
as much as required, because the arrangements of the school made it 
inconvenient. Some have been reluctant to engage in this exercise, 
and others willing; some have done it well, and others have needed 
and received suggestions on the subject. 

Beading has not been attended to every day hy all the students, 
except the reading of the scriptures in the morning; a part of them 
read every day during the summer term. Others were already good 
readers, and it seemed unnecessary for them. Spelling has, perhaps, 
received less attention than it deserved, though nesriy all spell well. 
It has been a practice to write ofiT a list of words misspelt in the 
compositions for a spelling lesson. 

Writing has been less attended to than it ought to have been. The 
amount of other labors on the hands of the teachers, and the lack 
of a disposition on the part of some have been the cause. Some 
of them have written regularly a part of the time. 

Rhetoric, Drawing, Mineralogy, Geology, Physiology and Po- 
litical Economy, have not been attended to. Probably they will be 
hereafter, if the department is continued. 

Algebra is pot mentioned expressly in the course of studies pre- 
scribe, but those in the department have been allowed to study it, 
because of its connenon with Arithmetic, and because the best scho- 
lars in common schools often wish to be instructed in it. 

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No. 67.] 161 

Pbiloaopby and Chemistry, though DOt expressly mentioned in the 
course of study, are supposed to be implied in what is sud of the 
" domestic and mechanic arts." 

Flayfair's Euclid, and Flint's and Gibson's Surveying have been 
used, not because they were preferred, but because there were copies 
ot them in (he library. 

JOSEPH HAWLEY, Pretident. 
JAMES H. CARRUTH, Principal. 
Salem^ Waahiagton co., Jf. K, Dec. 16, lSi2. 

St. Lawrence Acadxky, {St. Lawrence cotmly.) — The Trustees 
and Prindpal of St. Lawrence Academy, established at Potsdam, in the 
county of St. Lawrence, submit the following annual report, respect- 
ing the department for the education of teachers of common schools, 
e^ablisfaed in their institution. 

At the first establishment of this department in this institution, 
the trustees employed at an annual expense of $1,200, two addition- 
al instracters on its account ; and continued to employ tbem, as will 
be sees by their former reports, till the close of the last year. Find- 
ing that the expenses of this department far exceed its income, they 
have been obliged to dismiss one of these teachers. 

The instructers thus employed were a teacher of Mathematics and 
j{atural Philosophy; and a teacher of Languages, to supercede the 
Principal in the classical department, to allow him to devote his time 
mainly to those in this department. 

The latter, Wm. H. Parker, A. M., is still retained at a salary of 
600 dollars. 

Under the present organization of this department, the studies are 
taiu^ht, as iollows: 

English Grammar, Rhetoric, Natural Philosophy and Chemistry, 
with their application to the Mechanic Arts; Astronomy, Physiology, 
Moral and Intellectual Philosophy, by the Principal. 

Geometry, Surveying, Reading, Spelling and Elocution, by Wm. 
H. Parker. 

The remaining studies, by Henry Watkins, A. B. 

The expense for additional insti-ucters the present year, is 600 
dollars. To accommodate the members of this department, the trus- 
tees have, since its establishment, erected an additional building at 
an expense of 5,S00 dollars, furnished stoves and pipe for all the 
rooms, which together with the consequent increase of incidental ex- 
penses in repairs, Sec. has added much to tbe burden of sustaining the 

This provision of rooms for the scholars has very much diminished 
the expenses of those attending this department; as most of the young 
men board themselves at an expense not exceeding fif\y cents per 
week ; and where they hire their board, it can be obtained at least 
fifty cents per week cheaper, in consequence of their rooming and 
lodging in tbe buildings of the academy. i 

The amount charged for tuition of scholars in this department 
the past year, is $492.86 ; the amount received of the above, is 

[Senate No. 67.J V ^ , 

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16S {Seitats 

$225.21. The members of thb department are charged two dollars 
per annum less than those of the other depnrtments, pursuing the 
same studies. It will be evident on a moment's refiection, that to 
comply with thv requisitions, and in fact to do justice by the members 
of this department, must require at the hands of the instructers a 
much greater amount of labor, than is ordinarily devoted to the same 
number ot scholars. 

On the reception of the instructions, issued by the late Superinten- 
dent, the trustees informed him that the requisition to give the mem- 
bers of this department the supervision of classes, could not be lite- 
rally complied with in our school. 

In addition to the exhibition before them in their several classes 
and studies, of what we deem a thorough efficient mode of teaching, 
thus teaching them practically what we would have them practise in 
their own schools, we have adopted the following plan; 

During that part of the year in which the members of this depart- 
ment are generally present, one evening each week is devoted to 
discussing the principles of teaching, and the best mode of conduct- 
inga common school. 

The exercise is introduced by a lecture by the Principal; then a 
subject given out the week previous, is discussed by the members of 
this department, and the instructers of the academy. The subjects 
for discussion are usually in the following order: The best mode of 
teaching reading-, commencing with the alphabet — the best mode of 
teaching tpelling — and so on, till all the studies usually pursued in 
common schools, have come under notice. In discussing each study, 
the faults commonly committed in teaching that particular branch, 
are pointed out. The best book or books to be used, are named, 
which will occasionally draw from the members of the department a 
spirited debate on the merits or defects of the several books in nse. 
Then follows the subject of government; intercourse with the inha- 
bitants of the district, &c. &c. As many of the members of the de- 
partment have taught several years, the discussions assume a decidedly 
proc^ica/ character. Theii anecdotes and experience are frequently of 
thrilling interest; and are calculated to be very useful to the younger 
members who have never taught. This appears from the fact that 
when these members on the succeeding year come forward to take 
an active part themselves in these discussions, they generally express 
their sense of obligation to contribute their efforts to sustain and ren- 
der interesting these discussions, from the great benejU which they 
have personally derived from them. 

To exercise the members of the department in the business of 
teaching, we have adopted, and highly approve the following plan: 

All the members of the department, and any other members of the 
institution who choose, (as we have no objection to prepare all our scho- 
lars, if not to teach, to know in after life whether the schools in their 
several districts aie well managed, and their own children well 
taught,) spend two evenings each week in the following exercises: 

Take as an illustration an exerci;<e in English Grammar. The 
Principal, to whose department this branch belongs, selects a piece to 

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No. 57.] 163 

be parsed, and assigns the first verse to one scholar, and the second 
to another, and so on through the piece. 

When assembled in the evening, the scholar to whom the first verse 
was assigned takes the chair as teacher, and proceds to ht^r the verse 
parsed, exhibiting before all the members of the department what he 
deems the best mode of conducting that exercise in a common school, 
and of course his peculiarities in teaching, if he possess any. When 
his exercise is through, the Principal calls on all present to criticise 
his whole performance; and when they have done, he makes whate- 
Ter remarks he may deem proper hoih on the exercise in teaching, 
and on the justness of the criticiEms which have been made by the 
other scholars. Then follows a similar exercise on the second verse; 
and so on. 

This method possesses two evident advantages over that of setting 
the members of this department to superintend the younger classes. 

In the first place, all the members are present, aod hear the criti- 
asms, as well as witness the performance. And as many of these 
scholars have proved very popular teachers, and are from different 
and distant sections of country, and consequently will exhibit differ- 
ent modes of teaching, the exercise possesses many advantages, es- 
peually for the younger members of the department. Besides, con- 
ducted in this manner, a degree of interest is created which never 
would be felt by a scholar having a younger class. 

In the next place, it is free from the iasuperabU objection of mak- 
ing one portion of the scholars in an institution, the teachers of the 
others; as all who join in this exercise are placed on an equality, by 
each taking his turn in the exercise. 

I may be permitted here to remark that the idea of setting some of 
the scholars to managing others, though younger, in the same insti- 
tution, and that too in the presence of the teachers of both, is pre- 
eminently worthy of the pbactic&i. wisdom displayed by the late 
Superintendent, in his instructions to these departments. 

This sane mode is adopted with other studies. 

The number of pupils in the department the past year, is as ap- 
pears in the foregoing list, 73. The mimber of weeks in attendance 
will be found in the column thus marked in the foregoing list. The 
number in actual attendance at the close of the present year, is 46v 

Of those who have been members of the department during Ihe 
year, 33 have belonged to it previously. Of these, 

17 have been in the department one term, or six months, 
9 " " two terms, or twelve months, 

6 " *' three terms, or eighteen mocths 

1 *' " four terms or twenty-four months, 

previoos to the time they have been connected with the depart- 
ment the present year. 

This department has been muntained in this institution eight 

We remarked in our last report that we could not give the num- 
ber admitted each year, as we had made no distinction in our records 

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164 [SUIATK 

betneen those who tlien entered for the first time, and those who 
having been prevtously members, returned to the department. 
Thirty-eight new members have been admitted the past year. 
For information on this head, the trustees would refer to their 
last report. It will appear evident to the Superintendent, that the 
information here sought is not easily obtained; as these pupils being 
from different and distant places, it is not easy to learn who have and 
who have not been engaged in teaching. By extensive inquiry, we 
made the list last year as accurate as we could; and probably should 
not be able by any efforts to add materially to the information there 

Those applying for admission have been so far examined as to as- 
certain that they had previously acquired the knowledge of those 
branches deemed requisite to entering this department. They are 
mostly found to have studied several additional branches. 

The course of study prescribed by the Superintendent, has been 
pursued with the addition of other studies. This course does not 
embrace the t-tudies pursued in many of our common schools; and 
consequently those who wish to prepare to teach, will not consent to 
be limited and restricted to the studies specified in the course. 

Three young ladies, Marion Wallace, Jane E. Cturley and Sarah 
Janes, have completed the course, and received diplomas. 

Since the mania of speculation has subsided, and the young men 
have abandoned the idea of amassing sudden fortunes, there is mani- 
fested a much greater disposition to complete the course, and make 
teaching the business, if not of life, at least for years- 

The trustees and teachers in this institution earnestly request the 
Superintendent to review the instrucUons, issued by his predecessor. 
They are decidedly and unacimously of the opinion that the de- 
partment in this institution has been most seriously injured by the 
alterations made in those instructions; and that if those instructions 
were rescinded, and the department were again placed on the ground 
where it was establishedby the Regents, on the plan submitted by the 
Hon. John A. Dix, it would be a deuded improvement. 
' They would suggest one alteration, and but one in that plan; and 
that is, that these departments be auUkorized to confer two diplomas 
instead of one. 

The lowest diploma to be given to those who shall have acquired 
a knowledge of the following studies: Reading, Writing, Spelling, 
Arithmetic, Geography, EngUsh Grammar, History, say Tytler and 
Hale's United States History, and Natural Philosophy. 

The highest diploma to be given to those who shall have complet- 
ed the course, as established by the Regents. 

The following reasons lead them to suggest the above altemtions. 
The public judge of the utility of these departments very much by 
the number of those reported as having completed the course. A 
large proportion of those who design seriously to make a btraness of 
teaching, are drawn away by the offer of employment before the 
course is completed. Taking the division, as above, and this de* 
partment would confer the first diploma on at least S6, and we thick 

Digitized by 


No. 67. 1 165 

more, annual);. This would be giving to these departments, in the 
opinion of the public, much more Qearly their honest due than the 
present system is calculated to secure. We would by all means hold 
on to the higher diploma, and use every practical means to elevate 
the qualifications of teachers. 

From long and critical observation of the acquisitions made by 
those who enter this institution from the different districts, we find 
that these acquisitions vary with the qualifications of the teachers 
which have for a few seasons been employed in the respective dis- 
tricts. It is our decided opinion that time enough is spent in attend- 
ing common schools by the creat body of our youth, to give them an 
accomplished English education, if teachers of suitable qualifications 
were employed. 

But it is lamentably true, that in too many of the districts, the 
Bcholars advance to a given point, and there stop; it matters not how 
long they may continue to attend school. 

All which 19 respectfully submitted. 

L. KNOWLES, Senior Trustee. 
ASA BRAINERD, Principal. 

Deeeatitr 15, 1842. 

Fairfield' AcADEicv, {Herkimer Covnty.) — The Trustees and Prin- 
cipal of Fairfield Academy, established at Fairfield, in Herkimer 
county, submit the following annual report, respecting the depart- 
ment for the education of teachers of common schools, established 
ia their institution. 

No instructer has been employed on account of ihe department 
exclusively, i. e. exclusively devoted to it. The immediate super- 
vision of it has devolved upon the Principal, and since his in- 
daction, (Sept. last,) the present Principal, Rev. 0..R. Howard, A. 
M. has given instruction on all the subjects detailed under No. ]. 
(" Instractions" pages 8 and 9.) The subjects of daily recitation of 
the department to the Principal, have been select portions of Rhe- 
toric and Intellectual Philosophy. Mr. 0. Blanchard, A. M., tutor 
in Mathematics, has given instruction to the department in Natural 
Philosophy, Chemistry, Arithmetic, Geometry, Trigonometry, Men- 
SQration and Surveying; also lectures in the experimental sciences. 

Mr. L. M. Clark, A. M. another of the ordinary tutors, has in- 
structed in English Grammar and Geography. 

Had there been no such department coonected with the institation, 
the services of one of the male teachers, whose salary is $400 per 
annum, would have been dispensed with. 

Tuition fees from the department amount to $64.07, at |3.00 
each per term. Others for the same studies are charged $6 .00 per 

Whole number of students belongii^ to the department this year, 

Number actually attending at date of this report, six. 

Of the above named, seven have before belonged to the depart- 

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166 {Senate 

A department has been maintained in this institution serea years. 
The present Trustees anil Principal have no documents which ena- 
ble them to report the number of pupils admitted each year. The 
whole number that have been connected with the department since 
the spring of 1840, seventy-five. 

Ten of those belonging to the department this year are known to 
be at present engaged in teaching. We have no means of determin- 
ing farther. 

The applicants for admission were examined in the various acade- 
mic classes, and thoroughly tested on all the prescribed subjects pre- 
vious to admission into the department. The most marked deficien- 
cies were in Orthography, Syntax and Elocution. The prescribed 
course of study has not been varied from, unless the instances in 
which students have, by their own desire, given some attention to 
studies not prescribed, may be deemed such variation. Several sub- 
jects, viz: 3d, 6th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 12tb, and 13th, (pages 9, 10, 
and 11 of " Instructions,") have not yet been reached, except in the 
case of the two graduates. 

It may be observed, that the students of the department have had 
every opportunity to attend lectures upon the various subjects, and 
particularly in experimental science; and generally they have availed 
themselves 'of these, though the fact has not been indicated in the 
preceding schedule. 

The Trustees and Principal cannot but regret that the students in 
this department find it inconvenient to pursue the prescribed course 
uninterrupted. For various and obvious reasons, few of those stu- 
dents who can obtain the requiate "certificate," incline to remain 
during our fall term. Most of those connected with us the past year 
are now scattered through the State, and engaged in teaching com- 
mon schools. This is, however, to be expected and even desired in 
all case in which adequate qualifications are possessed. And, moreover, 
we cannot complain of any want of interest in the department on the 
part of the members. They liave usually prosecuted their studies in ' 
It with highly commendable zeal and success. 
All which is respectfully submitted. 

NORMAN BUTLER, Pretidmt of 

Board of Thutees. 
ORAN R. HOWARD, Principal. 


Hamilton Academy, (Maditon county.) — The Trustees and Prin- 
cipal of the Hamilton Academy, establisbed at Hamilton, in the 
county of Madison, submit the following rep:Ort, respecting the de- 

fiartment for the education of teachers of common schools, estab- 
ished in their institution. 

Mr. Charles Ballard has been employed as assistant teacher during 
a period of six months, and heard most of the recitations in Ortho- 
graphy, Etymology, Punctuation, Arithmetic, and Get^rapby. 
Prof. Dwyer has devoted, since the first of May last, four hours 

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No. 57.J 167 

of each week to instruction in reading, besides rendering aid in the 
exercises of declAmatioD. 

At the commencement of the year, by direction of the Trustees, 
the Principal assumed charge of the teacher's department; and the 
duties of instruction in the Latin and Greek Languages, previously 
deToIving upon him, were assigned to J. C. Burroughs, A. B. Mr. 
B. has likewise superintended the exercises in declamation and com- 
poutioQ, and the recitations in Geometry. The remaining duties of 
the department have been performed by the Principal. 

About three hundred dollars have been paid by the Trustees, to 
Mr. Burroughs, for his services, which may be regarded as a safe 
approximation to the additional expense, occasioned by the depart- 
ment. The precise amount cannot be ascertained. 

The amount received and that charged for the tuition of students 
belonging to the depertment, during the year, is one hundred and 
nineteen dollars. The price of tuition to other students pursuing the 
same studies, is six dollars per term; to those in this department, 
four dollars. 

It has not been found practicable to employ the members of this 
department to any considerable extent, in teaching junior classes. 
Ifost of the young scholars have manifested an aversion to being 
taught by members of the same school. Though some of the more 
experienced candidates for teaching, have succeeded well in bearing 
their recitations. At these times, the Principal has always been pre- 
sent and given such advice to the teachers as he thought necessary. 
A part of the recitations ii the department have been heard almost 
every day by some one of its members. Having previous notice, he 
was enabled to make the most ample and thorough preparation. The 
faults and excellencies in his mode of instruction were freely com- 
mented upon bi>fore the class. This arrangement, while it secured 
all the experience in teaching required by the Superintendent, had 
the advanti^e of being conducted under the immediate supervision 
of the Principal. 

The whole number of students who have belonged to the depart- 
ment during the year, who have signed the pledge to teach at least 
twelve months, and have in other respects comphed with the requi- 
sitions of the Superintendent, is thirty-four. 

In addition to these, there have been thirteen, who were unwilling 
to sign the pledge or were not of sufficient age, who have recited 
with the class and enjoyed its privileges, except the reduction in the 
price of tuition. Of these, three have attended six months, one 
five months, eight four months, four three months, seventeen two 
months, and two, one month. 

The number notv in the department is six. All the male pupils, 
who have left the department, except five, are believed to be now 
■Dccetsfully engaged m teaching common schools. 

The number in the department who have heretofore belonged to it, 
ax. Of these, one has been connected with it two terms, four one 
term, and one less than a term. 

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168 [SXNATC 

In GubmittiDg the above report to the Hon. Superintendent, the 
Principal begs leave, for the first time, to subjoin a few observa- 
tioDB, relative to some parts of the course pursued in the depart- 
ment connected with this Academy. He has found almost invaria- 
bly, in the members of the department, at their entrance, a marked 
deficiency in Orthography, Reading, and especially in the Syntax of 
the English Language. To supply, as far as possible, these most 
essential of all requisites in the education of the common school 
teacher, has been considered a paramount object of the iustructions 
given in this department. Exercises in Orthography have, there- 
fore, been given daily, including the analysis of words, the rules 
and the practice of spelling; and besides the weekly exercises in de 
clamation, an experienced teacher of Elocution has been employed to 
give instructions in Reading. In correcting the deficiency in Eng- 
lish Syntax, much greater difficulty has beui experienced; and al- 
though the Principal has bestowed unwearied edbrl in calling an 
amount of attention to this subject, in some degree proportioned to its 
importance, he regrets to say, that it has not always been with the 
beet success. The one grand obstacle, which has continually contri- 
buted to this result, has been such a servile dependence upon ptir- 
ticular autfutrSf often ot&a inferior character, as efiectu ally to prevent 
independent investigation and improvement from (liferent authors of 
highest consideration for learning and ability. Were the choice of 
the favorite authors always well directed, it is still obvious that such 
an implicit reliance upon any set of opinions, as to supersede further 
examination, cannot be otherwise than prejudicial to improvement. 
But not the least unfortunate feature of this undue partiality is, that 
it is extremely injudicious. Whatever may be said of the merit of 
individual authors, it will not be iienied, that as a class, those who 
have taken upon themselves the adjustment of the principles of our 
language, have fallen far below that standard of excellence which 
the importance of the subject justly demands. While not a few of 
them, we are compelled to regard as little more than compilers of 
fallacy and error. 

Now it is as true, as disastrous to English learning, that it is pre- 
cisely this latter class of grammars, that has been destined to the 
most general use. Cheapness has always been a paramount requisite 
in a work for general circulation, and it may be added with little 
less truth, that the qualification of fulsome display stands second id 
importance. Now it so happens, that the last class of authors al- 
luded to, have always found it convenient to furnish to the public, 
works possessing both the desired characteristics. Hence, it has re- 
sulted, that the text-books of English Grammar, have generally been 
of inferior character. 

In all the counties from which teachers are sent to this department, 
Kirkham's Grammar is the one most generally used. 

It is from this, the scholar receives his first idea of the Grammar 
of his own language; and is taught to look' to it as infallible au- 
thority. Hence, the Principal has almost invariably found, that the 

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No. 67.J 169 

grsnd ultimatum of ambitioD of those composing his claeseB, is to 
uaster the principles of this grammar. 

Nor is it only against the force of education, that he has found it 
necessary to contend. He haa almost found himself at issue with the 
opinions and practices of those in authority. In the examination of 
candidates for certificates, the inspectors of common schools recog- 
nize the same standard; while those, to whom is delegated the prero- 
gative of examining and deciding upon the course pursued in the de- 
partments for the education of teachers, give their hi^ authority to 
the same authors. Placed in such circumstances, the Principal feela 
himself called upon, to submit to the judgment of the Hon. Superin- 
tendent, a statement of his method of instructing his classes in En^ 
lisb Grammar, and respectfully to solicit tua direction ia respect to 
the course to be hereafter pursued. 

A clear and thorough knowledge of the definitions has been the 
first object which he has sought to secure. For these he has allowed 
his pupils to refer tn any author preferred, and aAer the definition has 
been given, has compared it with the same as given by different 
authors. And finally has given his own opinion in respect to the 
one to be preferred. The authors to whom he has beeo accustomed 

Erincipally to refer, are Dr. Webstei, and the Grammar attached to 
is large Dictionary; Dr. Dewar, in his able article on the subject in 
the Edinburgh Encyclopedia; Mr. Murray, Doct. Bullions, and 
some others. 

It may be well to add, that in some instances, he has had the sa- 
tisfaction of witnessing a degree of improvement, that has iiilly 
exemplified the excellence of a course thus calculated to elidt inves- 
tigation and inquiry. In conclusion, the Principal would take the 
liherty of expressing his own conviction, that the introduction of 
some such work of standard merit, as the Hon. Superintendent 
might see fit to recommend, would contribute greatly to the interests 
of this most important branch of education. He would be under- 
stood as expressing no partiality for a particular author, but would 
think favorably of Dr. Bullions' English Grammar, as a standard 
work for the teacher's department, should it be prefened by the Hon. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

P. B. HAVENS, Praidmt. 
ZENAS MORSE, Prwtctpa/. * 
Bdmitton, Dtcemher 14, 1842. 

HosAKT HAf.L Institute, {Oneida eowUy.) — ^The Trustees and 
Pnncipal of the Hobart Hall Academy, established at Holland Patent, 
in the county of Oneida, submit the following annual report, respect- 
ing the department for the education of teachers of common schools, 
eMablisfaed in their institution, under the following heads: 

The Principal with his two daughters, pupil assistants, has been 
employed in the instruction of the department. The fact of a par- 
tial derangement in the concerns of the institution, in consequence 
of the nntepAited resignation of the former Principal, and the in- 

[Senate No. 57.] W 

Digitized by 


170 (Sbmaik 

stitution, both in the male and female departments, numbering at 
DO time since the incumbency of the present Prindpal, more than an 
average of fifty scholars, rendered the employment of another in- 
trtrnctor unnecessary. The Principal has made it bis duty to visit 
the female department twice every day, with the exception of Fri- 
day afternoon, and particular attention has been paid to the females 
connected %ith the department. 

Actual Expenses. — As no other male instructer but the Principal 
has been employed, there has been no actual expense, vrith the ex- 
ception of a small amount for circulars and publication in the news- 

Ajnoant received- — ^The actual amount received for tuition up to 
the 15tb December, in this department is ^9.17. Some of the 
pnpils have not paid, although their bills may be realized at some 
future period, and against others no charges have been made. The 
amount charged for tuition in this department, has been in the pro- 
portion of $4 per term of 16 weeks, which is twenty-five cents less 
than the tuition fees charged to students in the lower branches of the 
English department, and one dollar and twenty-five cents less than 
against those in the laneruages and the higher branches of the Mathe- 
matics for the same period. 

Whole number of pupils during the year, thirty-nine. Classed 
into two classes, Junior and Senior, or learners and advanced, with 
nnmber of week's attendance opposite names. 

The number attending at date of report, three. 

The greater part of those in the department the present season, 
have heretofore belonged to it, and as the department has been es- 
tablished but one year beside the present, they have belonged to it 
since; embracing two terms of six months each op to the present 
report with few exceptions. 

In reference to number of pnpils admitted, and subsequently en- 
gaged in teaching, being a new incumbent and not having the docu- 
ments before me, I am not able to report. Of the number who have 
been admitted the past season, if I am rightly informed, twenty-five 
or six are now engaged in school. 

It will be seen from the above schedule, that the Principal baa 
strictiy adhered to the course of study prescribed in the instructions 
of the Superintendent with bat little variation, and that occasioned 
by books in the possesion of students which it was not deemed pru- 
dent to reject. And the Principal respectfully reports, that every 
Friday afternoon has been devoted alternately to composition and 
declamation, when the trustees and neighbors have been invited in^ 
and an examination on some department of science has usually passed 
before them antecedent to the stated exercises; which has been high- 
ly interesting, and, I believe, alike honorable to the young gentle- 
men and ladies, and the institution of which they were members. 
And also, that a Lyceum has been formed for the purposes of decla- 
mation and extemporaneous speaking, neetin? every Tuesday even- 
ing with the Principal at its head. The conduct of the young sen- 
tiemen and ladies has be«i most amiable; their labors indefatigable^ 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

and I have tbe hsppiaess to say, 
cTissatisfactioD since I have had the honor of 

that I have not beard one word of 
connection with the 

All of which is respectfully reported. 

MARCUS A. PERRY, Principal. 

Rekbbelaek Oswego Academy, (Oftoe^v county.) — ^An additional 
instracter was employed, not to devote himself exclusively to the 
department, but in order to enable the Principal to devote more time 
to the general instruction of said department. The Principal gave 
the members of said department familiar instruction in relation to the 
modes of instruction, and to all matters connected with tbe management 
and government of a school, and in connection with Mr. Talmadge, 
the deputy superintendent, delivered a course of lectures on the sub- 
ject of common schools. Tbe Principal also gave instruction to the 
members of the department in the English language, embracing, 

1. Orthography, sounds of letters, rules lor spelling, ana daily 
nerase in spelling. 

3. Reading, with particular attention to the rales of pronunciation 
and their practice. This was a dally exercise, and much attention 
bestowed upon it. 

3. Etymology, prefixes, terminations, derivations and deGnitiona, 
with special attention, and some attention to synonyms. 

4. Punctuations, abbreviations, and use of capital letters. 
6. Syntax and prosody in all its parts. 

6. CfompositioD once every two weeks. 

7. Declamation and extemporaneous s^iealcing in a society formed 
for the purpose ; in which society the Principal frequentiy preuded, 
and gave instructions as circumstances would require. 

8. The Principal also gave instruction in Rhetoric and in the poli- 
tical institutions of our country ; the Constitution of the United 
SUtes, and of the State of New- York. The first volume of De 
Tocqueville's Democracy in America, was employed as a reading 
book, part of the time; not having a sufficient number to accommodate 
the class, it was discontinued. 

The first and second male assistants gave instructions in Mathe 
fflatics, Geology and Penmanship. 

The Preceptress gave instructions in Grammar and Drewine. 

The expense actually incurred during the year, occasioned by tbe 
department, over and above what the institution would have expend- 
ed if no department had been established, is $207.50. 

The amount of money received for tuition in the department during 
the year, is $115.33. Tbe price of tuition per term of 22weeks,H 
(6.00. The difference of tuition between students of tbe depart- 
ment and others is $2.06 for the same term. 

All who were admited to the department were admitted with a de- 
finite understanding of the condition and requirement of the depart- 
ment. Bat during the now closing year, we bare realized more 
difficolty in obtaining the signatures of parents and guardians as 

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173 [Skmats 

guarantees for the fulfilment of the engageinent of the students, than 
to obtun the acquiescence of the students to become members of the 

No one was admitted except on the condition to finish the course 
prescribed b; the Regents, except to some of the young ladies, it was 
suggested tli^t it might not be required of tbem to attend to mensu- 
ration and surreying; ' neither was any one admitted except on the 
^gagement to teacb one year after having completed the course. 

Each member of the department had the privilege of hearing re- 
citations on an average nearly once in two weelcs in the classes to 
which they respectively belonged, not particular as to the study. In 
our future arrangements, it is presumed we shall be enabled to be 
more definite in relation to the study. 

The department has been established two years; during the first 
year three only became members of it ; during the second year 

Sixteen of the members have been during some part of the year, 
or are now teaching school. 

Oeneral Obtervatimu. — ^The individuals who were received as 
members of the department during the past year, with whose quali- 
fications the Principal was not personally acquiiinted, were examined 
by him in accordance with the instructions of the Regents of the Uni- 
versity. Several of the young gentlemen and ladies evinced a very 
thorough knowledge and a familiar acquaintance with Geography, 
and were well versed in spelling, and wrote a good hand; all were 
deficient in the sounds and powers of letters, and the analysis of 
words. Some were bad spellers, and more bad in penmanship; oth- 
ers of the young gentleman and ladies are among the first students of 
the institution, and well versed in many of the studies embraced in 
the prescribed course of the department. They were willing to enter 
the department, meet its conditions and complete its course on the 
conditions, that while they were doing so, they might be permitted 
to pursue some studies not included in the course of the department. 
The granting this privilege was not deemed inconsistent with the 
design of the department, and on consultation with Mr. Talmadge, 
the deputy superintendent of this section of the county, was granted. 
And by reference to our academical report, it will be perceived that 
some of the members of this department have pursued the studies of 
Chemistry, Algebra, Logic, Astronomy, French and Latin. Those 
entering this department invariably begin with the first principles of 
our own language in all the details prescribed in the course; with the 
daily exercises of reading and spelling, and of penmanship three times 
per week, compositions and declamations once to two weeks. 

Whatever other variations have been made from the r^ular order of 
the prescribed course, have ber^n for the purpose of accommodating it 
to the classes of tbe institution. 

All the principle classes of our institution have a weekly review, (i. e.) 
at the end of each week each class reviews what it has parsed over 
during the week: and of this course the members of the department 
have the common advantage. By famliar conversation and public 

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No. 57. J 17a 

lectures, the nunds of the youth vho resort to our institutiou begb to 
realize, and some to feel strongly the importance of the object which 
those departmeots have in view. And during the pnst year they 
come forward in greater numbers and vith more interest than was 
anticipated from the unpropitioua beginning of the previous year. 
The members of our department have gone out this season to their 
respective schools with much ambition, and with the purpose to 
practise what they know of school teaching in the best manaer they 
can. They design to visit each other's schools, and to aid and sti- 
mulate each other. It is their design, if possible, to render their 
schools BO much better than those taught by individuals not members of 
the department, that they may place the department upon an important 
vantage ground for usefulness. It is perceivable that the operations of 
this department are wortcing a favorable chaoge in the public mind, 
in relation to the importance of improving our system of common 
school education, and more generally well qualified teachers are in- 
quired after, when trustees are making arrangements for their winter 

Principal of Rentteiaer Onoego Academy. 

R. A. Stesle, Secretary. 

Mexico, JVov. 24, 1842. 


Fkahklin Acadeht, {Steuben county.) — The Trustees and Prin- 
cipal of Franklin Academy, established at Prattsburgh, in the coun- 
ty of Steuben, State of New-York, submit the following annual re- 
port, respecting the department for the education of teachers of com- 
mon schools established in their institution. 

And in doing this, we shall endeavor faithfully to furnish all the 
infcMination required under the different heads specified in tbe instruc- 
tioDs which we have received. And we would here observe, that 
the instruction bestowed on this department has been communicated 
by tbe Principal, and the other teachers, which have been employed 
tbe year past in this institution. Though it is correct to say, that 
the Rev. Samael Porter, has more specially devoted his attention to 
this department, still several classes have been heard by the Princi- 
pal, and Miss Ann Eliza Smith, who has been employed as a female 
assistant. And though this course has been taken, still, as we have 
before reported, we could say, that we have never regarded this de- 
partment merely as subsidiary or incidental to the Academy, but as 
a eepwate, principal and important object in itself. We have taken 
this course, because the great end to be accomplished by tbix depart- 
nent has, as ve believe, been more faithfully and fully attained. 

As it respects the expense actually incurred during the year, on 
accoimt of, or occa^oned by this department, we cannot speak defi- 
nitely, or we cannot make a definite specification of tbe amount. 
Though we feel free to say, that it has amounted to the salary of an 
t teacher, or at the lowest computation to the stun of $300. 

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174 fScMATS 

The amount charged to students belonging to this department has 
been $97.71, and the amount received has been $93.71. The dif- 
ference between these charges, and the tuition fees charged to the 
other students has been, as stated in the last report, about one-third 
less, so that if ^^e should receive $1 .00 for tuition in the teacher's 
department, we should receive $1 .&0, if we should charge academic 

We would further report, that when the teacher's department com- 
menced in Franklin Academy, there were some of the students who 
were studTing Algebra, and a few, who were studying Comstock's 
Natural Philosophy and Chemistry; these students, though they 
joined the teacher's department, were allowed to go on with their 
recitations in these studies, till they had obtained that knowledge of 
them which they had designed. And though this course has been pur- 
sued by a few individuals, still we think we have kept prominently 
in view the great end, for which a teacher's department has been es- 
tablished in this institution. And we would further observe, that in 
this part of-the country, Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, and Al- 
gebra, seem to be regarded of much importance even by many who 
send to our common schools. And we would very respectfully sug- 
gest, that if we should make any alteration in the judicious class of 
books brought to view in the instructions which we have received, 
it would be to include works containing as much knowledge on these 
parUcular branches, as is contained in Comstock's Philosophy and 
Chemistry, and in Davies' First Lessons in Algebra, or in Day's Al- 
gebra to sec. 20. And we feel free to say, that there is such an in- 
timate connection between these works, and those spedfied in the 
prescribed course, that we do not see how some of them can be stu- 
died to the best advantage, without the previous knowledge con- 
tained in the authors above noticed. 

We would further report, that the teacher's department in Frank- 
lin Academy commenced this year on the 19th day of May, and aa 
the academic year is -divided into terms of 15 weeks each, that ten 
weeks in the spring term, and that 11 weeks in the fall term com- 
prise the six months of the teacher's department. We here subjoin a 
list of the names of the pupils admitted, with their ages and resi- 
dence, and a specification of the studies pursued, agreeably to the 
instructions which we have received. 

Aeca;>t^u/a/ton. — The whole number who have attended the teach- 
er's department in Franklin Academy, during the term which now 
comes to a close, is thirty-three. 

The number actually attending at the date of this report, is ten. 

The number of those who hare heretofore belonged to this depart- 
ment, is five. 

The whole time in which a teacher's department has been established 
in this place is two years. 

The Ist year, 14 entered, 
" 2d « 33 " 

Total, . . 47, but only 43 different individuaU. 

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No. 67.J 176 

llere has been bnt one indmduftl who has attended vithout in- 
terraptioii two terms, oi the full year in the teacher's department. 
The other iudiyiduala have attended a less time, as vill appear bj 
the present and the schedule in the former report. Members of the 
teacher's department have to some extent taken charge of classes, but 
we have found it difficult that this requisition should go into success- 
ful operation at present in this institution. I would observe, that 
the individuals whose names are reported as belonging to the teach- 
er's department, have all signed the pledge on their becoming mem- 
bers. The engagement has been required, and I have no doubt will 
be fulfilled. As the greater part of the individuals who have been 
members of this department were of age and act for themselves, the 
name of aperson guaranteung this pledge has not been required. The 
books that have been used in the teacher's department, have been 
those which we have received from Albany, at tlie first formation of 
this department in this institution. We have used both Olney's and 
Willett's Geography, and Brown's and Kirkham's Grammar. As a 
book for reading we have used Sanders' Reader No. 4. And all the 
members of the teacher's department have been required to study at- 
tentively Sanders' Orthography, as brought to view in his spelling 
hook} and to become thoroughly acquainted with the instruction 
which is there contained. 

Special pains have been taken that all the studies attended to in 
the teacher's department should be thoroughly and judiciously pur- 
•aed, and in a very great degree we think that we have succeeded. 
The individuals have been exercised very critically in parsing, or 
in correcting false syntax, or in analyzing difficult passages, about 
one hour every day. 

Compositions and declamations have been required in the same 
Older and manner as they have been required in the academic de- 

Instruction respecting the best mode of communicating knowledge 
and of governing youth, has been frequently imparted to the mem- 
bers of the teacher's department by the Principal and his asustant, 
agreeably to the instructions which we have received. 

At the close of our last annual report, il was stated, we hoped in 
future to report a larger number, and in some degree a more success- 
fill operation. This we think has been the case. Our number has 
increased from fourteen to thirty-three. Twenty-four individuals are 
DOW teaching who have been members of this department in this in- 
sUtntion. Under these favorable auspices we think we can safely 
lay, that this department will soon essentially change the character 
of our common schools in the country surrounding this institution, 
and will fully answer the great end for which it was established. 

JAMES H. HOTCHKISS, President of the 

Board of Jhtstees. 
FLAVEL S. GAYLORD, Principal of 

Pranklm Academy. 
Pratitburgh, Sieubm eo. JV. Y. *Mv. 23, 1842. 

* 31m day in nUeh tlw Maelm'i d^putmnt aloMd. 

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176 [SCKATK 

Ithaca Acaoeut, (^T\}mpkint county.) — ^The Trustees and Princi- 
sal of the Ithaca Academj, established at Ithaca, in the county of 
Tompkins, submit the following report respecting the department for 
the education of teachers of common schools, established ia their in- 

The instruction in the department has been given wholly by the 
teachers in the academy; in principles of Arithmetic, and of Lan- 
guage, in Composition, Reading, Geometir, Surveying and Intellec- 
tual Philosophy, by the Principal. In Algebra and Arithmetic, by 
A. Stebbins. In Book-keeping, Natural Philosophy and Englisti 
Grammar, by D. C. Vosburg. In Geography and History, by Miss 
A. Matson, and in Writing, by M. L, Wood. 

The expense actually incurred during the year on account of, or 
__ occasioned by, the department over and above what the institution 
would have expended if no department had been established, is esti- 
mated $200. 

Amount received and charged for tuition of students belonging to 
the department is $2.00 per academic term, or $4. 00 per six months 

Difference between these charges and the tuition fees charged to 
other students, is $4 .00 per academic term — 199 .22. 

Whole number in the department during the year, .... 19 
Number actually attending at the date of the report,.. 6 
Number of those who have heretofore belonged to the 

department, 2 

Whole time department has been attended, 2 yrs. 

Whole number in the department first quarter, 10 

The number of pupils admitted to the department last year, 10. 

Whole number of those who have been or are now engaged in teach- 
ing, 18. 

No applicant has been admitted without a written pledge. 

The course prescribed by the Superintendent has in all cases been 
pursued, except when the exercise of a sound discretion seemed to 
warrant a departure. 

It was found to be impracticable under existing circumstances to 
employ the members of the department in hearing recitations. 

In conclusion we would say, that the department especially in 
connexion with the county superintendency recently established, is 
working admirably; that through the combined action of the two, we 
believe a greater uniformity both in modes of teachbg and in text 
books will generally prevail; and that one, and hut one more ele- 
ment is wanting in our system of preparing common school teachers 
to make it decidely the best in the Union, and that is the establish- 
ment and maintenance of a model primary school in each of the aca- 
demies, having a common school teacher's department. 

WILLIAM S. BUSH, Principal, 

Tthaea, Dee. 15, 1842. 


No. ST.] 177 


Canandaigita Acasemt, {(yntario county.) — The Trustees and 
Principal of Canandaigua Academy, established at CanandHigua, ia 
the county of Ontario, submit the following annual report lespectiog 
the department for the education of teachers of common schools, £»• 
tahlished in this institutioa. 

When this department was organized under the direction of the 
Regents of the University of the State of New- York, one additional 
teacher was appointed at the salary of 9500 per annum. The place 
of this teacher has been supplied from time to time, and has been 
filled during the year embraced in this report by Mr. George Willson, 
Bt a salary of $600. His labors have not been exclusively devoted to 
this department. The teachers who have given instruction in this de- 
partment, are the following. gentlemen: , 

Henry Howe, A. M., Principal, Instructor in Mental and Moral 
Philosophy, Rhetoric, Principles of Teaching, &c, 

George WUlson, A. M., Instructor in Arithmetic, English Gram- 
mar, Natural Philosophy, &.c. 

Moses U. Wells, A. B., Instructor in Mathemafics. 

Sidney S- Sawtell, Teacher of Geography and Use of the Globes. 

S. C. Coe, Writing Master. 

The expense of this department during the year, over and above 
vhat the institution would have expended, il no such department had 
been established, may be put at the salary of one teacher; say 9^00. 
For a more particutar statement of the expense, the Superintendent 
is respectfully referred to the report of last year, 1841, and to the 
second head of the same. 

The studetits in this department have been charged the same as tbi 
other students of this Academy. The only difference made is, that 
the teachers are allowed a credit for their tuition till they may have 
earned the amonot by teaching school. 

Tuition is per quarter, $1 00 

Board is per week, 150 

The total amoont charged for tuition is $3SS.7C. It ia proper to 
remark, that this department has not added the above amount to the 
income of the Academy; as the majority of the young men would 
have been members of the school, if no such department had been 

The engagement required of them by the instructions of the late 
Superintendent, has not been exacted. It is found that young men 
are anwilling to bind themselves to teach any specified peiiod; 
though nearly all who enter this department, do teach from one to 
four seasons, according to their success. 

It has not been found practicable to have the members of this de- 
partment take charge of any classes in this institution. Nearly ever^r 
member has studied all the common English branches in this Acade 
toy, and has attended from fifty to one hundred recitations in Arith- 
[Seoate No. 67.] X 


178 [Sw, 


metic, English Orammar, &c. and bas learned the piodes of teach- 
ing practiced by Uie teachers of this institution. 

1. The whole number of students io this department during the 
year, was 50. 

The number of weeks each attended may be seen in the list on the 
preceding pages under head IV. 

2. The number actually attending on October &tb, the last day 
embraced in this report, was 16. The average number attending 
may be put at 30. The season of haying and harvest diminishes our 
Bchools very much during the last quarter of the year. 

3. Those who attended one term or less, was 28 

" " two terms, " 12 

" " three " " 4 

" " four " " 6 

The time during which this department has been maintained, is 
eleven years. 

It was first organized in the year 1831. It was reorganized under 
the direction of the Regents, in the year 1835. 

The total number of members reported last year, was 340 
During the present year, 60 

Total number to October 6, 1842,. 

During several years after the organization of this department, the 
names of the members were entered on the general academy register^ 
with marlcs indicating that they belonged to this department. It is 
now impos^ble to maice out a perfect list of names, though the num- 
ber each year hag been preserved. 

Information cannot be given in regard to the number who teach 
school] or the time during which they are employed. It is believed 
that not more than one in thirty fail of teaching school one winter. 
The average number of winters or seasons taught by each, is thought 
not to exceed three. 

Examinaiion of Sludents-^^Tiie students who are admitted into 
this department, are not formally examined. Nearly all of them 
enter at first the classes in Arithmetic, English Grammar, &>c. and 
their deficiencies are quickly ascertained, and their attention is di- 
rected to those studies which are deemed of the most immediate im- 
portance to them. 

Degree of Knowledge, ^c. — The young gentlemen possess almost 
every variety of intellect, and their attainments differ exceedingly. 
In one-third, or one-half, there is a very great deficiency in elemen- 
tary education. Great efforts are made to remove tliese defects. 
But the limited time which the majority spend here, does not admit 
of an entire removal of the deficiencies of early neglect. 

Courte of Study purmed, ire. — The Superintendent is very respect- 
fully referred to what is said under this head in the report of last 
year. It is believed unnecessary to repeat the same. Our expe- 

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No. 67.1 


rience confirms the truth of th« remark there made, that if the terms 
of admis^on prescribed by the Ute Superintendetit, are rigidly ad- 
hered to, these departments will be reduced to a Tery smalt number, 
or they will be totally annihilated. The applicants are admitted on 
subscribing a declaration, that it is their intention to qualify tbem- 
■elrea to teach a common school. 

Cma-te of butruction on the Prmeytlea of TtacAmg. — Thisconrw 
has con^sted of a course of lectures on the following subjects, viz: 

1. The qualifications of teacheis of common schools. 
3. Teaching the alphabet, spelling and reading. 
3. " arithmetic, mental and written. 

geograp^, mapping, 4c, 
nglish Grammar. 

5. " English Grammar. 

6. Government of schools. 

7. « « 

8. Construction of school houses. 

9. Classification, miscellaneous hints. 

To this course is sometimes added the recitation of Abbot's Teai^- 
er. The members of the class examine all the school books to be 
found on Arithmetic, English Grammar and Geography, and all read- 
ing books. In this manner they become familiar with the most 
common school books, and form some opinion of their comparative 

The Influence of this Department. — ^The cause of common school 
education, we believe, has been essentially aided. The young men 
go out to teach, with a deeper sense of the importance of the situa- 
tion which they propose to occupy. They acquire a knowledge of 
what they should do, nearly allied to that gained by actual experience. 
They are prepare to meet many of the OOTtacles, which might other- 
wise prevent their usefulness and success. The young men, though 
they may teach school only a few seasons, are much better qualified 
to act as citizens, in sustaining the cause of useful knowledge. 

The attention of the Superintendent is invited to the report of this 
Academy for the last year, (1841,) as it embraces a detailed and full 
history of what the trustees of Canandaigua Academy have done, to 
lostain and give efficiency to this department of the institution. 

HENRY HOWE, Principal. 

Catumdaigua Academy, Dec. 5, 1842. 

CoBTUND Academy, {Cortland county.) — The Trustees and Prin- 
cipal of Cortland Academy, established at Homer, in the county of 
Coitland, submit the following annual report respecting the depart- 
ment for the education of teachers of common schools, established at 
th«r institution. 

1. Eber M. Rallo, A. M., has been employed exclusively on ac- 
count of the department, at a salary of $560 per annum. 

2. The expense actually incurred during the year on account of 

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180 [Sbsatk 

the department, over and abore what the institution would have in- 
curred if no department had been established, is $360. 

The amount received for tuition of students belonging to the 

department during the year, is , $100 00 

Amount charged, 141 00 

Ko pupils in the department have had charge of classes the present 
year, the state of the school not rendering it convenient to gire them 
such charge. An effort has, however, been made to place them at 
their recitations before their classes as teachers, that they might thus 
be improved in their modes of communicating instruction. 

A recajntutation of tht JVumher and Clatt^aCion of tht Stu- 
dentt, ^c. 

1. The whole number of students who have belonged to the de- 
partment during the year, is 50. 

3. The number actually attending at the date of the report, is IS. 

3. Of those who have been connected with the departmeot, 

1 has attended 41 weeks. 

1 " 32 « 

7 « 24 « 

1 " 19 " 

2 « 18 " 

36 « 9 « 

1 « 6 " 

1 " .... •■• • 1 « 

A department for the education of commoD school teachers was 
established in this Academy in the year 1839. 
The number of students admitted in the year 

1839 was 30 

1840 « 26 

1841 « 12 

1842 " 45 

It is believed that most of those who have been at any time con- 
nected with the department, have been engaged in teaching. How 
much time each pupil has spent in teaching, we have not the means 
of knowing. 

General Observations^ ^c— The qualifications of those who apply 
for admission to this department, are almost as various as the appli- 
cants themselves. Of these, most have only passed the ordeal of in- 
struction in the common schools, and many are found to be but im- 
perfectly acquainted with the subjects usually taught in them. Others 
have been engaged in teaching several years; and it might reasonably 
be expected that they would exhibit a thorough acquaintance with 
the subjects which they have been employed to teach. We have^ 
however, with very few exceptions, found it necessary to place them 
• apon a tboiough review of the elementary branches, and it is seldom^ 
nottl they have spent at least one term in the department, that the^ 

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No. 57. j 181 

can properly be advaiiced to other studies. Tbis state of things has 
its origin, to a very coosiderable extent, in the loose modes of in- 
straction vhich prevail in the coromon schools, and probably cannot 
be corrected, until the teachers have themselves been subjected to a 
more rigid mental discipline, and view education, not aa designed to 
■lore the mind with facts, but to bring its poweis into active and vi' 
forous exercise. 

The course of instruction prescribed in the instructions of the late 
Saperintendent, has been in general adhered to, and our confidence 
in its judicious character, has been strengthened by the experience of 
the past year. A fev of the members of the department have been 
admitted to other studies, aa Algebra, and Natural Philosophy; be- 
cause these studies are required to be taught in many of the schools 
in tbis section of the country. 

The trustees early in the present year proposed to furnish gratui- 
tous instiuction to one young man from each tuwn in this county, vho 
would engage to continue in the department, until he shall have com- 
pleted the course of instruction prescribed. Under this proposal five 
young men have been admitted, and it is expected that the number 
will be filled the next year. 

The Trustees and Principal are very desirous that the course of 
study should be completed by those who enter the department. They 
fear, however, that those who pursue their studies, so far as to obtain 
the certificate of a County Superintendent, will consider themselves as 
fully qualified teachers, and that their motives for further attainments 
will thus be greatly weakened. It is respectfully suggested, whether 
this tendency may not be counteracted, by giving to the diploma, to 
which those are entitled who complete the course, a validity which 
shall constitute them professional UachtTS, and which shall entitle 
them to teach in any part of the State. It is believed that this is 
due as an act of justice to those who devote so much time in prepar- 
ing themselves ably to serve the public in the great cause of edu- 

In addition to the recitations of the pupils from tbeir text books, 
tbey have been instructed on the best modes of teaching, and a varie- 
ty of illustrations suited to the youthful mind has been presented to 
tbem. They have had daily exercises in Elocution and Penmanship, 
and interesting facts in Astronomy, Natural Philosophy and other 
departments of natural science have been explained and experimen- 
tally illustrated. The instruction thus communicated has been little 
short of a full course of lectures on teaching, and though not present- 
ed under the formality of such a course, its influence on their charac- 
ter and usefulness as teachers, it is believed will not he less deeply 
and permanently felt. 

It may not be improper here to state that the best feelings prevail 
m this vicinity towards the department; and we confidently expect 
that its influence will continue to extend until all that has been expect- 
ed from it by the friends of education will be fully realized. 

We cannot close this report without expressing our confidence in 
the system of county supervision of the common schools, and giving 

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183 fSsRm 

our testimony to the faithful diBcbarge of his daties, by the able and 
devoted Superintendent of this county. He bu erinced a deep inte- 
rest ID the success of the department, and his Tistts have exerted ■ 
verj salutary influence over the pupils. 

The following is the pledge which those who have been admitted 
to the department, have been required to sobscribe. 

" Having been examined and admitted to the department for the 
education of teachers in Cortland Academy, I do hereby engage that 
I will employ myself in teaching some common school for at lead 
one year after leaving the department, unless prevented by ill health, 
or some other unavoidable impediment; and that I will conform to 
the instructions of the Superintendent of Common Schools respecting 
the organization and management of the department, and the conrx 
of study therein pursued." 

The department opened with the summer tern of the academy on 
the 21st day of April, and closed on the 26tb day of October. The 
next year it will open about two weeks earlier, and continue to the 
S6tb October. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

SAM'L B. WOOL WORTH, Priadpal. 

JibrntTy Cortland co., Dec. 1, 1842. 


MiDDLEBUBT AcADEHY, {Wyoming cottjtty.) — The Trustees aad 
Principal of the Middlebury Academy, established at Wyoming Vil- 
lage, Middlebury, in the county of Wyoming, submit the following 
annual report respecting the department for the education of teach- 
ers of common schools, established in their institution. 

Organization of the department. — In regard to the amount of 
• money originally received for the endowment of this department, 
and also in regard to the manner in which it was expended, we beg 
leave to refer to the report made from this department in Decem- 
ber, 1841. 

The books and apparatus are still on band and in good condition, 
except the compass and chain, which have been destroyfd by fire; 
and in addition to all previous books, we have the new library of 
one hundred dollars value, that you gave us last year. 

Mr. DanielC. Houghton, a graduate from Vermont University at 
Burlington, has been employed in this department for two-thirds of 
the year to teach some branches, with a salary of $500 a year. 

The Principal has taken the general charge of this department 
through the year, and is an experienced teacher; be has a salary of 
eight hundred dollars. 

Mr. Monroe Weed, a student from the Theological Institution at 
Hamilton, baa been employed in this department to teach some 
branches, two-thirds of the year, with a salary of three hundred and 
fifty dollars a year. 

The whole annual expense incurred on account of the department. 

Digitized by 


No. 57.] 183 

we think -we may safely estimate at four hnndred dollars; for every 
method is adopted that ve con^der requisite to make this department 
efficient, and equal to the expectations of the public relative to it. 

Amount received and charged for tuUion tn this department. — 
Amount recdved for tuition the present year, in this department 

We have generally charged half price to those vho had means to 
pay, but have admitted several free of expense for tuition. We 
chaise $4 per term of 16 weeks, for any, or all English branches, 
and is for the ancient and modern languages. 

The tuition is put low in this institution, for the accommodation 
of the poorer class, (considering the facilities and auxiliaries for im- 
provement,) for in addition to our library and apparatus which we 
have formerly reported, and the $100 one you bestowed upon us last 
year, the present Principal, when he entered upon his charge two 
y< ars ago, placed in the institution an excellent apparatus of modern 
style, and a finely selected cabinet of minerals and geological speci- 
mens, and a choice collection of sea shells, which he much increased 
the present year, and all of which are placed in a spacious hall, and 
classed scientifically, and in which lectures are given weekly by the 
Principal, accompanied with experiments, to which all the students 
have access. So that what is required by the Regents relative to in- 
ttmction in Geology, Mineralogy, &c. may be fully enjoyed at this 
institution; and not only are the students of the school teachers' de- 
partment benefitted, but a large class of teachers annually go out 
from this institution well qualified to instruct district, village, and 
■elect, and even high schools in the vicinity around us; and this num- 
ber is increasing with us every year. 

The whole number of students belonging to the department on the 
third day of December, 1842, was thirty. 

Of which nomber, one has been connected with the department for 
a period not exceeding eight weeks, one. 

For 1 term, but not exceeding S, 11 

"2 « u 3^ 7 

" 3 « « 4, 6 

« 4 « « 5j 3 

6, 2 

Two graduated this term, well qualified and very sucessful teachers. 

The above list comprehends those students only who have been in 
attendance more or less during the past three years. ; Many others 
have been connected with the department; and some who were dur- 
ing the past year are now absent and employed in teaching, and 
probably will be for several months, and then expectto return and 
finish their course. 

We have been able to comply with your requisitions under this 
head generally, but not to that degree of minuteness that we could 
give daily specifications. Our students belonging to this department 
are required to hear recitations under the eye and direction of their 
teacher, with critical remarks from the teacher; and in order to 
qualify them more particularly for their employment, a full course of 

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184 {SxMA-m 

lectures on all the principles of school teaching is gireti by the Prin- 
cipal every terni, so that we consider the students of this depart- 
ment thoroughly disciplined and well qualified for their task. Ws 
have sufficient evidence of this, from the constant call for this class of 
teachers, and the general acceptance they meet. 

The number actually attending at the date of this report was ten.. 
A few more will attend the present winter, others are teaching. 

The vihoU time this department has been maiataiaed tn thit Aca- 
demy.— It went into operation March 24th, 1835; has been in ope- 
ration almost eight years. But as some teachers have not been so 
particular in their records as they might have been, and did not retain 
a copy of each report, as is the custom of the presoit Principal, it is 
impossible to give the account for every year nowj it may be ascer- 
tained by another year. 

Last year seven new students entered the department. 

This year thirteen have entered the department. 

General observatioiu. — According to the reqaintions of the Su- 
perintendent, the examinations of the applicants for admisuon have 
been duly attended to, and their state of advancement is sucb, with alt 
that have been admitted, as to warrant us to believe, that the course 
pursued at this instituiion for their qualifications for school teachers, 
will in due time present them to the public as competent to the taslc 
assigned them. Perhaps as great a deficiency as we witness is in 
Reading, Spelling, and critical pronunciation; is order to correct 
these faults, one hour is spert every morning in reading, exploding 
the vowel sounds, orthography, spelling, defining, and critical pri>- 
nnncialion. One half hour is spent each day in recitation and ex- 
planations in Town's Analysis. 

The course of study prescribed, has been pursued strictly accord- 
ing to the instructions of the Superintendent; some parts have not 
yet been reached, as the report will show, but we are introducing 
the remaining branches, and shall pursue them the coming year, so 
that no one prescribed will be omitted. 

We have embraced Algebra and Chemistry in the course, as the 
Mathematics in this institution are as extensively pursued, as io any 
college in the State, and as Algebra is essential to the demonstration 
of the principles of Arithmetic, and the students of this department 
were anxious to obtain a knowledge of Algebra, we have introduced 
it, and as some have united with this department who have taught 
several seasons, but desiring greater attainments than they had made, 
are attending to the higher branches of Mathematics, and by it, the 
trustees of our common schools consider the standard of education 
more elevated amongst us. 

As the most of the students of this department are of age, they 
are pledged, Providence permitting, that they wi'l teach one year 
after they have closed their course, and where they are under age, 
their parents are pledged, and probably most of them will make 
teaching their profession through life. 

With regard to the organization of the department, we consider it 
one of the most laudable and philanthropic enterprises that could have 

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No. 67.] 


engaged the attention of literary and scientific men, viz: to raise the 
Btandaidof education amongstthe rising generation; and we con»der 
that the establishing of the department for educating both sexes till 
they are competent teachers of the sciences and arts, is a kind of 
literary benevolence that should elicit the warmest approbation from 
the heart of every lover of humanity; and we highly approve of the 
course you have taken and are pursuing, and hope your highest ex- 
pectations will be realized. 

As it is the custom in this region for ladies to attend the institu- 
tion in the fall and winter, and teach in the spring and summer, and 
for gentlemen to attend in the spring and summer, and teach in the 
fall and winter; in order to accommodate both classes, we are under 
necessity of continuing our teachers' department through the year, 
which makes it more expensive for us. 

We have not considered it necessary to record the reading and 
parsing, but wish to remark, that daily exercises of parsing are at- 
tended to in Thomson's Seasons, Brown's Edition, and in Prose. 

One obvious remark relative to this department is, the happy in- 
fluence it continues to exert upon the character and qualifications of 
the teachers of common schools in this vicinity. Nor is its inflaence 
limited to those who are nominally connected with the department; 
for we have quite as many teachers who enjoy the benefit of the in- 
struction given in this department, but who are not formally con- 
nected with it, as there are regular members of the department. 
The consequence is, that all our students who teach a part of the 
year, go out much better fitted for their task than before, and the 
nnmber of them is very considerable. 

The necessary expenses of students at this Academy are very small. 
Good board, lodging and other suitable accommodations may be ob- 
tained at from $1.25 to $1,50 per week. 

Taition is low, being only $12 and $15 per annum; and in this 
department only half price. 

The whole annual expense of a student in this Academy need not 
exceed S^5, exclusive of books and apparel. 

The location of the Academy is certainly one of the most healthy 
and agreeable in the State, and the qualifications of the teachers em- 
ployed in it such as have commanded the confidence and esteem of 
the public. 

AMASA BUCK, Prmeipal. 

JDicember 3, 1842. 

RocBESTEB CoiXEGiATB Ihbtitute, {Mmroe couTity.) — The Trus- 
tees and Principal of the Collegiate Institute, established at Roches- 
ter, in the county of Monroe, submit the following annual report 
respecting the department for the education of tencbers of common 
schools, established in the instittite, on this thirtieth dav of November, 
1842. ^ 

The class of teachers was formed immediately on the commence- 
ment of the sesnon in May, and the general course of studies pre- 

[Seoate No. 57.J Y 


186 [Skate 

scribed by tfa« directions and inBtructions of tbe Superintendent wai 
closely pursued. Most of tbe class needed the principal effort to be 
made on the common Engli^ studies. As the design of forming the 
class of teachers had been exteosivelT published, a respectable num- 
ber appeared at once, and pursued the object before them, with inte- 
rest and zeal, and good success. 

Instruction was gir^n by Frof. Brittan, the Associate Principal, in 
Orthography, and more especially in tbe formation of the sounds of 
letters, Rhetoric and Composition, and Elocution and Reading. In 
Penmanship, by Prof. Bartholemew, with the analysis of the forma- 
tion of letters and the composition of the various fundamental lines. 

In English Grammar, by Mr. Wetherel), the head of the English 
department, with special reference to the analysis of the language as 
shown in parsing the plaineBt as well as most difficult sentences. In 
Orthography in part. Etymology, Pronunciation, Punctuation in part, 
in reading in Porter's Rhetorical Reader, as a daily exercise, by the 

The class was chiefly exercised by themselves in these studies. In 
this way four of the permanent teachers of the institute were engaged 
in aiding the class of common school teachers. 

A female of competent qualifications was engaged to aid especially 
the females who were expected to belong to the class of teachers. 

At the beginning of the second quarter another male teacher was 
employed, as the number of scholars was greater in the academy, in 
order to give time and attention also to the teachers' class. 

Special efl'orts have been made to impart such instructions as 
should fit the class for the duties of teaching. In the common stu- 
dies they were arranged with other classes, and made a point of cod- 
forming to the regulations of the school. 

The additional teachers employed have just been mentioned. So 
many of the instructers who are permanent and well qualified have- 
been engaged in teaching the class, that no one was requisite to be 
specially devoted to it Yet much effort was made for their benefit, 
and to such an amount, as would by itself have up most of the time 
of one teacher- 

Tuition Charga. — ^The charge of tuition is fixed by' the trustees as 
stated in the report of last year to the Superintendent- It is in no 
case to exceed ten dollars for the six montlu, and it is to be less when 
the circnmstances of the student reqnire it. 

The amount received for tuition, is |17 27 

The amount charged, is 83 &6 

Only a part of thi^s expected to be paid. 

Mono of that due last year at the time of the report has smce been 
pud. Only a part of tbe above charge will be paid. 

EngagemaU to ktep School — Rtcitaiiotu. — Nearly all the members 
of the cUss have been willing to engage to keep a district school for 
one year. Their object was to be fitted for the employment,and 
there has been little reluctance to engage to carry out Ute instruct 
tioDS of the Supermtendent in this particular. 

Digitized by 


No. 67.] 187 

Those that Were qBalitied, were often employed in hearing various 
recitations of their classed. 

Reeapitttlation — JVtimber, Tfme, Sic. — Itbc whole number of sta- 
dents who have belonged to th^ department for teachers during this 
year, 18. All except lhre6 engaged to keep school one year or 
more, if schools can be obtaitied and Froyidence permit. 

No. 6 has attended neuly two terms, or SI weeks. 

" l,afc3, « « 17 " 

« 11, 9, « " about a « 

« 4,6&10, « « 10 " 

« 12, 13, 14 & 17, " « 8 « 

« 7, 10 & 16, hare « " 7 « 

"8 «. « 5 « 

« 15 « « 3 « 

The department for teachers has been in operation from Mar 16tk 
to December, being more than six months, as the vacation cud not 
interrupt this department. 

Of the 15 members of the teachers' class last year, 11 were em- 
ployed in teaching district schoolsj and three others were ready to 
engage, but no school presented. 

Gatiral Remarks. — The teachers were questioned on their acqui- 
stioDs and deficiencies. Most of them needed to attend to the ele- 
mentary branches. 

Cmnpoution was regularly attended toj and the young men en- 
gaged in declemati<Hi and debating in a society formed for this pur- 

The teachers of academies are not generally satisfied with the au- 
thors presented in the directions from the Superintendent of the last 
year, out whilst they approve the subject there pointed out, desire to 
take the authors which seem to them most fitted for the object. To 
QB, this appears the preferable course. 

It is our opinion that the academies offer the best and cheapest mode 
of increasing the number of competeilt teachers of common schools. 

Xbmtyfor Teachers' lAhrary. — One hundred dollars were received 
from the H^enta of the University for this object; more than seven- 
ty dollars have been expended for the library. Such additions are 
to be made as will be most useful to the teachers. 

WM. PlTfclN, 
President of the Board of Trustees. 
PrincipaJ of the' Collegiate Butituie. 

Rochett^ Colligiati Institute^ 1S42. 

The Principal of the Institute wishes to subjoin to the foregoing 
r^iort, that as no particular fdrm lias been transmitted to this Aca- 
demy, he has given the report such a form as seemeil to be consistent 
with the directions of the Snperintende*t of last year. 

He ought to state also to the Superintendent of ComnfM Schools^ 
that mocb ^Ebrt has been made to give the class of teachers the de- 

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188 [SssATm. 

eired instruction, and that &miliar lectures, specially designed for 
them, have been often given before the school. These have been on 
teaching spelling, on principles of grammar and arithmetic, modes of 
explanation, &c. and on exciting an interest in the pupils, and on 
management of a school. The teachers have profited by the course. 
Living and teaching in a city which is making great efforts to improve 
its common schools, the Principal and his associates have felt a deep 
interest in the preparation of teachers of such schools. To raise up 
a body of competent teachers is nov the great desideratum. That 
the efforts made in this Institute have aided this cause, they have no 

In teaching the extraction of the square and cubic roots, and of all 
roots, we are accustomed to give the demonstration of the rules by 
arithmetic, without riiference to squares and oblongs, and cubes and 
parallellopipeds. Thus the teaching and proving of all the rules is 
entirely arithmetical. We adopt a method, far preferable, as the 
Principal believes, to that given in Perkins' Higher Arithmetic, by 
showing the dissection of a power by keeping the parts of it sepa- 
rate, and that the rule for the extraction of the root, is the mere lan- 
gu^e or expression of that dissection. This method seems to befar 
easier of comprehension by pupils than any other yet proposed. The 
teacher has the satisfaction of feeling that all the rules in arithmetic 
are proved by the principles of arithmetic alone, and that their de- 
monstration would have been absolute even if algebra and geometry 
bad never been known. 

By 'making FoDok's Course of Time, or some work of difficult 
construction, the hook for parsing, as well as using common senten- 
ces, the minds of teachers are powerfully exercised on construction, 
the philosophy of language and its idioms, and in ascertaining the 
real thought of the auuior. 


Fbbdohia Acadeut, {Chatauquecovniy.) — ^The Trustees and Prin- 
upal of the Fredonia Academy, established at Fredonia, in the coun- 
ty of Chautauque, submit the following annual report respecting the 
department for the education of teachers of common schools estab- 
lished in their institution. 

One addtlional teacher has been employed in the Academy on account 
of this department, viz: Mr. Samuel Healy,with a salary off 360pr. an. 
The students in this department have been instructed by the Princi- 
pal in the following studies, viz: Geometry, Surveying, Algebra, 
Arithmetic, Astronomy, Rhetoric, Civil Polity, Principles of Teach- 
ing, Chemistry, Philosophy and Declamation. By Mr. F. A. Red- 
ingtoD, A. B. in Geology, Orthography, Composition, Reading, Wri- 
ting, and Spelling. By Mr. Samuel Healy, in Engli^ Grammar and 
Geography, and by Miss Sarah A. Wheat, in Botany and French. 

The expense actually incurred during the year, on account of, or 
occasioned by tbe department, over and above what the institutiom 
would have expended if no department had been established, has 


No. 67.] 189 

The amouDt received for tuition of students belonging to this de- 
partment, is jtl5S. Tuition id this department is the same as that 
charged for other students, being ^ per term, of 15 weeks. Tuition 
being very lov in this institution, it has not been thought best to toake 
a further reduction. At the same time the Trustees intend that no 
student shall be prevented from* attending this department on account 
of his inability to pay tuition. Several of the students in this de- 
partment have been allowed their tuition for their services in teach- 
uigin the institution. 

The more advanced students in this department, have each had 
chaise of a class for a term or half term, and have been required at 
the close of the term, to examine in public their respective classes. 
The studies pursued by these classes have been Arithmetic, Grammar, 
Gec^raphy, Reading, Writing and Spelling. 

The whole number of students who have belonged to this depart- 
ment during the year, is 45; of this number 6 have attended S4 
weeks — 23, 16 weeks—and 16, 8 weeks. The number actually at- 
tending at the date of this report is 3, the remainder being employ- 
ed in teaching. The number in the department who have heretofore 
belonged to it, is 13; 6 have been connected with it 10 months, and 
9, 6 months. 

A department has been maintained in this institution 18 months; 
31 pupils were admitted the first year, and 33 the present year. The 
whole number admitted is 64. 

The students who have belonged to the department are known to 
been engaged at some time in teaching common schools, and so far 
as our information extends, they are now employed in teaching. 

The course of instruction recommended by the Superintendent 
has been attended to, as far as practicable. In some few instan- 
ces students have taken additional studies, without, however, intend- 
ing to omit any included in the regular course. A department has 
been maintained in our institution the whole year, for the benefit of 
those who cannot well attend during the summer term. Qreat pains 
have been taken to give students a thorough knowledge of the ele- 
mentary branches, to induce habits of close observation and applica- 
tion, and to store their minds with such knowledge as will be most 
nsefnl to them in the profession in which they are to engage. It is 
believed that schools in this vicinity are greatly benefitted bf having 
teachers who are thoroughly qualified for their profession, and who 
enter upon their duties with that preparation, investigation and know- 
ledge, which is so necessary to success in every important occupation 
andprofession in life. 

L. BARKER, President. 
CHAS. H. PALMER, Prvtcipal. 

fVedbfiM, Dec. 19, 1843. 


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No, 57-3 X9X 

the Superintendent of Common Schools, respectiDg its department 
for the education of teachers. 

My apolo^ on this subject is this: I reported last year, that we 
had complied in all possible respects with the directions sent to tla 
on that subject, and at considerable expense, but that no person ever 
applied to us who would talce the pledge: that we had, nevertheless, 
given gratuitous instruction, in our whole course of studies, to manj 
students, who became teachers of schools of all sorts: and that 
it seemed to us worse than vain to attempt to carry out the plan laid 
down in the directions sent us. I was at Albany after making that 
report, and found that such of the Regents as I conversed with, con- 
ouned is our views. It was then conndently believed that the plan 
would be changed. And lujder that impression we rested; nor did 
it occur to me that another report would be expected, until I came 
here, and accidentally observed that we were reported deficient. 

I assure you there has been no intention to treat the subject disre- 
spectfully or negligently. And I hasten to aay, that in all bnt ad- 
vertising for such students, we have done in the last year more than 
in any other to facilitate the education of teachers. We received no- 
thing last year for the expense incurred; nor did we expect it. And 
it is and will be our pleasure to do all in our power for the carrying 
out the views and wishes of the Regents and the Superintendent of 
Common Schools, in the education of a higher order of teachers. 
Yet I frankly confess to you my fears, that nothing effective will be 
accomplished by the proposed appendages of Departments to the 
academies. It seems to me, that a few tpecial xchoola, say four or 
five for the whole State, might be tried wiUi fair prospect of success. 

I hope my apology will satisfy you of our good mtentions, and 
that we are not capiwle of intended delinquency or disrespect. 
Very truly, yours, 


Rector of the Grammar School. 


To tit SupH of Ommon Schoolt of the State of JVewYbrk : 

The Trustees and Principal of the Rutgers Female Institute, esta- 
blished in the 7th ward of the city of New-York, submit the follow* 
ing annual report, respecting the department for the education of 
teachers of common schools, established in the Institute. 

Ist. Of Huinictors, and 2d. OfExpensa. — For this departmentthe 
board have to remark, that as the number in the department was 
mall, and of different attainments, no special instructors have been 
employed, and no extra expense has been incurred; but the young 
ladies have been connected with the ordinary classes in the Institute, 
and have recited with them. 

3d. Charge for Titiiion. — As was stated last year, no charge is 
made for toitioD to members of this department. If they prefer to 
be owners of the books in use, they are charged for these. 

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192 [SOHATK 

4tli. JVamer, ^c. — The following young ladies are at present con- 
nected with this department: Elizabeth A. Pioctor, Catharine M. 
Moore, (reported last year,1 Harriet E; Millette, Malvina IngersoU, 
Eleanor A. Bertran, who have signed the necessary engagement and 
given the required guarantee. 

When this institution was opened, it was agreed to educate gratui- 
tously, six young ladies from the public schools of this city, whose 
attainments would qualify them for our third department, and who 
should be recommended by the trustees of said schools. 

Three of these scholarships are now occupied, and the young la- 
dies intend to devote themselves to the business of teaching. 

In addition to these, there are four young ladies in our ITormal 
class, who are being educated for teachers : making twelve pupils 
whom the board are educating without charge for this profession. 

5th. Ai to employment in teaching. — Owing to the necessary con- 
stant occupation with studies, the members of this department have 
not been so much exercised in teaching, as was intended. They 
have occasionally taken charge of departments in the absence of the 

6lh. JVumfter and Classification. — The whole number is six, of 
whom one has studied the full terms of the.year. 

The number now attending is five. Miss Proctor, has been de- 
tained by ill health for three months past, and Miss Evertson, (we 
have recently learned,) is employed as a private teacher in a family 
in this city, having leti the institution wi^out giving us any intima- 
tion of her intentions. 

8th. Tiifie ike Department has existed. — It is now one year and 
a half Mnce the department was organized. 

9th, Three have been admitted during the year past. 

10th. General Remarks. — We beg to refer the Superintendant to 
the accompanying circular, for a view ofourplanand course of study. 

Silbmitted to the Board of Trustees at their regular meeting, and 
approved December 8th, 1842. 

ISAAC FERRIS, President. 
CHARLES E. WEST, Priacipal. 


To the SupU qf Common Schools of the State of Jfew-Tork: 

The Trustees and Principal of the Amenia Seminary, established 
at Ameniaville, in the county of Dutchess, submit the following an- 
nual report respecting the department for the education of teachers 
of common schools, established in their institution. 

No instructors have been £mployed exclusively on acconnt of the 
department. In most of the branches of study, those preparing them- 
selves for teachers have recited in the ordinary classes; we have, 
however, organized classes in two branches of study exclusively on 
account of this department, though we have not excluded other stu- 
dents from them. The two classes referred to, are — first, a class in 
English Grammar, including such exercises as will direct the atteo- 

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No. 67. J 193 

tion of the student to the bestmethodsofteBcbinggiammar. Second, 
a class in common and higher arithmetic. The textbook used isPer- 
Icins' Higher Arithmetic, and the class have been thorough]; drilled in 
the principles of common arithmetic, and also exercised m the analysis 
of arithmetical problems. 

The expense of the department to this institution, taking into the 
account the teacher's salary for the part of his time which he is en- 
gaged in the department, and other incidental expenses, will not vary 
much from $200. 

Tuition in this department is charged the same as in the other de- 
partmeats where like studies are pursued. 

The written engagement with bonds-men to be common school 
teachers, after leaving, has been dispensed with; as to have required 
it, would have prevented any students from entering the department. 
I have never known a student who bad »iflncient capacity to make a 
school teacher of even tolerable promise, and who was willing to 
come under that obligation. The same advantages can be enjoyed 
in this institution without as with a nominal <onnection with the 
teacher's department; and even in those institutions which offer the 
greatest inducements for students to enter the department, the Super- 
intendent must be aware that the advantage is trifling compared with 
the obligation entered into by the student If the State would pay 
the tuition of such scholars, there would probably be many more wil- 
ling to bind thenuelves to teach the required time. We have, how- 
ever, been careful to report none unless we had sufHcient evidence for 
their design to teach. The extra classes abere referred to, have been 
maintained during the year; but the report below embraces two terms, 
the first ending July the SOth, and the second November 30lh, each 
embracing four academic months. Had we included the winter term 
in the following schedule, about eighteen names would have been 
added to the list. 

The students have not been employed to teach the classes except 
on occasion of the teacher's absence. To ^ve complete efficien- 
cy to the department, we ought to have the entire services of a teacher 
devoted to it. But as it is maintained by a teacher whose principal 
attention is devoted to another department, he has but little time to 
devote to lectures on the best methods of teaching, governing, Sic. &c. 
We have, however, done the best for the department that we could. 
A bare glance at our annual receipts and expenditures would be suf- 
flcient evidence that it would not be advisable for the trustees to 
enlarge our expenses by employing another teacher, or to diminish 
our resources by abating any thing from the current expenses of stu- 
dents in this department. 

With regard to the list of books, it has already been remarked that 
We have organized only two distinct classes in the school, on account 
of the department; and these were in Perkins' Higher Arithmetic, 
and in English GramBiar. In this last class Smith's Grammar was 
tsed to gnide the recitations of the class, and Pollok's Course of 
Tune was used as a text book for parsing. 

[Senate No. 67.} Z 


-194 [SutATX 

This department was organized in the Bummer of 1840, we believe. 
The number of students that have been cotuected with it ance that 
time, we are unable now to state. 

It would also be impossible for us to furnish a list of those who bare 
nnce been engaged in common schools. The number who have been 
connected with the school during the present yearj and who are now 
and have b^en engaged in teaching, so far as we know, is 25. 

The usual compensation of teachers that go out from the institutioo, 
is from (16 to $30 per month. 

The compositions, we believe, are required to be forwarded, but 
it was not thought of till we reviewed the Instructions, when it was 
too late to require them. The students, however, have been exercised 
regularly in composition, and most of them are able to write very 
decent Compositions; others can write good and correct articles. 

We shall endeavor to perfect the organization of the department 
still more next summer. We believe it has been the means of good, 
even with our imperfect organization, and were we able to devote to 
it the entire services of a competent teacher, much more would ua- 
doubtedlj be accomplished by it. 

D. W. CLARE, Prmcipat. 
Chairman of Executive CommUtee. 

.^menia Seminary^ Dec. 2, 1842. 

J\> the Sup't of Comnum SchooU of the State of JVcto-Tork: 

The Trustees and Principal of the Albany Female Academy, e»- 
tablished at Albany, in the county of Albany, submit the following 
annual report respecting the department for the education of teachers 
of common schools, established in their institution. 

The arrangements which this institution has made and carried into 
operation for educating teachers for common and other schools, re- 
main the same as at the date of the last report to your department. 

For a detailed statement of the acta and resolutions which the 
board have made for the education of teachers, reference is respect- 
fully made to their report of 1839. 

During the last, as in former years, a large number of-young la- 
dies have engaged as teachers, in different parts of the country; and 
there are at the present time others under a course of iDStruction, 
with reference to the same object. 

The Normal class for the education of teachers of the French Ian* 
guage is still in successful operation. . For a full account of the 
plan and arrangement of this department, reference is respectfully 
made to the report of last year. At the last annual examination, 
five young ladies who had completed the regular French course re- 
ceived diplomas, as evidence that they were proficients in the lan- 
guage; and able to read, write, or speak it with facility and elegance, 
and qualified to teach it to others. 

From the number of those who have passed tfarongb this depart- 

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No. 67.J 196 

nent, sCTcnl arc at the present tinte engaged in teaching the lan- 

Respectfully submitted. 

GREEXE C. BROKSON, Pre^t pro ttm. 
A. CRITTENDEN, Principal. 
JoRoary S7M, 1843. 

7b the SupH of Comtaon Schoclt of the State of JVew-York. 

The Trustees and Principal of the Oxford Academy, established 
at Oxford, in the county of Chenango, submit the following report 
respecting the department for the education of teachers of cammon 
schools, established in their institution. 

No instructor has been employed exclusirely on account of the de- 
partment, the instruction having been given by the ordinary Prinw- 
pal and assistant teachers. In order to place the students in this de- 
partment under the immediate supervision of the Principal, and for 
the most part under his instruction, assistant teachers in the classical 
and mathematical departments of the institution of higher qualifica 
tions, and at greater salaries than would have been necessary for the 
ordinary purposes of instruction, have been employed, thus malting 
this department an important object in itself, without material detri- 
ment to any other branch of instruction in the Academy. By this 
means, it is believed that the pupils in the department have received 
better instruction from the Principal, than they would have received 
from such a teacher as could probably have been employed for fifty 
dollars per month, for six months of the year, exclusively on ac- 
count of tbe department. 

The course of instruction in the department during the past year, 
has embraced nearly all the subjects of study prescrioed by the Su> 
perintendent in the instructions to academies, including Orthography, 
sounds of Letters, rules for Spelling, Reading, Punctuation, Ab- 
breviations, use of Capitals, &c., Intellectual and Written Arithme- 
tic, Geography with the use of the Globes, English Grammar, Com- 
position and Declamation, Rhetoric, History, Geometry, Trigono- 
metry, Mensuration and Surveying, Intellectual and Moral Philoso- 
phy, aod the political institutions of the country, and the Constitu- 
tion of the U. S. and of the State of New-York. The other sub- 
jects in the course of stody have not been reached by the pupils. 
During the r^ular recitations, as well as on numerous other occa- 
sions set apart for the purpose, the different subjects connected with 
school keeping were more particularly considered, faultv methods of 
instruction were exposed, errors in classification of scholars, and the 
internal arrangement of common schools were pointed out, modes of 
discipline were illustrated, and the results of experience in conduct- 
ing the education of youth were communicated by lectures, with a Va- 
riety of miscellaneous instruction, calculated to prepare the pupils 
for a faithful and pro&table dischai^e of the impprtant duties of 
teachers of common schools. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

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The expense incurred during tbe year on account of the depart- 
ment is estimated at $400.00, accruing from the increased compen- 
sation paid for instruction in the institution io consequence of the 
departmentj the accommodations which the pupils have required, 
and the contingent expenses independent of the gratuitous tuitioD 
given to pupils in the department. Inclusive of the gratuitous tui- 
tion allowed to such pupils, the whole annual expense may he esti- 
mated at $450.00 for the pa^t year. 

The amount of tuition moneys received from those students who 
have joined the department temporarily, but who have not girrai 
ihe pledge to teach a conmion school as prescribed in the instructions 
of the Superintendent, is $118.58 during the year. They have 
been charged the same tuition as other students in the Academy pur- 
suing the same studies. 

Those students who have entered upon the course of study pre- 
scribed by the Superintendent, and given the required pledge and 
guaranty to become teachers of common schools for one year after 
leaving the department, have received their tuition gratuitously. 

The amount of gratuitous tuition given to this class of pupils is 
about $50.00, estimating the same at the rate of tuition of other 
students pursuing the same studies. 

Nearly all the pupils in tbe department have occasionally been 
placed in charge of classes in the presence of the Principal, to give 
them practice, and detect their errors in communicating knowledge 
to others. The pupils of the department have not had charge of 
many classes of younger pupils, as it has been supposed that parents 
who send their children to the Academy to be instructed by experienc- 
ed teachers, might not be satisfied with the instruction given by 
older and inexperienced scholars. 

Tbe whole number of students who have belonged to the depart- 
ment during the year, is forty-eight. 

The number actually attending at the date of this report, two, 
all others having left the Academy to teach common schools during 
the winter. 

The whole number in the department who have belonged to it 
previous to the present year, is fifteen. 

The number connected with the department six months or up- 
wards, is eight. 

The number connected with the department one year or two terms, 
is three. 

The number connected with the department three terms, none. 

It is impossible to give any definite information under this head 
as required in the " Form of Reports." It is believed that all the 
pupils, (with very few exceptions,} who have at any time been con- 
oected with the department, have subsequently been engaged in the 
business of teaching common schools, but how long each one has 
been so employed, it is impossible to determine, dispersed as they 
are through the country in parts unknown. 

Students were not admitted into the department till they were 
found on examination to possess the requisite preliminary know- 
Digitized by 


No. 57.] 197 

ledge to make them students m the higher branches of English edu- 
cation. Most of the pupils were required to review the elementary 
studies after they had joined the department. 

Although some of the pupils were found to be deficient in a know- 
ledge of nrst principles in education, and the rationale connected 
with their studies, the necessary result of superficial attainments ; 
yet it may be confidently stated, that the pupils generally who have 
entered the department, had made greater attainments in the com- 
mon schools previous to their joining the department. 

The course of study prescribed in the instructions of the Superin- 
tendent, has been pursued by those who have made the required en- 
^ement to teach a common school for one year. Other students 
m the department have been allowed to study Natural Philosophy, 
Chemistry, or Algebra, in connexion with the studies prescribed in 
the instructions of the Superintendent. 

Respectfully submitted. 

JOHN TRACY, President of th* 

Board of Truutees. 
M. G. McKOON, Principal oftht 

Dteemher 6th, 1842. ' Oxford Academy. 

To the Sup'l of Common Schoolt of the Slate of JVew- York: 

The Trustees of the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, in addition to 
their general or annual report, herewith transmit the following spe- 
rial on the progress and condition of the department for the educa- 
tion of Common School Teachers, established in their institution. 

1st. Organization of the Department. — For all matters embraced 
under this head, the Tnistees would refer to their report of last year, 
as it remains in relation to them substantially the same as at the date 
of that report. 

The establishing of a library for the special benefit of the depart- 
ment is a Tahiable auxiliary, and is already exerting a very salutary 
influence in its behalf. 

2d. Subjects of study pursued, and text booksused. — The subjects 
of study and text books have not been materially changed since last 
year; to that report therefore, the Trustees would refer for the re- 
quiute information. 

2d. J^fumber and Clattification of Students. — ^The whole number 
of students belonging to the department on the 29th of September, 
1842, was thirty-one. The whole number during the year, seventy- 

Of which number there have been connected with the department, 
for a period not exceeding one quarter of the Seminary, eight, du- 
lint; last year. 

For a period exceeding one, but not exceeding two quarters, 
twenty last year. For the number of students and length of time 
beyond two quarters, see report of last year where a complete classi- 
cation vUl be foaod. 

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199 [SnAT» 

Jt«nMnb.— -We deem it proper here to state, that the* preset re- 
port is not a fair index of the condition of the department, inagmuch 
as in compliance with the latest instructions from the Superintendent 
it covers only six months of the year, liz : the summer term^ and 
earlj in that term, the school was seriously deranged by the destruc- 
tion of the Seminary buildings by fire, so that the scboal, though con- 
tinued thro^h the summer, was greatly reduced in numbers. 

We feel great pleasure, however, in being able to say, that at no 
period since the institution opened, was this department in so pros- 
perous condition as at the time of the fire. 

No efforts have been spared by the Trmstees to restore the Semina- 
ry to its former prosperous condition. 

Kearly all of the teachers belonging to the department have been 
engaged in teachir^, and many applications which we could not meet 
have come in from those districts where teachers from the depart- 
ment taught last year; and we find, in looking over this part of the 
State, that stsdents from the teachers' department of this Seminan 
are now occupying the most prominent district schools in our rij- 

The department has been continued through the year, though w» 
bare made our report only for the summer term. 


Decembtr lOih, 1842. 

Of Students reported in the respective Teacher^ Departments. 

1. Montgomery Academy, 31 

5. Kinderbook Academy, 29 

3. Delaware Academy, 16 

4. Washington Academy, 13 

6. St. Lawrence Academy, 73 

6. Fairfield Academy, 23 

7. Hamilton Academy, 31 

8. Hobart Hall Institute, 39 

9. Rensselaer Oswego Academy, 20 

10. Franklin Academy, Plattsburgh, 33 

1 1 . Ithaca Academy, 19 

12. Canandaigua Academy, 60 

13. Cortland Academy, 60 

14. Midd!ebury Academy, 30 

15. Rochester Collegiate Institute, 13 

16. Fredonia Academy, 46 

17. Amenla Seminary, .,..•... S5 

18. Oxford Academy, 43 

19. Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, 78 

20. Rutgers Female Institute, 12 

Total, 681 



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The Secretary presents to the RegentB of the Univexsity the above 
papers which he has compiled from the records of their proceedings} 
and from the acts of the Legislature. They consist of, 

1. A Catali^ue of the Academies incorporated by the Regents from 
the 17th of NoTember, 1787, to the 1st of March, 1843, arranged 
according to the date of their incorporation. They are 81 in niu^ 
ber, of which, 

S Hamilton On^da Academy, and Geneva Academy, have been 
merged in CpUeges, (Hamilton College and Geneva College.) 

8 are extinct. Union Academy at Stone Arabia, Otsego Academy, 
Columbia Academy at Kinderhook, Catalhll Academy, Ball- 
Bton Academy, Washington Academy at Warwick, Orange 

county, Bloominggrove Academy, and Monroe Academy. 
2 have been quite recently incorporated. Korwich Academy and 

Monroe Academy. 
6 did not report in 1843, viz: C^amplain Academy, Kingsborough 
Academy, Moriah Academy, Oygterbay Academy, Fiermont 
Academy, and Schenectady Academy. 
66 did report in 1843. 


2. A Catalogue of the Academies incorporated by the Legislature, 
arranged accordiqg to the date of their incorporation, from March 
38, 1817, to March 1, 1843, with the date when (if at all) they were 
received under the visitation of the Regents of the University. 

These are 152 in number, including the New-York Institution for 
the Deaf and t)umb, the Grammar Scnool of Columbia College, and 
the Grammar School of the Univeraly of the city of New-Yo3i, and 
of these 152, eighty-eight have been received under the visitation of 
the R^rnta. 

4gain — of these, 9x>cbeBter High School has been merged in the 
Rochester Collegiate Institute, leaving 87. 

11 did not report in 1843, viz: Aton Academy, Bridgewater Acade- 
my, Clermont Academy, Fidmyra High School, Poughlceepue 
cluneal ^ool, Pougbkeepne Fetnale Academy, Schenec- 
tady Young Ladies' Semiilaiy, Sullivan County Academy, 
Steuben Acadmiy, White Blainp Academy, and' Yates County 
AcadeQty and Female Seminary. . 
76 have reported ip 1843, 



SIS [Shtate 

The total number of Academies subject to the viaitation of the 
Regents, is hence ss'foUowB: 

Riportlw 1* IM*- Did DOtiaport. Toul. 

Of those incorporated hj the Regents, 66 6 7S 

Of those incorporated by the LeguUature, 



If these Academies be arranged according to the counties in vhich 
they are utuated, the numbers will be as follows: 

Firit Dittrict. 

New-York, 4 



Second Dittrict. 

Qoeens, 3 

Suffolk, 1 

Westchester, 4 

Rockland, I 


Dutchess, 6 

Orange, 6 

Snlliyan, 1 

Ulatnr, 8 


mrd Dittrict. 

Albany, 4 

Delaware, 2 

Greene, 3 

Columbia, 3 

Rensselaer, 6 

Schoharie, S 

Schenectady, 3 


Fourth Dittrict. 

Saratc^, 4 

Montgomery, 3 

Hamilton, - 

Fnlton, 2 

WaBbingt<Hi, 5 

Warren, 1 

Clinton, . 

Franklin, 2 

St. Lawrenc«, 4 

Herkimer, 2 

Fifth Dittriet. 

Oneida, 13 

Madison, 3 

Osw^^, 2 

Lewis, 1 

Jefferson, 2 

Otsego, 3 

Sixth Dittrict. 

Chenango, 3 

Broome, 1 

Tompkins, 2 

Chemung, I 

Tioga, 1 

Steuben, 1 

Livingston, 3 

Allegany, 1 

Cattarangos, - 


Seventh Dittrict. 

Wayne, I 

Ontario, 3 

Tates, 1 

Seneca, 3 

Cayuga, 4 


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No. 67.] 
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Bghth Dittrict. 

Cbftntanque, .■• 4 

Erie, 3 

Genesee, 4 

Wyoming, S 

Monroe, 7 

Orleans, 6 

Niagara, 1 


1st District, 6 

2d District, 23 

3d District, 81 

4th District, 28 

5th District, 24 

6th District, 13 

7th District, 21 

8th District,. . .^ 26 


tt thus appears that there is at least one incorporated Academy 
nnder the visitation of the Regents in each county in the State, ex- 
cept lUchmoad, Putnam, Hamilton and Cattaraugus. 

T. ROMEYN BECK, Sec*]/. 





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1. Progrets of Tegetation, &o. 

2. AtmoBpheric phenomena. 

A. Aurora Borealig. 

B. Haloes, kc. 

C. Weather before ind after Aurona and Haloes. ; 

D. Sunsets. 

E. Meteors and falling stars. 

F. Earthquakes. 

3. Temperature, &c. 

A. Periods at which the Hudson opened and closed. 

B. Opening and clonng of rivers, lakes and canals. 

C. Weather, vinda, &c. 

D. Thunder shovers and snow storms. 
£. Temperature of springs. 

F. Temperature below the earth's surface. 
i. Results of thermometrical observations made at Rochester, at 7 

A. M., 2 P. M., and 9 P. M., by Rev. Chester Dewey. 
6. Thermometrical and barometrical observations for 1843, made it 

Utica, by S. Aylswortb, Esq. 
6. Memoranda of meteorological and other observations made at the 

New-York Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb| 

by O. W. Morris. 
T. Thermometrical and barometrical observations for 1842, made af 

Detroit, state of Michigan, by Rev. Oeorge Duffield. 

8. Barometrical observations for 184S, made at North Salem Aca-' 

demy, Rochester Collegiate Institute, and Oneida CoDfereDC< 

9. Variation of the compass. 

10. Latitude and longitude of the various places observing. 

11. Botanical calendar, kept at Rochester, l^ Rev. Chester Dewej. 

[Senate No. 67.] H9 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Firtt 7%uudtf Storm. — March S5, Albany; February 4, Auburn; 
April 22, Cambrige Washington; February 4, CayuM; May 11, 
Clinton; January 29, Cortland; February 4, Erasmus Hall; March 
25, Fairfield; March 7, Farmer's Hall; February 6, hail and thunder 
changed to snow, Franklin Malone; January 29, Franklin Pratts- 
burgh; January 29, Fredonia; January 31, Gaines; March 10, Gran- 
ville; January 29, rain with lightning, Hamilton; January 29, Ithaca; 
February 11, Johnstown; March 25, Kinderhook; April4, Lewiston; 
April 22, Lowville; January 29, Middlebury; January 29, Millville; 
March 5, Montgomery; March 6, Mount Pieasantj January 21, New- 
faui^h; March 6, North Salem; February 6, lightning last night, and 
rain and snow this morning, Oneida Conference; February 4, Onon- 
daga; March 4, Oxford; March 6, Redhook; February 4, Rensselaer 
Oswego; February 4, St. Lawrence; February 4, Unionljteiary So- 
ciety; January 29, Rochester. 

Phahe Birds heard. — January 7, Lewiston. 

Maple Sugar making. — January 19, Lowyille. 

Robins first seen. — March 30, Auburn; March 4, Cambridge Wash- 
ington; March 9, Cayuga; March 4, Cortland; March 14, Erasmus 
Hall; March 2, FairfielO; March 6, Farmer's Hall; March 21, Frank- 
lin Malone; March 2, Gaines; March 2, Gouyerneur; March 4, 
Granyille; March 4, Hamilton; March 3, Johnstown; March 4, Kin- 
derhook; March 17, Lewiston; March 13, Lowyille; March 20, Mid- 
Olebury; March 2, Millville; March 11, Montgomery; February 25, 
North Salem; March 2, Oneida Conference; March 4, Onondaga; 
March 3, Oxford; March 29,PIattsburgh; March 3, Redhook; March 
6, Rensselaer Oswego; March 3, Spnngville; March 17, St. Law- 
rence; March 3, Union L. S.; March 8, Albany; March 3, Rochester. 

Blue Birds first teen. — March 10, Cayuga; March 4, Cortland; 
March 3, Dutchess; February 8, Erasmus Hall; March 17, Fairfield; 
March 4, Farmer's Hall; April 10, Franklin Malone; March 3, 
Gaine»; April 1, Gouyerneur; March 4, Granville; March 12, Ham- 
ilton; March 3, Kinderhook; March 3, Lewiston; March 2, MiII> 
ville; March 11, Montgomery; March 3, Newburgh; March 1, North 
Salem; March 2, Onondaga; March 4, Oxford; March 3, Redhook; 
March 5, Rensselaer Oswego; March 1, Union Hall; March 3, Union 
L. S.; March 3, Albany; March 3, Rochester. 

JVog-t heard. — March 19, Cambridge Washington; March 18, 
Cortland; February 26, Erasmus Hall; February 3, Gaines; April 
1, Gouverneur; April 6, Granville; March 19, Hamilton; April 2, 
Jonstown; March 17, Kinderhook; March IS, Lewiston; April IJI) 
Lowville; March 18, Newburgh; February 2, North Salem: April4, 
Oneida Conference; March 19, Onondaga; March 19, Oxford; April 
23, Platlsburgh; April 10, Rensselaer Oswego; March 1, Union Hall; 
April 3, St. Lawrence; April 3, Union L. S.; March 4, Rochester. 

Ptouting c<munenc«d. —March 8, Cortland; April 18, Fairfield; 
March 19, Hamilton; March 10, North Salem; March 19, Rochester. 

Digitized by 


No. 67.] 267 

Ulmiu Americana {Elm^ in ftfoom. — March 3, Cajuga; March28, 

Daffodil in bloom. — March 3, Cayuga; April 10, Cortland; March 
20; Erasmus Hall; April 11, Uamiltonj Apii) 16, Johnstown; April 
2, North Salem. 

Jirbutus in flower. — March 30, Kingston. 

Iris Pertica in bloom. — ^March 27, Cayuga- 

Antmone in flower. — March 27, Kingston; April 11, Newburgh; 
April 6, North Salem. 

AprieoU in bloom. — March 28, Cayuga; March 22, Erasmus Hall; 
April 10, Newburgh; March 31, Union Hall; April 10, Rochester. 

First Graashoppers. — ^March IS, Lewiston; March5,NorthSalem; 
February 4, Oxford; February 2, Rochester. 

Pigeons seen. — March 9, Fairfield; March 4, Fredonia; April 1, 
Johnstown; March 4, Lewiston; March 12, North Salem; March 3, 
Springville; May 4, Union L, S.; March 4, Rochester. 

Filbert in flower. — February 19, Cayuga. 

Slellaria, {Chichceed,) in flower. — February 20, Cayuga. 

Crocus in flower. — February 23, Cayuga; March 10, Erasmus 
Hall; March 3, Newburgh. 

Populv* TVemuloideSfXAmerican Aspeny) in flower. — February 24, 

HyadiUh in flower. — March 1, Cayuga; April 14, Cortland. 

&yt&ronium, (^Adder's tongue,) in blossom. — April 18, North Sa- 
iem; April 23, Rochester. 

Daphne Mezereon inflower. — March 1, Cayuga; March 3, Eras- 
mus Hall. 

Acer Ruhrumj {Red Maple,) m flower. — March 2, Cayuga; April 
II, Newburgh. 

So/t Maple in blouom.-~-Ma.Tch 16, Erasmus Hall; April 26, 
Johnstown; March 28, Rochester. 

Hepatica triloba inflower. — April 6, Cayuga; April 2, Cortland; 
April 2, Kingston; April 15, Lowville; Apnl II, Newburgh; March 
21, North Salem; April 2, Onondaga. 

Vtola Odorata in flower. — Apm 10, Cayuga; April 21, Fwp- 

Poplar in bloisom. — April 16, Cnyuga. 

Houslonia in blossom. — April 9, Kingston. 

Claytonia Virginica, {Spring Beauty^ in flower. — April 17, Cay- 
uga; April 25, Union L. S.; April 15, Rochester. 

AquUegia, ( Wild Columbine) inflower. — April 22, EingstoD. 

Black Ashinfloweri — April 19, Cayuga. 

Aronia Botryapium, {Shad Bush, June Bary,) in blossom. — April 
24, Cayuga; April 27, Cortland; April 11, Erasmus Hall; April 23, 
Gaines; May 1, Hamilton; April 23, Johnstown; April 21, Mill- 
villc; April 6, Montgomery; April 11, Newburgh; April 17, North 
Salem; April 33, Onondaga; April 23, Rochester. 

Chary tn (/o»om. — April 10, Cayupi; April 26, Cortland; April 
11, Erasmus Hall; May 19, Fairfield; May 12, Gaines; May 5, Ha- 
milton; May 16, Johnstown; April 24, Kinderhook; April !^, Lew- 

Dig tized by Google 

£68 [Sbkate 

iotoQ: April 36, Millville; April 17, Mount Pleasant; April 13, 
Ifewbui^h; April 18, North Salem; April 24, Onondaga; May 6, 
Oxford; May 15, Flattsburgh; April 31, Red Hook; May 18, Union 
L. S.; April 32. Rochester. 

Ptam in blossom. — April 20, Cayuga; May 14, Cherry Valley; 
May 4, Cortland; April 6, Erasmus Hall; May 31, Fraolclin Ma- 
lone; May 4, Franlclin Pratteburgh; April 25, Gaines; May 14, 
Gouvemeur; April 30, Hamilton; May 6, Johnstown; April 34, 
Kinderhook; April 17, Kiogston; April 28, Lewiston; May €, Lovr- 
Tillej May 2, MillTille; April 11, Mount Pleasant; April 21, North 
fialem; April 25, Onondaga; April 25, Oxford; May 22, Platta- 
burghj April 23, Springville; May 8, Union L. S.; April 19, Ro- 

Curraat in blouom. — April 20, Cayt^; April 35, Cortland; April 
13, Erasmus Hall; May 6, Fairfield; May S3, Franklin Malone; 
May 17, Gouverneur; April 29, Hajuilton; April 39, Johnstown; 
April 17, North Salem; April 33, Onondaga; April 36, Oxford; 
March 21, Union Hall; May 10, Unioo L. S-; April 34, Rochester. 

Blood Root in blossom. — April 20, Cayuga; April 17, Cortland; 
April 25, Gaines; April 28, Johnstown; April 6, Kingston; Aprils, 
North Salem; April 23, Rochester. 

Convallaria in blossom. — May ]5, Union Lit, S, 

Lauras Benzoin, {Spice Wood.) — ^April 7, North Salem. 

pvlrtumaria in bloom. — April 22, Cayuga. 

Trilliwn in bloom. — April 31, North Saiem; May 8, Union L. S.; 
April 23, Rochester. 

Colchicum in blossom. — March 9, Erasmus Hall. 

Tulip in bloom. — April 33, Cayuga; May 18, Cortland. 

Butterflies sem. — April 6, Hamilton; March 10, Norlh Salem; 
April 3, Oxford; March 3, Rochester. 

Gooseberry injlower. — April 25, Cortland; April 13, Erasmus 
Hall; May 7, Hamilton; April 17, North Salem; March 21, Union 

Wild Gteseflying. — March 1, Gaines; February 25, North Saleui; 
November 2, Rochester. 

Martins seen. — May 7, Auburn; Mny 18, Cortland; April 25, 
Hamilton; May 2, Johnstown; April 37, Kinderhook; March 20, 
North Salem; April 24, Union L. S.; April 17, Rochester. 

J\ii}Ttle in bloom. — April 25, Hamilton; April 24, Johnstown. 

Humming Birds first seen. — May 16, Cortland; May 13, Gaines; 
May 25, Johnstown; May 20, Rochester. 

Crows flying south. — March 19, Cayuga. 

Ictodes Ftetida, {Skunk Cabbage,) in blossom. — March 16, Ro- 

Ptony in flower. — June 2, Gainee; June 2, Rochester. 

BviterwU in blossom. — May 14, Rochester. 

Lilac inflower. — May 24, Cfortland; May 2, Erasmus Hall; May 
13, Gaines; May 16, Hamilton; May 23, Lewiston; April 32, Monl- 
gomery; May 7, North Salem; May 23, Oxferd; Msy 37, Ptatla- 
burgb; May 30, Union Lit. S.; M«y JO, Rwcbester. 

Digitized by 


No. 67,1 269 

Dogwood inflewer. — May 3, Erasmus Hall; May 15, Franklin 
Malone; May 10, North Salem. 

Rost Willow injitmer. — Marcli 24, North Salem. 

Apple in htostom. — April 23, Aubum; May 18, Cambridge Wash- 
ington; May 18, Cortland; April 29, Erasrous Hall; May 23, Fair- 
field; May 28, Franklin Malone; May 17, Franklin Prattsburgh; 
May 2, Fredonia; May It, Gaines; May 16, Hamilton; May 18, 
Johnstown; May 7, LewiEton; May 25, Lowville; May 12, Mill- 
Til'e; April 23, North Salem; May 13, Oxford; May 30, Platts- 
burgh; April SO, Springville; April 19, Union Hall; May 20, Union 
L. S; May 4, Rochester. 

Peach m hlostom. — April 25, Auburn; April 21, Cayuga; April 

4, Erasmus Hall; April IS, Fredonia; April 24, Gaines; April 23, 
Kinderhook; April 17, Kingston; April 28, Lewistoa; April 24, 
Millville; April 11, Mount Pleasant; April 10, Newburgb; April 17, 
Korth Salem; April 24, Onondaga; April 20, Springville; March 
20, Union Hall; April 15, Rochester. 

Violet in bloom. — April 9, Hamilton; March 30, North Salem; 
May I, Union L. S.; March 20, Albany; February 5, in the gar- 
dens, Rochester. 

Snowball in blouom. — May 27, liewiston. 

Bob'o'-Lincolns seen. — May 10, Oxford; May 29, Union Literary 
Soc.; May 9, Rochester. 

Leoniodon Ihraxacum, {Daniielion) injlowtr. — April 25, Cayuga; 
April 27, Cortland; April 17,Erasmus Hall; May II, Fairfield; April 
27, Hamilton; April 21, Johnstown; May 2, Lewiston; April 12, 
Newbui^h; April 3, NorthSalem; April 23, Oxford; April 23, Ro- 

WhUe Maple in Uotatmn. — April 27, Cayuga; March 3, Roches- 

Sugar Maple in flower. — April 26, Cortland; May 12, North 
Salem; April 23, Rochester. 

Silver Leaf Maple in hlotiom. — March 21, Erasmus Hall. 

Strav^erriet in flower. — May 6, Cortland; April 23, Erasmus 
Hall; May 9, Gaines; May 16, Hamilton; May 5, Johnstown; April 
23, North Salem; May 25, Redbook; April 21, Union Hall; April 
32, Rochester. 

Pearin bloom. — May 13, Cortland; April 22, Erasmus Hall; May 
7, Gaines; April 24, North Salem;-May 6, Oxford; April 19, Union 
Hall; May 18, Union Literary Society. 

Barn Swallows first seen. — May 17, Cortland; April 20, Erasmus 
Hall; May 25, Fairfield; April 30, Franklin Malone; May 3, 
Gaines; April 21, Johnstown; April 25, Kinderhodcj April 9, 
North Salem; April 23, Onondaga; May 12, Plattsburgh; March 26, 
Union Hall. 

Quinces in blossom. — May 7, Eraunuc Hall ; May 20, £inderhook; 
May 9, North Salem; May 17, Rochester. 

Horse CAatnut ia bloisom. — May 8, Erasmus Hall. 

Fireflies seen. — June 1, Johnstown; July 11, Lewiston; June 

5, North SaletQ; June 12, Oxford; June 16, Union Hall. 


S70 [SxHATm 

Loeuft 7V«e» in blattimi. — June 3, Erasmus Hall; June 13, Oaines; 
JuDe 18, Hamilton; May 31^ Mount Pleasant. 

Raspberries in bloitom. — June 2, Erasmus Hall. 

Blackbtrriet m bloom. — June 18, Hamilton; May 23, North Salem; 
May 27, Erasmus Hall; May 12, Rochester, 

Whip-poor- Will first heard. — June 21, Lewiston; April 25, North 
Salem; May 14, Onondaga. 

Green Peas. — June 16, CaTQg8;July23, Fairfield; June 27, Lew- 
iston; June 25, Oxford; June 7, Union Hall; June 18, Rochester. 

Ripe Strawberries.— ^une 17, Cayuga; June 14, Clinton; June 20^ 
Cortland; May 23, Erasmus Hall; June 23, Fairiield; July 9, Frank- 
lin Malone; June 12, Fiedonia; June IS, Gaines; June 23, Hamil- 
ton; June 6, Johnstown; June 1, Mount Pleasant; June 5, North 
Salem; June 18, Onondaga; June 17, Flattsburgh; May 26, Union 
Hall; June 18, Union Literary Society; June II, Rochester. 

Ibj/ harvest cotnmenced.'—Ju\y 7, Cortland; June 27, Erasmus 
Hall; July 21, Fairfield; July 11, Gaines; June 29, North Salem; 
July 7, Onondaga; June 21, Union Hall; July 7, Rochester. 

JTew Potatoes.-— June 14, Erasmus Hall; June 18, Rochester. 

Raspberries ripe. — June 29, Erasmus Hall; July 21, Fairfield; 
Jund 25, Mount Pleasant; July 9, North Salem; July 10, Union 
Hall; July 9, Rochester. 

Cherries ripe.— }a]y 22, Fairfield; July 10, Gaines; July 16, 
Hamilton; Judc 18, Mount Pleasant; June 16, North ^lem; Jnn« 
29, Onondaga; June 35, Redhook; June 27, Union Hall; June 11, 

Blackberries ripe. — July 18, Erasmus Hall; July 18, Mount Plea- 
sant; July 7, North Salem; July 11, Union Hall. 

Peaches ripe. — August 30, Union Hall; August 8, Rochester. 

apricots ripe. — July 9, Rochester. 

LiCKsts heard. — July 27, Erasmus Hall; August 3, Union Hall- 

Katydids heard. — August 23, North Salem. 

Tomatoes ripe. — August 1, Rochester. 

Currants ripe. — July 8, Cortland; June 23, Hamilton; June 23, 
Mount Pleasant; June 28, North Salem; June 30, Union Hall. 

Wheat harvest commenced. — July 25, Cortland; July 8, Erasmus 
Hall; August 3, Franklin Malone; July 25, Gaines; July 16, Onon- 
daga; July 19, Rochester. 

Chestnut trees in blossom. — July 20, Rochester. 

Rye harvest commenced. — July 5, Erasmus Hall; July 14, North 
Salem; July 2, Union Hall. 

Cucumhers in market. — July 20, Hamilton; July 4, Union Hall. 

Mulherriex ripe. — July 6, Union Hall. 

Com in 9ak.~iv\y 23, Fairfield; Jnly 25, Hamilton; July 16, 

Green com. — August 13, Franklin Malone; August 16, Hamilton; 
July 25, Union HaU; July 29, Rochester. 

IndiaR summtr. — Oct. 29, Hamilton; Norember 6, Rochester. 

, Google 

No. 67-j 


A. AuaoBA BoLEALifl noticed. 

January 10. St. Lawrence. 

January 11. Lewiston. 

January 15. FranklinMalone,GouTemeur, Granville, EiBderbook, 
North Salnm, Plattsburgb, St. Lawrence. 

March SO. St. Lawrence. 

February 1. Cortland. 

February 12. North Salem. 

February 13. North Salem. 

March 12. Franklin Malone. 

April 6. Aurora, rain sixty hours after; Lowville. 

April 1 ■- Lewiston, Lowville, Onontlaga, 

April 11. Cortland, Franklin Malone, Onondaga, Rochester; with 
streamers, Albany. 

April 12. Franklin Malone. 

April 14. Cayuga, Gouvemeur, very brilliant, Lowville. Com- 
nenced about 11 P. M.,andfadedat the approach of daylight. In the 
of north, were brilliant streamers; in the northeast was a succession 
flaghes, very bright and without intermission, during the whole time. 
Between these two points was a portion of unilluminated sky, North 
Salem, Albany; beautiful, in the form of a luminous arch, Onon- 

The following communication, from a venerable physician in the 
city of Albany, relates to the appearance of the aurora at a later pe- 
riod of the night. 

De. Beck — 

Dear Sir — I have been anxiously looking into the news- 
papers for some day;, to find some account of the appearance of the 
fturora borealis on the morning of the 15th of the present month, but 
as yet I have not seen it noticed. As you have greater communica- 
tions with the scientific world, perhaps you have seen some descrip- 
tion of that sublime, and I may say, almost terrific phenomenon. I 
was returning home between two and three o'clock — the whole night 
had been illuminated by the brilliancy of the aurora, but at the time 
I mentioned, the whole northern hemisphere was peculiarly so. It 
extended from a line somewhat south of west, to the northeast. 
But what rendered it the most remarkable was the waving or rolling 
of the corruscations or flashes of light, rising in the west and ex- 
tending to the zenith in quick succession, resembling the rolling of 
flames in a great conflagation. I have often witnessed the northern 
lights in diflerent forms and colors, but I must confess I never saw 
them as they appeared at this time. I have often formed in my mind 
the appearances that would probably occur at the conflagration of the 
oniverse, and I can say that had the corruscations been of a flame 
colnr, which appearance they often have, my conceptions of that aw- 
fiil period, would have been more than realized. Indeed, there were 
times that a faint red color was visible, but it sood vanished, andwaa 

y Google 

379 [Sehatc 

lucceeded by a pale gieen appearance. From the time it first at- 
tracted my attention to its termination, was about half an hour, when 
it suddenly disappeared; and although the light was brilliant, all fras 
quiet as to motion. I could not obserTe any noise during the whole 
period. I must observe that there was a black cloud or vapor id the 
northern hemisphere surrounded by light, which appeared perfectly 
quiescent, which contrasted beautifully with the surrouding light. 
The stars were, however, perfectly visible through it. 

I do not send you this, my dear sir, as descriptive of the sublime 
scene, for I confess myself unable to clothe it in language suitable to 
do justice to it; but merely to know whether it has been noticed, as 
I should be pleased to see it described in a scientific manner, and to 
have it recorded, as I am satisfied the appearance of the aurora bore- 
alis as 1 witnessed it, is rare. If you lukve seen any account of it^ 
please to refer me to it. Jona. Eights, Albany. 

Mbany, 29tA ^pril, 1342. 

April 15. Cayuga, Franklin Malone, Gaines. With Btreamers, 
very brilliant; Lowville, Onondaga; very brilliant, Rochester. 

June 2. St. Lawrence, 

June i. A fine arch of aurora borealis, rose some north of east, a 
little after 8 P. M., and moved southwards and extended upwards, 
till a little after nine, it has passed the zenith and extends over near- 
ly to the western horizon. It was much like a roll of white cotton 
fibres well compacted, and was a little bent towards the zenith and 
somewhat jagged and irregular. It grew fainter, moved slowly 
southwards, passed the zenith several degrees, extended down to the 
horizon, began to move in slow portions, and then in regular files to 
the west, became less distinct, and in forty minutes after nine, was 
gone. It was a brilliant white arch at first. 

At the same time a slight aurora was spread over the north, as b 
bright cloud and a few pillars shot up a few degrees and disappeared 
as the other, but not wholly, nor so soon. After eleven o'clock the 
aurora rose and increased and was firm. Some dancera appeared to- 
wards the north, and a dashing of reddish light. Bow much like 
electricity seen in a partial vacuum are many phenomena of the au- 
rora borealis; Rochester Collegiate Institute. 

Brilliant from 9 to half past 10, P. M., Auburn, Gaines, Ro- 

Jane 13. Union Literary Society. 

July 2. Bright at 10 P. M., Franklin Malone, Onondaga. 

July 3. Cortland, very light and variable in its appearance, some- 
times extending far past the zenith towards the south; Franklin 
Malone. 9 P. M., streams of light, changing alternately from white 
to crimson, appeared to rise from the clouds in the north, east and 
west, centering in the zenith. About three hours after, a violent 
shower occurred, which was indicated during the aurora, by flashes 
of lightning in the north; Fredonia. Brilliant, next day, a sudden 
change in the direction of the wind and temperature; Hamiltoa, 
Johnstown, Rochester. 

July 6. Gaines. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 67. J 273 

July 9. Onondaga. 

July 13. Gaines. 

July 31. North Salem, Albany; preceded by thoDder and Ikht- 
ning, and succeeded by sereral days of fine ■weather, Cherry Valley, 
Oianrille, Redhook, Rochester. 

August 5. Very brilliant, Franklin Malone, Albany, Dnion Litera- 
ry Society. 

September S. North Salem. 

September 19. Franklin Malone. 

September 99. Hamilton. 

October 13. Onondaga. 

October 39. Franklin Malone. 

November 9. Onondaga. 

November 31. Cortland, Franklin Halone, Mount Pleasant, North 
Salem, Oneida Conference, Albany, Onondaga, Oxford, Redhook, 
Union Hall, St. Lawrence. 

November S4. Redhook. 

November 27. Onondaga. 

November 28. Hamilton. 

December 17. Redhook. 

December 19. Gouverneur. 

LtnunoDB Atpearaucss im thk Sky. 

November 15. Evening, a white bar of light extended across Ju- 
piter in the southwest, in nearly a vertical plane. 

November S2. Soon after the moon rose in the east, a parallel bar 
of light lay vertically across the moon, extending some below, and 
several degrees above the moon, and termballng upwards in an ob- 
tose point To some eyes it gave off flashes of light, or appeared as 
the flashing light of an Aurora Borealis. The bar of %ht was visible 
about an hour. 

From these two phenomena within a week, in different parts of 
the sky, it is obvious that the cause exists in our atmosphere. 

Chester Dewey, Rochester. 

B. Haloes' Parhelia* &c. 

January 8. Solar halo, Ononda^. 

January 16. Lunar halo, Goaremearj Soku* halo, 10 A. H., Al- 

January 18. Lunar halo, Lewiston, St. Lawrence. 

January 19. Lunar halo, Albany. 

January 20. Lunar halo, Kinderhook. 

January 24. Solar halo, from 11 A. M. to 2 P. M., Cortland; lu- 
Bir halo, Kinderhook, Albany, Lowville, Nwth Salem, Erasmus Hall; 
a bright lunar halo at 7 P. M.; solar halo at 3 P. M., Gaines; solar 

[Senate No. 67.] I 2 



halo at snawt; ereoing, lunar halo, Onosdaga; Innar halo, Union 
Literary Society, Rochester. 

Jannary S5. Looar halo, Gouveniear; beautifaltranaparent clouds 
•bout the moon, presenting the appearance of brilliant csoncentric 
rainbows, Kinderhook; lunar holo, Lewioton; solar halo with moiJc 
tuns; Albany; lunar halo, Rochester. 

January ^. Solar halo, Onondaga. 

January 28. Lunar halo, 5 A. m!, Rochester. 

January 39. Lunar halo, at 1 A. M. Thunder and lightning at 
half past 7 P. M., attended by some rain and high vinds, Gaioefi; 
iolar halo, Rochester. 

January 30. Solar balo, half past 3 P. M., Union Literary Society. 

Ftjbruary 6. Solar halo, Cortland, OnoDd^;a, Rochester. 

February 15. Lunar halo, Cortland, Kinderhook,LowTi]le,OnoD- 
daea, Rochester. 

February 17. Parhelia at sunset, Lowville. 

February 18. Rochester. 

February 30. Lunar halo, Erasmus Hall, Rochester. 

February 31. Lunar halo, Fredonia, Gaines; Seen at Lowville, and 
snow crystals, twenty hours after, Onomlsga; solar halo, Rochester. 

February 33. Solar halo, Albany, Onondaga. 

February 34. Lunar halo, between 11 and 12 P. M., Ga'mes; 
iolar halo, Onondaga; lunar halo, Rochester- 
February 26. Lunar halo, very large at 8 P. M., North Salem. 

March 3. Solar halo, Onondaga. 

March 4. Solar halo, Onondaga. 

March 14. Solar halo, Onondaga. 

March 16. Solar halo, Cortland, Onondhga. 

March 17. Solar halo, Onondaga. 

March 13. Near sunset, a beautiful exhibition of parhelia ormock 
suns. The decomposition of the sun's rays, by the tbin clouds, was 
veiT perfect in tbe semi-circular arch, Kinderhook; solar balo^ On- 

March 19. Lunar halo, tri-colored, yellow, orange, blue, atmo- 
sphere smoky or hazr, North Salem; solar halo, Onondaga. 

March 20. Lunar nalo, Cortland; circle round the moon at S P. 
M., Gaines; solar halo, Onondaga; lunar halo, Albany; solar halo, 
10 and 11 A. M., and lunar halo, evening. Union Literary Soiuety; 
lunar hato, Ro<:hL'ster. 

March 31. Solar halo, Onondaga, Rochester. 

March 27. Solar halo, Onnndaga. 

April 1. Solar halo, Onondaga. 

April 6. Sotar halo, Albany, Cortland, Onondaga, Rochester. 

April 10. Two parhelia, just before sundown. North Salem. 

April 11. Solar halo. Onondaga. 

April 12. Solar halo, Albany. 

April 16. Lunar halo, Lowville, Onondaga. 

April 17. Solar halo, and in the evening lunar halo; rain in ten 
hours, I^owville; solar and lunar halo, Onondaga; solar halo, Alba- 
ny, Union Literary Society, Rocheater. 


So. 67.] 276 

XpiiA 30. Lanar halo, Cortland, North Salem. 

Xpril 31. "Solar halo, Alban;^. 

April 33. Lunar halo, Rochester. 

April 30. Solar halo, Albany, Onondaga. 

May 6. Lunar halo. Union Literary Society. 

May 8. Solar halo, Onondaga. 

May 19. Lonar halo, Lewiston, Onondaga. 

May 21. Solar halo, Albany, Onondaga, Cortland; mrhelion, 
Fairfield; solar halo, bright, between 13 and 1 P. M., Gaines; a 
beantifdl halo around the sun for seTeral hours in the middle of the 
day, Einderhook, Plattsfaurgh. 

May 24. Solar halo, Albany. 

May 26. Solar halo, Albany, Onondaga, Rochester. 

May 28. Solar halo, Onondaga. 

June 3. Solar halo, Albany. 

June 6. Solar halo, Rochester. 

June 8. Solar halo, Albany, Onondaga. 

June 11. Parhelion at 7 F. M., Gaines. 

June 14, Lunar halo, rain 73 hours after, Lowrille. 

June 16. Solar halo, Albany. 

June 17. Solar halo, Albany. 

June 33. Lunar halo. North Salem. 

June 34. Solar halo, Albany, Rocheiiter. 

June 26. Solar halo, Albany, Onondaga. 

July 1. Parhelion at 61, P. M., Gaines. 

July 10. Solar halo, Erasmus Hall. 

July 14. Lunar rainbow at 9 P. M., in the northeast, very perfect^ 
aud colors quite distinct, Mount Pleasant. 

July 35. Solar halo, Cortland. 

July 28. Solar halo, Albany- 
August 6. Parhelion 71 A. M., North Salem. 

August 30. Solar halo from 10 to 12 M., North Salem. 

August 24. Solar halo, 3 F. M., Gaines. Lunar very large. North 

September 4. Solar halo, Onondaga. 

September 16. Lunar halo. North Salem. 

September 30. Lunar halo, very distinct, 8 P. M., Franklin Ma- 
lone, Albany. 

October 14. Solar halo, Onondaga. 

October 17. Lunar halo in the eTening,Franklin Malone. 

Norember 4. Solar halo, Onondaga. 

November 5. Solar halo, Albany, Onondaga. 

November 15. Lunar halo, Erasmus Hall. Double lunar halo, 
North Salem. 

November SO. Lunar rainbow between 10 and 11 P. M.; light 
clouds were in the vicinity of the moon; no appearance of a storm, 
Erasmus Hall. 

November 23. Solar halo, Albany. 

December 11. Lunar halo. North Salem. 

December 12. Lunar halo, North Salem. Lunar halo, snow 18 









S76 [Sbbats 

honn after, Lowville. Solar and lunar halo, Albany. Lunar halo^ 

December 17. Lunar halo, Lerruton. 

December SO. A very larae distinct lunar halo, seen between 11 
and 13 P. M., Franklin Malone. 

December S4. Solar halo, P. M., Rochester. 


No. S7.] 


w t* CO lO 
a §*€■§ 

, Google 


Shloa and Parhelia — Jforth Salem. 



JaDuary S4JLuiiar, ..' 

March 19, .Lunar, 

April 10, ..Two parhelia, aear sunset. 

" SO,. .Lunar 

June S2, ... Lunar 

Au^8t6,.. Parhelion,?) morning. .. 

'° 20,.SoIarfrom lOto 12 

" 24,. Lunar 

Sept 16,. ..Lunar 

Nov. 15, . .Lunar, double. .. , 

Dec. 11 . ,, Lunar. 
" 12, . ■ .[Lunar. 

Succeeding weather. 

Fair till 3d day. 

Cloudy next day; snow 3d d. 



Rain in 13 hoars. 

EUin in 12 hours. 


Rain in 20 hours. 

Fair till 2d day. 

Snow crystals next day; 2d 

day, rain. 
Snow storm in 12 hours. 


Jan. 8. Solar halo; rain in the night following. 
Jan. S4. Solar and lunar halo; no storm -withm three days. 
Jan. S7. Solar halo; rain in night of 29th. 
Feb. 6. Solar halo; rain night following. 
Feb. 16. Lunar halo; snow 16th, 17tb, iSth, 19th. 
Feb. 21. Lunar halo; anow22d. 
Feb. 23, 24. Solar halo; rain and snow, 26th. 
March 3, 4. Solar halo; rain on the 4tb. 
March 14. Solar halo; snow, &c. 15th. 

March 16, 17, 16, 19, 20, 21. Solar haloes; followed by cloudy 
P. M.'s or nights, and little snow, do. 
March 27. Solar halo; snow 28th. 
April 1. Solar halo; rain 3rd. 
April 6. Solar halo; rain 7tii. 
April 11. Solar halo; cloudy night. 
April 16 and 17. Solar and lunar balo; rain iSth. 
April 30. Solar halo; rain May 1st. 
May 8. Solar halo; rain in the night. 
May 19. Lonar halo; after rain. 
May 21. Solar balo; rain 22d. 
May 26. Solar halo; rain 27th. 
May 38. Solar halo; rain 29th. 

June 8. Solar halo; rain same day; halo A. M.; rain P. H. 
June 36. Solar halo; rain same day; halo A. M.; rain P. M. 
Sept. 4. Solar halo; rain &tfa. 
Oct. 14. Solar halo; rab 15th. 
Nor. 4, 6. Solar hi^o; cloudy 6th; no run till 8th. 
The above table plably shows that haloes are generally correct 

, Google 

N». 67.] 279 

pri^osticators of storms. As I do not regard auroras in the same 
light, I have cot prepared a table of them. 

J. L. Hendrick, Onondi^ Academy. 
3 of the Solar Haloes were followed by snow or rain on the same 

13 oo the next day. 
2 on the second day. 

2 on the third day. 

1 on the fourth day. 

3 of the Lunar Haloes were followed by snow or rain on the next 

2 on the second day. 

1 on the third day. Professor Ten Eyck, Albany. 

D. Sunset. 

p p July 10. Fine sunset of red 

l^ht all over the west, and 

radiations of yellowish light 

and blue spaces. Along A. B. 

is the broad halo of splendid 

red light, Cd. is about 15° 

* « high, Ce. is 18°, Cm. 30° and 

^ Cn. 60°, Cp. is perpendicular 

and straight on the north side, while a wide radiation is on its south 

side. The radiations did not correspond with those on the other 

side. Slight clouds were along a part of the western horizon. 

clear. The radiations v 

June 12. Another set of ra- 
diations at sunset, as in the 
figure on the left. They began 
more than 15 minutes alter sun- 
set, and not so distinct as on 
the 10th. The sky was not so 
plain and some extended 40° distant. 

Oct. 20. Fine sunset Yel- 
low halo of light over the 
west of bright yellow, with 
five radiations as in this figure, 
c and d being 30° from the 
perpendicular to the horizon, 
and the others about 15° dis- 



Oct. 23. Pale yellow li^t 
at sunset far along the west. 
The yellow covered bU the 
south of the perpeDdicular and 
30° north of it, and then there 
was two radiations on the right 
corresponding to the two lower 
on the left. 

To apprehend the beauty of these sunsets and those radiatiom of 
light, Uiey must be seen. 

C. Dewey, Rochester. 


January 5. 11 P. M., a small meteor passed from the zenith down 
towards the east, Onondaga. 

January 18. A bright meteor about 1i P. M., shot from east near 
Frocyon, to the zenith, leaving a long train, North Salem. 

April 11. At 2 &.. M., a large meteor passed over our village in a 
north easterly direction, producing a bright light during the space of 
about two minutes, and then exploding with a sound resembling that 
produced by a large cannon, and shalcing the windows of houses 
thirty miles apart, Fredonia. Credible witnesses report that about 
2 o'clock this morning, a bright red light flashed from N. W. to S. EL 
apparently lighting up the whole firmament, and enablii^ the spec- 
tator to discern minute objects on the ground. Duration one or two 
minuted. No meteor was seen, North Salem. A meteor passed 
down to N. N, W., Onondaga. 

JVom the Watfield, {^Chautauque Onmty) Muitnger. 

Splendid Meteob. — On Monday morning, April 11, about three 
o'clock, we were awakened by a sudden and extremely brilliant light, 
which shone through the window of our sleeping apartment. On 
opening our eyes we had a momentary glimpse of a vividly lumi- 
nous body or trail which almost instantly passed out of sight, and 
was gone. We were convinced it was a large meteor, and expected 
an explosion. We waited from three to five minutes, when a report 
burst through the welkin like a piece of heavy ordnance standing 
within a short distance. There was nothing in it like thunder, but a 
perfect resemblance to the sound we have named. It shook the 
the house very sensibly, as it did others, — in one instance jarring a 
tooth brush from the window to the floor. Its direction was 
northerly, and theexplorion took place, probably, over the lake. 

AVe found, in the morning, that our citizens generally were awa- 
kened by the report, though not many saw the splendid object that 
occasioned it. Mr. Tracy, the stage agent, and the stage driver, were 
at the time at the bam, just leaving it with a fresh team, when they 

Digitized by 


No. 57-1 281 

saw the light, and at the same time heard a crackling or cruBhing 
ngise, like that of a falliog tree. The source of light appeared like 
an oblongy body uf fire rushing with tremendous velocity through the 
air, and eight or ten inches in diameter. It seemed to approach the 
place where they stood in a curvilinear path, and led one of them to 
exclaim, " it will strike the barn !" It however parsed over, and d:»- 
appeared as it seemed to them, about half a mile from the point of 
oi^rvation. Id its course, it gave off frequent sparks, or streaks, 
from the sides, and this was probably the occasion of the snapping or 
grating noise which was beard. Its disappearance was quite singular 
as described. The long fiery tail seemed to separate from the nu- 
cleus, or head, and the latter rushed on, emiting a dark blue dame; 
but there was no division of its body into fragments, or any thing 
else to indicate a fracture, unless indeed the very separation of the 
fierr and blue portions were the result oU the explosion. 

The light emitted was nearly as bright as daylight at meridian. 
The shingles on distant houses were distinctly visible. Mr. Sexton, 
our postmaster, was, at the time of its passage, assorting the mail, 
having two candles to furnish him light, but the light of the meteor 
was so great as to make tbem appear like burning candles in full 

From all we can gather, at least three minutes must have elapsed 
between the disappearance of the meteor end the bearing of the re- 
port. Consequently, as sound travels at the rate of a little over 
thirteen miles a minute, the body of the meteor must have been near- 
ly forty mites from us, either in elevation or horizontal distance, at 
the time of its explosion. Probably it was much higher than it ap- 
peared to be to the gentlemen who witnessed it. The whole dura- 
tion of its appearance was not more than half a minute, if it was as 

PoBTScaiPT. — Since writing the above, we have conversed with 
Mr. Horace Palmer, who was on his way from Dunkirk to this place, 
when the meteor appeared. He was two or three miles from Dun- 
kirk, when he appeared to be instantly surrounded with a most pain 
fully vivid light, proceeding from a mass of fiuid or jelly like sub- 
stance, which fell around and upon bim, producing a sulphurous 
smell, a great difficulty of breathing, and a feeling of faintness, with 
a strong sensation of heat. As soon as he could recover from his 
astonishment, he perceived the body of the meteor passing above 
him, seeming to be about a mile high. It then appeared to be in di- 
ameter about the size of a large steamboat pipe, near a mile in length ! 
Its dimensions varied soon; becoming much broader, and then wan- 
ing away in diameter and length until the former was reduced to 
about eight inches, and the latter a fourth of a mile, when it separa- 
ted into pieces which fell to the earth, and almost immediately he 
heard the explosion, which he said was tremendous. On arriving 
here in the morning, bis face bad every appearance of having been 
severely scorched; his eyes were much aETected, and be did not re- 
cover from the shock it gave his ^stem for two or three days. This 
is really a marvellous story; but Mr. Palmer is a temperate and %a 

(Senate No. 57.] K2 




', 1.. 


i'1 ■ 


( :!' f\ 

SS2 [Sbkatb 

industrious man, and a tuan of integritji; and we believe any one 
conversing with him on the subject would be satisfied that he intends 
no deception; but describes the scene as nearly as possible, as it 
actually appeared. Probably however his agitation at his sudden in- 
troduction to such a scene, caused the meteor to be somewhat mag- 
ni6ed to him. Witnesses here speak of the sparks which were given 
off; probably one of these sparks fell and enveloped Mr. Palmer. 
In addition to its light, Mr. Palmer states that its passage was ac- 
uompanied by a sound like that of a car moving on a railroad, only 

At Salem, an observer stated the meteor to be "as large as a 
house" — ^rather indefinite, bat proving it to have been one of extra- 
ordinary magnitude. It was noticed at North East, Waterford and 
Sugar Grove, Pa.; Harmony, Chautauque and other towns in this 
county. The report was heard also at BuSalo- In Chautauque, an 
observer describes it as six or eight inches in diameter, and half a 
mile long. 

We learn also that it burst about three miles beyond Fredonia, or 
about Eighteen from this place. The report is that a fragment has 
been found, a foot or more in diameter, but we know not the origi- 
nal authority of the statement. 

If it did burst where it is represented to have done, and it was 
seen here until it exploded, its elevation must have been about 35 
miles. This is pretty low in comparison with most of them, but it 
would seem, from the account of Mr. Palmer, that it was much low- 
er still. Perhaps it was not observed here as long as it might have 
been from good points of vision. Il course is represented by all to 
have been northeasterly. 

[In copying the above account, the Buffalo Commercial Advertiser 
Rays, — " At Erie and Rochester, places about 160 miles apart, in a 
straight line, the light was nearly as vivid as that of day. This 
shows the immense magnitude and great height of the meteor."] 

July II. Four small meteors, between half past 9 and 10, passed, 
one to the south and the others to the west, Onondaga. 

August 10. Eighteen or twenty meteors seen between 9 and Hi 
F. M. Some of them quite brilliant. They descended in a south- 
west direction. Aurora borealis between II and 13. Lightning 
and probably a shower not far distant in the S. W., Franklm Ma- 

August S6. A beautiful meteor at about 8 P. M. descended at an 
angle of 45°, Kinderhook. 

September "I. A meteor observed, very brilliant, Erasmus Hal). 

September 26. In the evening a beautiful meteor shot across the 
heavens, a little east of the zenith, from north to south, leaving a 
momentary trail of light nearly its whole length, Onondaga; meteor 
at 9 P. M. west, direction vertical. Union Literary Society. 

November 9. Three beautiful meteors passed across the western 
sky, from south to north, leaving a beautiful trail of light, Onondaga. 

November 15, We have not heard that any one in this city or 
neighborhood observed the periodical return of the meteors of ao~ 

Digitized by 


No. 57.] 283 

vember, but it appears by the followiog statement from the Roches- 
ter Evening Post, that the stai^shower was witnessed in that city on 
the Idth instant: 

" Showers of Staks. — The celebrated shower of stars, as it was 
called in 1333, and the iDvestigations to which it led, first disclosed 
the fact that in a great number of instances at the same period of the 
year, namely , from the 10th to the l&th of NoTember, such meteoric 
visitations were common, if not regular. The gradual decrease in 
the numbers observed for several successive years after 1S33, has led 
aEtronomers to suppose that they are periodical, or occur only at in- 
tervals — appearing several yean in succession and then disappearing 
for a time. The remarkable shower seen by Humboldt in — ' , 

and the no less brilliant one of 1833, would seem to determine that 
epoch, or maVe it about twenty years; and the fact that for two 
years past no distinctive indications of such meteors have occurred, 
has given some countenance to the idea of their intermission. 

"It is, however, believed that the present year forms an excep- 
tion to this rule. The evenings of the 12th, 13th and 14th were 
covered with clouds, except at mtervals, and during these, a bright 
moon prevented observation. On the morning of the 15th, during 
the short interval that elapsed between the setting of the moon and 
daylight, a large number were observed — in one instance no less 
than six or seven at a time; and scattermg ones continued to &11 
until the light of the morning hid them from view. They all seem- 
ed to start from about the same point in the heavens as in former 
observations, viz: in the N. E. at an elevation of about 60°, and 
their movement was to the S. E. though there were a few excep- 
tions- At the rate they fell during the few minutes they were -ob- 
served, the number would be from 150 to 300 in an bour. I do not 
Imow whether others have noticed the meteoric appearances of this 
year and not, as two causes have contributed to render the time un- 
tivorable — a nearly full moon, and almost continual clouds. If 
(hey have, we shall doubtless bear from them in that invaluable 
record of scientific facts, Prof. Sillimao's Journal. 

« Oiisco, JVof. 16, 1842. W. G." 

December 3. Large meteor this evening about S o'clock, N. W., 

December 30. Meteor observed, Erasmus Hall. 


September S8. Two shocks of an earthquake between 9 and 10 
p. m. The shocks at an interval of about two minutes. At the 
time of the shocks, a very heavy frost had collected sufficient to 
freeze the leaves of plants stifiF. Before morning, the frost had 
disappeared. The air was very clear and cold during the evening, 
but moderattd during the night. Union Literary Society. 

November 9. Earthquake in Canada. 

We have published brief notices from Montreal papers of an earth- 

y Google 

284 fSuiATB 

quake which occurred on the 9th inat. in Canada. The following 
fuller description is from a letter in The Canadian of the 9th, dated 
at Three Rivers. 

" This morning, about 10 o'clock, wc experienced a Tiolent shock 
of an earthquake. I was present at a marriage, (we omit the names 
of the parties,) and the Grand Kicotr, Mr. Cook, had reached the 
Agnui Deiy when, on a sudden, a sound was heard resembling the 
rolling of a cart over the frozen ground; this noise continued; per- 
haps, four seconds, and was followed by an explosion resembling 
that of a 26 pounder; the trembling of the earlh then commenced, 
shaking the walls of the church, and making its arched roof crack 
in a fearful and surprising manner. I thought the building which 
was crowded with people, would have crumbled over our heads. 
The scene which ensued baffles description; the piercing lamentations 
of the females, and cries of terror of the men, with the piteous, des- 
pairing shrieks of the children were truly awful. 

A general rush was made to the door by the congregation, the reve- 
rend pastor and the affianced couple alone retaining their position, 
not, however, without feelings of great apprehension as to what 
might happen. The weatherrock on the steeple spun, as in a high 
wind. This trembling lasted for five or six seconds; had it endured 
beyond, the church must have fallen and many would have perished. 
Descending the steps, I raised three females whom the crowd in the 
crush of their escape had thrown to the ground, but they were so 
affrighted as to be incapable of standing. The shock was violent 
throughout the town. Glass ware was destroyed, stones detached 
from the chimneys, and window-panes broken in many houses: uni- 
versal terror reigned. It was strongly felt at the St. Maurice forges, 
at Yamachiche, and Pont du Lac, and still more so at Becancour, 
Nicolet, and St. Oregorie. The waters of the St. Lawrence were 
seen by many to be violently agitated." 

The following is from another letter of the same date: 

"Precisely at 9 o'clock, A. M. on Monday, the 7lh inst I was 
sitting at breakfast, at Bernard's Hotel, on the steamboat wharf, at 
Three Rivers, when a sudden shock or concussion, was felt, so severe 
as to cause my compagnon dv dejeuner and self to stare at each other 
perfectly aghast; — the house actually seemed to reel to and fro, like 
a drunken man — the floor trembled beneath us, the table shook as 
though suddenly grasped by some one in the act of falling, and all 
the breakfast apparatus jingled again, from the violence of the shock! 
— My own impression was, that some large steamer, in coming into 
port, having suddenly lost her helm, had come crashing against and 
hnd liestroying the wharf. Dr. Qilmour, who was in the act of pas- 
sing along the street to visit me at the hotel, describes his sensation 
to Have been as though suddenly electrified, his legs tottering under 
him in a most unaccountable manner. I have experienced two 
earthqual^es in the West Indies; both lasted considerably longer than 
this, but the latter was much more violent than either of the former. 
1 have no doubt but that we shall find hereafter that some terrible 
commotion has taken place farther south.'* 

Digitized by 


No. 67,] 


A. Table of the periods when the Hudson River opened and closed at 
Jltbany, so far as the same can be now ascertained. 


River BlofJ orobrt'd by iee 

HlTcropec orfreeof ice. 

No. iLiraclowd. 







ta Jayi. 


December 8, 









December 12, 











81 ia.j%. 


^1^"' 12, 



Jan nary 23, 




November 28, 







January 8, 



Jkniurf 3, 














i>^'^^ ii; 











i=., t 





ten., 11 



December 20, 



December 21, 




S3 day.. 






December 2, 



December 16, 



December 7, 




108 day*. 





110 Javi. 
102 d^t 
123 day.. 

92 days. 
90 day.. 


December 13, 




November 13, 





















January 6, 






December 13, 





76d«l^; . 





86 day*. 

About 50 day 1. 

•NoTflmber 25, 





•December 23, 




100 day.. 


•January 11 




63 J.y^ 



100 day.. 
111 days. 

94 day.. 


109 dayi. 








•December 6, 






•December 21, 






•December 13, 






•December IN 










' 836-57 

•December 7, 





•December 14, 











•December 18, 











•December 19, 






•MoTember 29, 


- *^P"} 




NcTis.— J817-1S. Th!i winter wu lonf and inleniely cold. On the third of March, 
1818, the icemored In a body downward* f(»nme diMance, and there remained MatJonarr 
llie river w*. not clear until March 26th. ' 

18a>-21. Therivercloiedon the 13th, opened on the 20(h, and finaUy elOKd Dee. 1.— 
Thii WM one of the Tonr wbten during a cenbiry. In which the Hudion, between Pawled 
Hook and New-Yoric, wa. eroMed on (he ice: (he other three belnr 17^ '41, 1764 ■60. 
and 1779 «. -^ , »^ 

Jan. II. 1824. The riTer wu clMU' of ice, and ramBined ao for •svenl dtyi. 

1827-28. The rirer opened Bod eloieU repeatedly duriag: thii winter. Dee. 21, ilokiMd 
a tecond time. 

1830-31. Openad bi aoosequence of beavj rains, ud eloied anin on the lOlh JanuuTr 

1832-33. Openedagiin Jan,3; closed again Jan. It. 

1834-35. March 17. Rirer openoppoiiteto thecitr. March IS^. SteainbOBl Joho Jar 
eaine to Van Wie's Point: ice at the orenlaogh. 

Mem. All those mirked * are lieriveit from authentic n 

At therlvertftrMigAouf loNew-Yorlfhai'notalwayabei. . . .. . _, 

above, tlie time at which the first ileamboat passed from New-York toAlbany, or vice- 
versa. Is also added Tor a few Tears. 

1S35, March 25; 1836, April 10; 1B3T, March 31, Robert L. BCevens; 1B38, March 19, 
Utica; 1839, March 25, Swallow; 1840, February 25, Mount -Pleasant] 1811, Mareh 26, 
Utica; 1842, Februaiy 6, Telegraph. In consequence of heavy rains, the river opened 
■ ' It of ihtcitjof Albany on the 8th Of Januarjr, and can hardly be Bid to have closed 

uain during the season. The ice, however, contioued piled up some miles below, alai 
about Barren Island, near Schodacli Landmg, and thusreiider^ the channel impaf— "-' 
Cold weather followed about the middle of February, and again obrirucled the ni 
Uon, A steamboat arrived again oa the 1st of Mareb, 1812. 

B. Opening am> Closing of Ritebs, Lakes and Canals. 

Lake Champlain open, March 30, Plattsburgh; Erie (»nal closetl 
at Utica November 30. S. Aylsworth. 

C Weathek, Winds, Slc. 

January, \ras upon the whole a pleasant month, and was remarlca- 
ble only for the prevalence of S. W. winds, which is uncommon at 
that season. 

February, was some degrees warmer than usual, and presented a 
series of heavy gales from the 15th to the 19th, inclusive. 

March, also exhibits a higher temperature than common, and a 
prevalence of S. W. winds. 

April, exceeded the ordinary temperature; furnished numerous 
warm rains, and produced early and rapid vegetation. 

May, was nearly as warm as usual, but rainy and v^etation was 

June, was below the average temperature, and was especially dis- 
tinguished by a heavy frost on the 1 1th, which cut off corn and other 
vegetables very generally. Oaks and sycamores were also stripped 
of their leaves to the height of about 20 feet; the f(;liage above that, 
being uninjured. 

July, was of the usual temperature, but a remarkable quantity of 
rain fell. Grass was abundant; corn backward; wheat and rye, full 

August, was UDCommonly wet, and easterly winds greatly preva- 

September, was warmer than is usual in that month. Corn ap- 
peared more promising than farmers had expected. 

October, presents an average heat greater tban common. 

November, was very windy, but of ordinary temperature. 

, Google 

No. 57.] 287 

December, was cold as k whole, although there were no ve\y cold 
days; and exhibits a great proportion of cloutly days. 

The average temperature of the year was higher than it has been 
for some years past, exceeding that of last year by one degree, and 
of the year before by two degrees. The prevailing wind has been S, 
W. instead of N. W. as usual. Apples and corn in thi« vidnity 
were injured by the frost in June; but other crops were abundant. 
J. F. Jenkins, North Salrm. 

Siomu and Seosom. 

Whoever carefulljr and extensively examines the subject of meteor- 
ology, will, it is believed, arrive at the following conclusions. 

The sun and moon cause all atmospheric changes, excepting the 
minor influence of other celestial bodies. The records of this semi- 
nary show that there are two equinoctial storms, caused by the sun 
and beginning nearly at the time of the equinoxes, for during the 
last twelve years, very nearly as much water has fallen in the last 
third of the months of March and September respectively, as during 
the other two thirds of those months. Again, the sun causes two 
solstitial storms, one occurring usually between lie ninth and fifteenth 
of July, during which time the relative quantity of rain, as compared 
with the rest of that month for the same space of time, is as tbeee 
to two; the other solstitial storm, taking place during the last third 
of January, at this place, as our records also determine, the quantity 
of water equalling that of the rest of the month, or nearly so. 

The moon produces, for alikereason,fouraimilarbut usually smal- 
ler storms during each lunation. 

Storms, like tides, being greatest, ceteris paribus, when the sun and 
moon are in perigee, and least when in apogee. Storms caused by 
the moon occur in this latitude when the moon is over the equator, 
one ar two days after her greatest northern, and two or three after 
her greatest southern declination. 

We have named the periods at which storms usually occur; these, 
however, are varied within narrow limit? by the relative positions of 
the sun and moon, so that they are accelerated or retarded, increased 
or diminished in intensity^ and sometimes have even been prevented 

Hence, whoever would predict the occurrence of a storm must 
take into the account the relative positions of the sun and moon to 
each other, their distances from the earth, and our distance from the 
equator solstice, or point of the moon's declination at which the 
slorm commences. 

Another general observation is, storms move eastward because the 
orbitual motion of the sun and moon is eastward, the rapid diurnal 
motion of those bodies westward not wholly counteracting their oth- 
er influence. 

, Google 

288 [Sia»ATi: 

Tbere is also a variaticm in the temperature of diSerent jears, caus- 
ed by the variation of the angle which the moon's orbit has with the 
equator. This cycle of changes is completed in about nineteen 
yeats, so that one half of that time is much colder than the others 
during which less rain falls and the wind is more generally from the 
north- Whoerer will consult a nautical almanac, will find that from 
1836, when the year was very warm and the moon's angle with the 
equator near haminim-um, to lfj36-7, when it reached its maximumy 
(and the year was unusually cold,) the increase of the moon's angle 
with the equator, or, in other words, her increasing declination annu- 
ally, very nearly corresponded to the annual diminution in the tem- 
perature, and consequent decrease in the quantity of rain in this State 
during the same period. Since that time, also, the temperature and 
rain have increased as the moon's angle with the equator has dimi- 
nished. The same will be found true when referred to any time past 
or future, that is, true, not perhaps of every year, but of every cycle 
of about nineteen years- Hence we infer beforehand what will be 
our warmest and usually most fruitful — and what our coldest and 
least fruitful years. 

As the aurora borealis occurs most frequently during our coldest 
years, we shall of course know when to expect its frequent and when 
its rare occurrence. 

Finally, is not the periodical rise and fall of our great northern 
lakes owing to the greater or less declination of the moonl In 
other words, does not the moon, when having the greatest northern 
declination, by raising a greater tide westward during each lunar 
month, on the whole, in the course of eight or ten years, raise them 
by backing the current more than she does when her declination 
is less? It is to be hoped that observers near the lakes will ascertain 
if tradition truly declares, that they rise in the series of the coldest 
and subside in that of the warmest years, and if their rise is perio- 

We add it will also be found that storms are not as local as has been 
generally supposed; there is often an actual transfer of air from the 
southern to the northern hemisphere, and vice versa. 

George G. Hapgood, Oneida Conference Seminary. 

February 4, 1842- — The weather has been warm for half a month, 
quite warm,^then cold and quite warm again, so the frost is much out 
of the ground — roads muddy — rains and thaws. The Genesee is high. 
The barometer varies greatly and suddenly, falling or rising in a 
day .3 to .5 inches. Flies and insects are out thick. A butterfly 
has been seen flying and an earth worm crawling out of the ground; 
violets have already blossomed in some gardens; a grasshopper haa 
also been hatched out by the warmth of the weather. The lilacs in 
some gardens begin to show their leaves. This evening we have 
much lightning and thunder, rain, some hail, violent wind from S. 
of W., temperature fell fast. It is wonderful weather for February. 
Considerable sickness about the city. 

May 1. So warm have bebn the last three months, that vegetation 
is much earlier than last year. The same kinds of flowers are nearly 

■,j lized by 


No. 57.] 289 

a month in advance of the spring of 1841. See the accompanying 
catalogue of the flowering of plants. 

June 1. So cold has tieen the last month, that vegetation has ad- 
vanced slowly, and is now very little forward of the same date last 
year. Fruit is injured some, and much falls 'off; and in some in- 
stances, the leaves have in part fallen; Rochester Collegiate Insti- 

February 4. In consequence of the heavy rains, this day and the 
preceding, in the valley of the Mohawk, that river rose to a height 
of near eighteen feet ^ove the low water mark at Utica, being from 
three to four feet higher than was ever before known; Utica news- 

February 16. Wind south all day until 7 h. 46 m. P. M., when it 
changed to northwest, blowing a gale all night. 

Barometer, attacked Thermometer. 

7P.M., 28.90 42 

7.45, 28.85 41 

9, 28.75 

10, rising 

Feb. 17, 8, A. M., 29.30 46 

Wind north west all day. Barometer 48 feet above low water 
mark; Professor Ten Eyck, Albany. 

February 17. The barometer which, on the 15th, at 10 P. M., 
stood 30.35 inches, had, at sunrise of the 16th, fallen to 30.13, but 
afterwards began to fall with greater rapidity; so that at 2 P. M,, it 
stood at 29.64; at 10 P. M., at 28.71, and this ntorning, at 1 o'- 
clock, at 28 .47, being a fall of 1 . 17 in eleven hours, and of 1 .88 
in twenty-seven hours; Boston Transcript. 

March. Mr. Charles W. Mink communicated to the Albany Alias 
newspaper the quantity of snow, by measurement, that has fallen in 
Albany during the present winter, including the months of Novem- 
ber and December, 1842, and January and February, 1843. It 
amounted to three feet and two inches; Albany. 

June 5. It is found that the weed called St. John's wort is entirely 
destroyed in all this vicinity, and said to be so throughout Long 
Island. The cause is not known, but it is presumed to be the 
drought which succeeded the hay harvest last year; Erasmus Hall. 

June 11. Snow at Cherry-Valley; two inches deep on the hills, 
Cortland. Snow at Brunswick, near Troy; two inches deep at New- 
port, Herkimer county. Snow on the hills in Onondaga county. 

Most of the academies in the north and west mention the snow 
and frost at this time. 

June 26. A violent shower from the northwest, and in the towns 
northwest of this, accompanied with hail, which did immense injury. 
Entire crops were destroyed by its violence. The path of the hail- 
storm was from northwest to southeast, and occupymg about a mile 
and a half in breadth. Some of the stones were said to be more 
than eight inches in circumference; Auburn. 
June 27. Hailstorm; the stones that fell were as large as walnuts. 

[S».teNo.67.J L2 ,<: lized by GoOglC 

S90 [Sehatb 

On the SStti, a p«ck of bail stones was exhibited in this village by a 
respectable farmer io tbis town, some of which measured seven inches 
in circumference, being composed of several smaller ones, congealed 
during the night. Wheat, gross, corn, &c. were frightfully cut down 
by the stones; Gouverneur. 

November 18, 19. Violent gale on the lakes. The western pa- 
pers bring us the intelligeDce of a dreadful gale on Lake Erie, on 
the 18th and 19th of November. For nearly twenty-four hours, the 
wind blew a hurricane, the atmosphere was filled with driving snow, 
and the air was as keen and piercing m in mid-vrinter. Great ap- 
prehensions are felt of loss of life and property on the lakes. The 
details already received render it but too probable that tbe gale has 
been fearfully destructiTe. 

[ JVofn the Buffalo CofnmercuU of Saturday.^ 
We fear that the gale has been fearfully destructive along the 
take coast. The water in the harbor rose some five feet, but has 
done little injury other than to inundate the flats, and obstruct navi- 

StioD on the canal. There are rumors of vesels beached on the 
le shore, and of fatal effects therefrom, but as yet no positive in- 
formation has been obtained- No arrivals have taken place since 
yesterday noon. The Rochester packet, due last evening, is still 
absent, being imable to stem both ice and wind upon the canal. The 
Chesapeake, bound for the upper lakes, and the Wayne and FaltOD 
for Detroit, are in port, awaiting a favorable opportunity to de- 

The Rochester Democrat of Monday says that the snow storm 
extended over the whole western portion of tbe State, and that 
between Lockport and Buffalo, it fell to the depth of nearly two feet- 
Id Rochester, the snow was not more than an inch deep. The navi- 
gation of the western section of tbe canal was materially imjieded 
mi Friday and Saturday nights by snow and ice. 

, Google 

Ko. 67.] 

, Google 


Thckdeb. Sbowess. 

March, I 

April, 2 

May, 4 

June, 2 

July, 8 

August, , 6 

. Hail four times during the day; Albany. — S3 

Januarr 29tb. Evening — thunder, accompanied with lightning, 
wind S. W. 

February 4th. Evening — shower of hail, accompanied with light- 
ning and thunder; hail stones the size of walnuts; for the space of 
twenty minutes. 

August 17th. Twelve o'clock M. shower, accompanied with thun- 
der, with S. W. 

August ]7th. Nine o'clock P. M. with lightning and thunder, 
winds. W. 

August 27th. Thunder storm in the night — much lightning, wind 
N. N. E. 

September 11th. Continual thunder storms through the evening 
and night, wind S. W. 

September 12th. A severe storm in the night, flashes of lightning 
incessant, wind S, W. — 7; Middlebury. 

February, 1 

March, -. 2 

April, 2 

June, 4 

July, 2 

August, 4 

September, 3 

Rensselear Oswego. 

February, 1 

March, 1 

April, 2 

May, 1 

July, 6 

August, 2 

September, 1 

Erasmus Hall. 

April, 2 

May, 2 

June, 3 

July, 2 

August, 3 


March, 1 

April, 3 

Jiiy, 1 

August, 1 

September, 1 

— 7 

Fehmary, 1 

April, 2 

May, 1 

June, 4 

July, 3 

August, 5 

September, I 

— !• 
Franklin Malone. 

, Google 

No. 57.J 

January, 1 

February, 1 

March, 2 

April, 4 

June, 2 

July. 2 

August, 1 

September, 2 

— 1£ 

JaDuary, 2 

February, 1 

March, '. 2 

April 4 

June 3 

July, 1 

August, 1 

September, 3 

October, 1 


E. Tempekature of Spbings. 4 

Ttmperature of Springs &etng the mean of several observationt 
each month. 

1842. S. Spring. Jf. Spring. 

January, 46.33 47.33 

February, 46.00 46.00 

Bilarch, 46.00 44.50 S. Spring wannest in October, 

coldest iQ Feb. Mar. & May. 
April, 46.50 46.25 N. Spring, warmest in Sept. 

coldeEt in March. 

May, 46. 47.25 

Jane, 61. 49.60 

July, 50. 60. 

August, 51.75 51.60 The mean temperature of the 

September, 53.12 53. Springs exceeds that of the 

October, 53.41 52.91 atmosphere by about I of a 

November, ...... 51.50 52. degree. 

December, 49.50 50.75 

Annual mean, .... 49.26 49.16 

The temperature of both Springs has been more nearly uniform 
than in 1841. Then the range was 13 degrees; while in the past 
year, it has not exceeded 81. This decrease of variation has been ef- 
fected by the com pars lively low temperature in the summer months; 
which I can attribute only to the unusual quantity of rain during 
April, May, July and August. 

JohD F. Jenkins, North Salem. 


[I^om the JV. ¥. Journal of Commerce.] 
Id a letter which I recently received from Thomas Spencer, Esq. 
the State Superintendent of the Salines, he slates that the tempera- 

y Google 

S94 [Senate 

are of the salt vater raised from the veils at Salina, which are 170 
feet in depth, as denoted by the thermometer, wan 5S deg. of Fah- 

The well at Syracuse, which is 316 feet deep, was examined, aod 
the water raised by the workmen in the sand pump was of the tem- 
perature of 48 degrees of the same scale. 

Mr. Spencer remarks that this difference he cannot understand, and 
adds, " it is contrary to theory." 

The fresh water in the well (in the rear of his office,) which is 25 
feet deep, was of the temperature of 49. 

Salt water, in being raised to the surface from a great depth, may, 
in the time it is pressing upward, be influenced by its contact with 
water holding various suhstauces in solution, which might greatly 
induence the temperature. 

In an account which my correspondents, Messrs. Findley, Mitch- 
ell Sl Co., of Satlville, Va., have sent me, prepared by C. B. Hayden, 
£sq., of AhingdoQ, a gentleman of scientific attainments, he remarks 
that the salt water of the wells at that place denote a low tempera- 
ture, as follows: 

Well 326 feet deep, Mi degrees. 

206 " 53* « 

214 " 551 « 

Average temperature of the fresh water springs of the country, 
63t degrees. - Fresh water spring at the salt works, 52i degrees. 

In an examination of the saline water, of one of the wells at Syra- 
cuse, which was 254 feet deep in August, I found that the thermo- 
meter denoted a temperature of 55* degrees. 

Saltville is in latitude 30° 30', and Syracuse 44° 30.' 

The temperature beneath the surface of our earth is undoubtedly 
more or less affected by local causes. The salt rock at Saltville has 
been penetrated to the dept of 166 feet, without passing through it; 
a mountain of salt in old Vii^nia. E. Meriam. 

, Google 

No. 67.] 295 

4. Batitlt of ObMorvationtmadeatl A. M.,2 P. M.and9 P. M.^m 
too meanM., thejirtt being one-third the sum of the daily obterva- 
tumSf and the other formed ta the Regents of the Vhivertiiy re- 

January, ... 
Febroary, . . 
Mardt, .... 





September, . 
October, . . . 
November, . 
December, . 

Ist ) mo. 
Sd i mo. 

let i mo. 
td 1 mo. 

Uti I 
2d I I 

1st 1 ifio. 
3d 1 mo. 

1st 1 mo. 
i mo 

1st 1 mo. 
2d 1 mo. 

1st i mo. 
2d t mo. 

1st 1 mo. 
2d i mo. 

Ist 1 mo. 
2d i mo. 

1st t mo. 
2d k mo. 

1st i mo. 
2d I mo. 


Ist i mo. 
2d 1 mo. 



33. SO 

38. Ill 38.00 
40.67 40.49 


61.11 61.10 
66.29 66.47 

58.82 68. 
66.69 66.66 

66.46 66.24 
71.23 71.21 

66.93| 66.09 
69.21 69.36 

63.09 62 
53.13 53.14 




25.981 26.81 

Mean of year,. 



Once more it is evident that there is little dilTerence in the mean 
obtained by the two methods, from observations made at those three 
bour& The diiference, too, between this mean and that of the other set 
of ohaervations, is only one degree. 

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Digitized by 


No. 67.) 967 

Wannest day, July 30 — mean 78. 66 — coldest day, January 13 — 
0.66 below 0. 

The thennometer haa a northern exposure, about 8 feet above the 
ground. The rain gage is placed about 8 feet above ground, aod 30 
Uet from any boilding. 

February 3, 4 and 6. Great flood and much damage done along the 
bank of the Mohawk and other rivers. 

February 12. Warm — fermers ploughing. 

Man^ 77. Blue birds sing — and 3(Mi, ground wUled. 

The first half of June was fiold, wet and frosty, very backward. 

B^nmetrtaU Ohtenatimi for & months, from Jtugutt 1, 184S, to 
JoMiary 1 , 1843. AlHiude i31 feet above tide level, ut tke ren- 
dence of S. Aylnoortht Etq. 68 Fayette it., Vtioa, JV. Y. 






Meui at the follow- 





ing hours. 




















29. 9R 








29. 9f 




















20. 2C 


28. KB 













Sept22d, rough clouds and high winds at Utica. Barometer fell 
in 12 hours, twenty-nine hnndreths of an inch. I soon heard of the 
great storm and wind at the south, and at sea. 

November, from 17th to 20th, barometer felt seventy hundreths of 
an inch in 24 hours. Great wind, rain and snow storm on the west- 
em lakes, many vessels and lives lost. 

November 30, Barometer fell ninety-two hundreths of an inch 
in 24 hours. Great N. E. storm and wind at Boston, and off the 
coast, and much damage done to the shipping, and whole crews lost 
OB one or two vessels. 

Canal and North river closed about this day, the 30th. 

[Senate No. 57. J 




Of Metevrotogieai and other lAttrvations; node At tht ^tut-York 
JiuM/tifton, for tht JiwMWtm of the Dtaf and Dumb, Ay 0. W. 

They are Imperfect from the followtog caiuet: 

1st. AbMnce fron the lostitutioa from the IStfa of Ja]y lo the ht 
of September. 

2d. The otwerrationi on the directioo of the wind were sot com- 
menced till the l>t,of ApriL 

3d. The Thermometer Bustained an iojury which hindered correct 
obsenrations till June ISth, and then circunutaocea did not permit 
but one observation in a day, viz: at 9 o'clock, A. M. 

4th. Located ai we are. in a city, we have not the opportunity of 
ngficing the progress of vegetation, oi* many of the more common 
occurences of a rural residoice, except to a limited extent. 


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3' 4., 

PaoGBEas or Vkoetation. 
Plants m Mower. 
February 20lh. Chickwced. 
April 3il. Currant, gooseberry, raspberry. I 

April 5lb. Dandelion, slippery elm, apricot. | 

April I5lh. filue violet, ssxifrage, adder's mouth, yellow rose. | 
April iOlh. Plum, cherry, flt-abane, mcaduw rue, bettrbeiry. i 
■ ilized by Google 

No. 67.J 898 

April SSd. firing beauty. 

April S6th. Lilac. 
April 27th. Apple, par. 
May Sd. Crowfoot rtiawberry, yellow clorer. 
May 6th. Brooms maj^olia, sorrel, mowball, labunram, dogvood, 
May-apple, (viola pedata and palmata,) hone chestnut. 
May 7th. Craneriiill. 
May 9th. Tulip, whortldwrry. 

May 16th. Pea, red and white clover, itargnai, Teronica. 
May 18tb. Blackberry, rbnbarb. 
May 23d. Colnmbine, syrii^, honeyaackle, thorn. 
May S6th. Daisy, choke-cherry, locuat, pink, wooQ-sorrel. 
May 30th. Sa^e, parsnip, chives.' 
June 2d. Scabious, snapdragon, honey-Iocuat. 
June 20. Potato, mullein, dog-rose. 
July Ist. Catalpa, blue starwort, chesnnt. 

April 30tb. Asparagus cut. 
April 37tfa. Lettuce cut. 
Maj 6Ui. Rye headed out. 
May 24tb. Strawberries ripe. 
Jooe 6th. Apples and cherries ripe. 
June 16th. jfew potatoes. 

In the open air. 

Ooit of Vegetatim. 

November Ist. Picked the last cucumbers for the season. 
November 11th. Picked the last Lima beans. 
November 15th. Picked the last dahlias. 

,Stmoiphenc Phenomena. 

November 21st. Aurora borealis. 


Solar — May 1st, at 1 o'clock P. M., white siid distinct circles; 
November 25th, at 4 o'clock P. M., colored, south of sun. 

Lunar — November 20th, at 9 o'clock P. M.; November 21st, at 
81 o'clock P. M.; December nth, at 8 o'clock P. M. 

Wtather before and afler halou. 

May lat. Before. Clear, wind westerly. 

After. Rain for three days, wind S. W., N. E., X. W. 
Nov. S6th. Before. One day mow, wind 8. W. 

After. Clear for five days, wind westerly. 
30th. Before. Clear one day, wind westerly. 

After. Clear for three days, wind westerly. 
Dec. 17th. Before. Clear for three dsys, wind westerly. 

After. Clear for two days, wind westerly. 

800 [Sbtatc 

Aainfroiw notieti. 

Jan. Slat. At 10 o'clock, A. M. 
July 1st. 7 P. M. 

3d. 7 f . M. 

9t^. 8 A. M. 

Sept 2lBt. 31 P. M. 

T&mi^ SiMiert. 
March 2d. A. M. Early, heavy rtin. 
April 7th. P. M. S. E. Heavy rain. 

26th. 4 P. M. W. Light. 
May 1st. 4 P. M. S. W. Siort, but heavy rem. 

11th. SP. M. S. W. Heavy rain. 

19th. 6 P. M. N. W. Heavy thunder and rain. 

30th. 7 A. M. S. E. Light. 
Jane 26th. 6 P. M, W. Heavy. 

30th. llj P.M. W- Very heavy thunder. 
July 1st. 31 P. M. S. W. do do 

8 P. M. S. W. do do 

2d. 2 P. M. S. W. do do 

9tfa. lot A. M. S. Light. 
Sept. 9th. 3 P. M. N. W. Violent wind, wid heavy thwder. 
Thermometer fell 15°. 

11th. 10. P. M. W. Heavy. 

lightning v!ithottt TAtrnder. 

May 27th. In the eventng. 

29th. do 

June 26th. do 

19th. do 

Nov. 8th. do 

9th. do 

Snow Stormt. 

March 1st. Commenced at 3| P. M., fell 3 inches in depth. 

June 23d. Snow fell for a few minutes about 4 P. M. 

!Nov. 24tli. do short time. 

30tb. Snow most of the day, wind strong N. E. 

Dec. 11th. Commenced at 8 A. M., continued 3 hours, wind V. E. 
13th. do 6 j^ A. M., continned till in the night, N. E, 

29th. do 1 P. M. do de 


Dec. 28th. At the setting of the sun the clouds above the hotixon 
were broken, ana assumed first a golden; then a violet hue, 
and many beautiful pencils of rays shot up tfaroogh the open- 

, Google 

No. S7.J 

Varioiu Pkenmnena. 

Jan. 39th. Ice dist^tpeared from poads, &c. 
Feb. 3d. Plooglung. 

7th. First steamboat from Albany. 

28th. Frogs firat heard. 
Ha; 14th. Figeons flying. 

20th. Cord and violent northeast stonn. 

27th. Yer; thick fog. 

29th. Very heavy rain. 

30th. do do 
July I8th. Warmert day noted, 80°. 
Sept. 9th. llermometer fell 16 degrees within i 
thunder stonn. 

24th. First frost, (veiy light.) 
Oct. 8th. Thick fog. 

26th. Severe southeast storm. 

^th. Severe frost, , 

Not. fith. First ice in ponds and rivulets. 

8th. Ssvere northeMt storm. 

19th. He groond bozaa, 

34tfa. First 8D0W. 
Dec. S4th. Coldest day noted, 18° below 0. 

hour during a 



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]»». 57.] «e 

(B.) Mttract of Banmitncal Obtenaiioiu for l84&, mail al tki 
Sochetter CoUegiate Itutiiute, by Rm. CAetter Dewey, Princ^ak 
The obtervationt were made ^. M. and P. M. 






30.16 28.98 
29,97 28.87 
30.06 29.08 
29.96 29.00 
29.92 29.11 
29.88 29.13 
29.88 29.22 
29.87 29.30 
29.80 29.00 
e9.90 29.08 
30.03 28.98 
30.08 28.98 









j«ii :::::::::::::::::::::: :: 






NoTenber, .w 

1 05 



Annual mean, 29 . 54 

Higbest, January 23, 30. 16 

Lowest, February 16, 28.87 

Yearly range, 1.29 

(C.) jSbitract of Barometrical Obtervationt for 184S, made at 
Oneida Conference Seminary, (^elevation above tide at Albany, 
1260 feet,) by James L. Alvereon^ Proftasor of MatAematict and 
Jfatwal PhUoeophy. 7%e cbtervatiom were made tvdce a day^ 8 
A. M. andiP.M 

January, , . . . 
Februaiy, . . 






August, .... 
September, . 
October, . , . , 
November, . . 
December, . , 

Yearly mean, 

Highest during the year, January 34, . . 
Lowest " " February 16, . 

Yearly range, 

[Senate No. 67. 1 N2 

, 28.621 

, 29.035 


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October, aS.€aSSS.9S^»Aii. 

Novenbrr, aS.61!*:»,060:^ 

December, ;^.a5': 39.040^7 

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Higfaeit daring the year, Jinmry 91, SS.OSf^ 

Lowe* " " Fehniwyie, S7.900 

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Hdh 67.} 


The following Bcadanies- differ as below from the foregoing tsble 
but without asGigiuDg any reaaon for the change. 

Lomgitudt. Latitude. 
Cayuga, 42.50 

Cherry- ValleT,. 

Fanoera' Hall, 41.28 

Franklin, Prattsbu^h, 42.35 

Hudaon, 42.39 

Lewiston, 73.40 

Miilyille, 43.10 78.36 

Rensselaer, Oswego, 43.30 

Springville, 78.42 

"ioion Literary Society,.... 43.03 


Kept at Roehetter ig Rev, Chetier Dewey- 

The followbg plants are enumerated chiefly for showing their 
time of flowering in 1842, which had an early spring, and in 1841, 
which bad a late spring. The list contains a few which were not in 
the catalogue of 1841. For the sake of comparison, I have given 
the dates of flowering in both years. 



April 10, 

March 14, 

Pothos fstida. 




Populofl tremuloides. 



caaesceiis. Yards. 

do 2, 


Salix conifera. 

do 27, 



Acer rubmio. 

Ma, 2, 


Sahi nablenbergiaiiii. 

April 10, 


Ulmm americana. 

do 27, 



Corylus rostrata. 

do 2, 


Alma serrulata. 

do 24, 



Epigea repens. 
Salix p€tiotaria. 

M.y 1, 


h^y 3, 


Hepatica tnlobe. 


Carex plantaginea. 

April 34, 

•70 % 


■ peduaciihita. 



TaxuB caoadeiMU. 


do 16, 


Alaine media. 



Shepardia canadenaia. 

do 6, 



PopuluB grandidentata. 

do 1, 



Claytonia spatnlata. 

, Google 


1841. 1843. 

Hay 2f April 14, Caltha palustris. 

do 6, do TrolUus atnericanus. 

do 13, do Dirca palustris. 

do 8, do LaurUB benzoin. 

do Armorica vulgaris. Fruit yards, 

do 11, do 16, Gnaphalium dioicum. 

do 8, do Sazifra^ vir^nienns. 

do 16, do 18, Carpinus americana. 

do do Betula rubra, 

do 10, do 20, Thlaspi bursapastoris. 

do 6, do Sanguinaria canadensis, 

do 19, do SI, Amygdalus persica. 

do 21, do Pninus domestica. 

do 8, do Trillium erectum. 

do 6, do Caulophyllum thalictroides. 

do 1, do Erytfaronium americannm. 

do S, do Dentaria launiata. 

do 16, do Viola rostrata. 

do 17, do blanda. 

do 1, do Ceraetiun Tulgatum. 

do 1, do Carez plantai^nea, and 

do do pedunculata. Foil in fruit. 

do 8, do Arabis rhomboidea. 

do 17, do Poa annua. 

do 10, do Populus dilatata. 

do 15, do 33, AroDia botryapium. 

do 16, do Trillium grandiflonim. 

do 8, do Gnaphalium plantagineum. 

do 19, do Veronica serpyllifolia. 

do 13, do Fragaria virginica. 

do 19, i!o Acer saccharmum. 

do 16, do Ribes aureum. Yards. 

do 13, do Ranunculus fascicularis. 

do 8, do Dentaria diphylla. 

do 14, do Ribes rubrum. 

do 19, do Acer nigrum. 

do 8, do JuQcus piloBus, 

do 6, do Equisetum arrense. 

do 6, do Polytrichum perigoniale. 

do Bryum nutans, 

do 13, do Leontodon taraxacum, 

do 15, do Viola cucullata. 

do debilisT Ph. 

do S6, Carex umbellata. 

do -^^ pennsylvanica. '^ 

do -'■ oromoides. 

do 17, do Salix Titellina. 

do 19, do 39, Mitella diphylla. 

do Finus rigida. 



, Google 


No. 67.] 



M.J 27, 

"7o '' 

Smyrnium aoreum. 

do 19, 

Uvularia p«rfoliata. 


Xylosteum ciliatani. 

M«y 19, 
L 8, 


Tiarella cordifolia. 


Carer anceps. Narrow leaf. 


— sylvatiCB. 

do 13, 


Oryzopsis asperifoUa. 

do 33, 



Pyruscoiaiainua. Tarda. 

do 33, 


Vaccinium pennsylTaoicum. 



Panax triroliata. 



Viola pubeacena. 

do 19, 


— mublenbergiana. 

do 15, 


Tbalictnim dioicum. 

do 33, 


Geraoium macalatiun. 

do 26, 


Arum triphyllum. 

do 28, 


Vicia cracca. 

do 21, 


Salix lucida. 



Pruniis domeatica. 

do 33, 

May 6, 

Sanjbucus pubescens. 



.Viola eaoadeosis. 


Chiyaosplenium oppodtifolium 

do 19, 


Aaarum caoadense. 

do 33, 


Fagus ferruginea. 



— sylvatica. 
Carex ebumeum. 

do 11, 


do 27, 

May 6, 

Ribea gracile. 


RubuB acaulisl 

do 36, 


PyniB maluB. 



— japonica. Yards. 


Coptia trifoliata. 

do 16, 


Carex anceps. Wide leafed. 
Dabibarda tragarioidea. 


do 31, 

May 10, 

Carex riparia. 

do 39, 


— eunonsii. 

June 1, 


Vaccineum corymboaum. 
Rannnculos sceleratna. 

Ha; 33, 



— faacicalaria. 


Rochelia lappula. 



PruDua chicasa. 

do 31, 

May 11, 

Carex deweyana. 
— ampullacea. 

do 36, 


Actea rubra. 



— alba. 

do 21, 


Syringa vulgaris. Var. alba. 


Ribea toridum. 

Jme 3, 


Quercus alba. 






Caxez stipata. 

[Scute Na 



K: <' 

lli :' 

H -^gicj 

1841. 184S. 
Ma; 39, May 11, — peUila. 

June 4, do Aronia sanefuinea. 

Mdj 27, do Phlox Bubulata. 
do 28, do — diravicata. 

do 31, do PyruB cydonia. 

June 1, do Vaccinium frondoBUa. 

May 26, May 12, Syringa vulgaris. 

June 4, May 14, Thapsia trifoliata. 

May 29, do Lupinus perennia. 

do S8, do Jaglans cinerea. 

do 29, do Carex disperma. 

June 3, do Rumex acetosellus. 

do Lycium baibatum. Yards. 

do 26, do Aquilegia canadenua. 
do 29, do Azalea Dudiflora. 

May 17, ^sculus hyppocastaneum. Yards, 
do 27, do Bartsia coccinea. 

June 3, do Ccnvaliaria racemosa. 

May 29, May 19, Syringa persica. Yards, 

do 27, do Coruus florida. 

do 29, do Aralia nudicaulig. 

do Cochlearia armoracea. 

do 22, May S3, ConTallaria bifolia. 

do — pubesceos. * 

June 3, do Platanus occidentalis. 

May SI, do Litbospermum arrense. 

June 4, do Sorbus americana. 

May 36, Podophyllum peltatum. 

May 39, do Senecio aureus. 

June 5, do Cynoglossum officinale, 

do 9, do Geum riTale. 

do 6, do Osmunda interrupta. 

May 26, do Hedyotia ciliolata. 

June 5, May 28, Vaccineam stamineum. 

do 10, do Fotentilla canadensis. 

May 29, do Carex trispenna. 

May 28, Juglans nigra. 

June 4, do Nyssa biflora. 

do May 30, Carex hitchcockiana. 

June 5, do Osmunda cinnamcnuea. 

do 4, June 1, Hypoxis erecta. 

do 16, do Erigeron belUdifolium. 

do 8, do Lonicera parviflora. 

Geranium robertianum. 

do 3, do Hydrophyllum ^rginicun. 

Hay 21, do 3, Ina virginica. 

do IS, do Anemone aconitifolift. 

do 27, do Carex gracilUma. 

June 1, do Veronica beccabimga. 

, Google 

Ko. 67.] 



June 9, 

Jane 3, 

do 10, 

do 5, 

do 16, 

do 12, 


do 16, 


do 8, 


do 11, 



do 12, do 16, 
























It is 

evident that the 

e?er U the 



VibnTDum pyrifolinm. 
Carez multiflora. 
Nupbar advena. 
Cytisus labunitiin. Yards. 
Latbyrus myrtifolius. 
Spartium scoparium. 
Euooymus EuropaenS' 
Sympbosia racemosa. 
Robinia pseudo-acacia. 

— hispida. 
Orobanche unifiora. 
Lolinm perenne. 
Dactylis glomerata. 
Pinguicula Tulgaxis. 
Silene noctuma. 
Vibumom .acerifoUum. 
Liriodeadron tulipifeia. 
Agrostemma gitbago. 
Cypripedium spectabtle. 
Solanum dulcamara. 
Circsa lutetiaoa. 
£uonymus atropurpureuB. 
CircKa alpina. 
time of flowering of plants for the two years 
C. Dewey. 

Plants in flower at the time of the first frost of autumn, Sept. 36, 
1812. Very few of the following plants have been given, either in 
the catalope of plants for 1842 or 1341. 
Gentiana qumquiflora, full in blossom. 

— crinita, do 

— saponaria, nearly or quite gone. 
Lobelia Icalmii, full in bloom. 

— cardinalis, nearly gone. 

— Biphilitica, do 
Qerardia pedicularia, do 
" ■■ ' ' ■ do 



1 flower, 

Solidago canadenns, 

— sterotina, 

— patula, 

— juncea, 

— bicolor, full ii 

— giaminifolia, 

— lexicaulis, 
Xanthium strumarium, about gone. 
Arctium lappa, do 
Goicus lanceolatus, do 

— discolor, do 

316 [SniAn 

OnopordoD acanthium, nearly oat of flower. 

PrenanUioi alba 



Lactuca elongata, 



Eupatorium purpweiun, 



— Terticillatum 



— ageratoides, 



-•— peTfoliatum^ 





— decnrrens, 


— uliginosum, 


ErigeioD canadense, 


Aater linarifolius, 


— multiflonis, . 


— noTe-Bogliffi, 


— yar. longifolla, 


— cyanius, 


— paniculatiu, 


— cordifolius, 


— prenanthoidea, 


— pMiicua, 


— tradeacanti, 


— leyigatml 


— recurrotus, 


Nov. 3. MalTa sinensis. 

Garden in bloom 

Qonchus airensis, 



Hamdmelis Tirginica. Woods 

C. Dewey. 



No, 58. 


March 4, 1843. 


Of the Committee on Claims, on the petition <rf' 
Otis Eddy and others, praying for a law for 
the settlement of elaims arising nnder Canal 

Mr. Patnam, from the committee ob claims, to which wu refened 
the petitiiHi of Otii Edd; and others, pnying for a law for the set- 
tloaent of claima ariBmg under casal contracts, 


The petitioners represent that the; entered into contracts with 
the Canal Commisaoners for the performance of worlc on the canal 
within speofied times, and gave secant; for their futhful perform- 

lliat they entered into contracts with the understanding that the 
CQstom which had for more than twenty years prevailed for making 
monthly estimates and payments to contractors, shoald be observed 
in reference to them, and at prices much lower than they would have 
done, but for such understanding and established custom. 

That with such expectations they commenced upon the execution 
of their contracts, by making laige outlays and arrangements for 
completion of their work within the time agreed upon ; and they re- 
present that' the monthly instalments were not paid according to the 

[Senate No. 58.] A (u. n.) 

t [SniATK 

nudentanding ; that the perfonnance of the works 'was extended bj 
oiders of the Commissioners and en^eers, and that in many cases 
the works by sach orders, have been discontinued altt^ether. 

They ask that a general law may be passed, appcnntjog some tri- 
bunal to examine the claims of all contractors, and settle the same 
upon jost and equitable principles. 

The petitioDers ask that the same piindples of justice and equi^ 
gOTeming matters of contiact between individualB, be obseired and 
adopted towards them in the settlement of contracts entered into 
with the State. 

There is a large class of claims ; some where the work has been 
disconUnued by orders, on the part of the State ; others where the 
contracts have been executed, and remain unsettled, and others where 
damages are claimed from a varie^ of other conuderations. Most 
of tiie claims aie predicated upon matters of fact^ which more pro- 
perly belong, in the opinion of the committee, to the courts of jus- 
tice, or to some appointed tribunal for their inrestigation. 

The committee hear only one aie of the case ; no one appears be- 
fore them on the part of the State to lebut the evidence, or show 
the possible injustice of the claim. The evidence offered, may ex- 
hibit great justice, and yet all of it is ex parte, and fraud may be 
imposed upon the committee without any opportunity, under the li- 
mited means of examination, for its detection. The applications are 
osnally baaed upon the petition, and perhaps the afiSdavits of indi- 
viduals who may or may not be impartial and unbiased in the pre- 

Tifl true the statute already makes provision for settlement of claims 
by the Canal Board, but the Board is limited as to extent of jurisdic- 
ti(Hi,and many cases of claims presented to it, are rejected for want 
of authority to act upon them. Hence the numerous calls upon the 
favor of the Legislature for acts directly allowing the claims, or for 
an enlargement of the powers of the Board, The committee see no 
reason why power may not safely be conferred upon the Board to 
examine according to principles of justice and equity all cases pre- 
sented to them. And the committee are of opinion that it is due to 

Digitized by 


No. 6&] 3 

the coatractqr, u a matter of justice from the State, that provintm 
be made in all caws for the settlement of his account and liqoiclft- 
tion of his clum, if aoy he has. 

Tbe coBunittee, therefore, ask leave to introdace a hill. 

, Google 

, Google 


No. 59. 


March 6, 1^43. 

From Mr. James Hall, one of the State Geologists. 

The Geological Surrey of New- York, was orgaDized during the 
sufflineT of 1836, under the followiag departments, in the order in 
which they have usually been reported : 

1. Zoology. 

2. Botany. 

3. Mineralogy and Chemical Analysis. 

4. Geology, the State being divided into four districts. 

At the end of the first season, there was another department, that 
of Paleontology^ the duties of which were the figuring and descrip- 
tioD of the fossil organic remains of the rocks. 

1. Zoology. 
In tlus department, there is one person, Dr. J. E. DeKay, employ- 
ed, with a draftsman, the first with a salary of (1600, and the se- 
cond with a salary of $800 aunaally. 

3. Botany. 
In this department, Dr. Torrey has been employed with the sala- 
ry as above and for two years has received for a draftsman $800 an- 

rSenateNo.69.] A [u. n.] 

y Google 

3. JiSaeralogy and Chemical AwdystM. 
In this department, Dr. Lewis C. Beck, has been employed with 
the like salary as above with an allowance of $800 annually, for an 
assistant for two years or more. 

In addition to this, there have been some incideotal expenses at- 
tending chemical analyus of about $150 annually. 

4. Geology. 
The State was divided into four districts, (as su^ested in the Re- 
port to the Legislature by the Secretary of State,) and one Geolo- 
^st with an assistant appointed to each with a salary of $1500 and 
$800 respectively. 

On the first oi^nization of the survey, it was contemplated to em- 
ploy two geol<^ists on each district with a salary of $1500 each, and 
a draftsman with a salary of $800. Subsequently tbeabove arrange- 
ment was adopted, and finding that the services of a draftsman were 
not required constantly, the sum of $300 annually was given to each 
geologist, on condition of his executing, or procuring executed, his 
prinupal drawings, and paying the transportation of specimens for 
the collections to some conrenient point for sending direct to Albany. 
The same sum was afterwards allowed in the other departments. 

The persons employed in this department, were W. W. Mather, 
1st district; Ebenezer Emmons, 2d district; Lardner Vanaxem, 
3d district ; and James Hall, 4th districts. 

6. Paleontology. 
In this department, Mr T. A. Conrad was employed with the same 
salary as the other members of the corps. 

The duties in each department were as follows : 

In Zoology^ a collection of the animals was to be made for the 
State with full descriptions, and all necessary iltustiations of the 

In Botany^ the requirements were the same. 

In JiKneralogy these requirements were not specified, but there 
has been collected for the State, a suite of the ores and minerals, and 
seven umilar suites for the colleges. 

Digitized by 


Wo. 69.] 3 

In Geology the requirementB were to collect eight suites of the 
rockt, nUneriUs, and lot/s of the respectiTe districts. One of these 
waa to be deposited in the State collection, and the seven remaining 
ones were to be sent to such literary institution^ as the Secretary of 
State should direct. 

The collection for the State, in this department amounts to more 
than 16,000 specimens, and each of the other collections for literary 
institutions contains about 3,500 specimens. 

In the Paleontology as a separate department, there has been no 
collection made. 

The State collections in Zoology, Botany, Mineralogy and Geolo- 
gr, are now arranged in the old State Hall. 

Since the first of January, 1842, no person in the surrey has re- 
ceived a regular salary. The four geologists, and the mineralogist, 
in consequence of the large collections in these departments, have 
each received for arranging the same in the old State Hall, and for 
labelling and packing those for the colleges, a sum equal to one 
qnarter'a salary. Since that time, each one has been constantly em- 
ployed in preparing his work for publication, and in superintending 
the engravinga for the same. Some of these are completed, and oth- 
era are now in the press. ' 

It was considered proper by the Governor, that the active duties 
of the survey should cease at the end of 1841, and that the time 
employed in writing the reports, &c., should be separately paid in 
preference to continuing the salaries of each person. 

The engravings in each department have been as follows : 

33 copperplate engravings of Quadrupeds. 
141 litbc^raphic plates of Birds. 

23 " " « Reptiles. 

79 « « « Fishes. 

10 « « " Insects. 

34 « « " Shells. 



9 lithographic plates of ZoophYtes. 
13 " " " Crustaceans. 

The whole expense of engraving in this department, inc]u<ting that 
which now remains in the hands of the engraver unfinished, 
Is $31,330 

To complete the engravings now in hand, and to print 
1600 copies of each one, will require 2,300 

Making the expense already incurred ^9,130 


In this department, the engraver reports 160 plates in hand, a 
part of which have been ei^raved and printed to the number of 
3000 copiw. The estimated expense for completing the 
whole is., (9,000 00 

Elzpense already incurred, f6,400 

Required to complete this department, 3,600 

The illustrations in this department, are principally wood cuts of 
the crystalline foims of minerals. The whole expense has been $900. 


The illustrations in this department, consist of wood cuts, illustra- 
ting scenery, sections of rocks, showing the poution of strata, and some 
of the characteristic fo^ils ; there are also, lithographic plates of sec- 
tions, maps &c., illustrating the geological structure of the State, 
and the kind of rocks occupying the surface. 

The whole expense incurred for itlustradng the four vol- 
umes is- $9,951 

A few of these plates ate only printed to 1500 copies, 
which after this number have been disposed of, will require 
an outlay of about $600 to complete the remaining 1600 

In addition to this, there is a geolc^cal map of the State, the 
printing of which, for 3000 copies has cost, 1,576 

Total of Geolt^cal Department, $11^26 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

No. 69.] S 

Estimating the departments of Zool<^ ftod Botany to be Comple- 
ted] the whole stands thus : 

Zoology, $31,330 

Botany, 9,000 

Mineral!^, 900 

Geology, illustraUons of four volumes, 9,961 

Geological map, 1,676 

Th6 amount of salarits and incidental cbai^;e8 in each department, 
from the first of Janoary, 1837, to the first of January, 1843, have 
been as foUons, as nearly as can be estimated without going into an 
examination of the day books in the Comptroller's office- 
Zoology, $13,000 00 

Botany^ 10,600 00 

Mineralogy, 11,600 00 

Paleontology, 9,000 00 

Geolc^, 60,000 00 

Previous to this time there had been expended in all 
diedepartmeDtSjinabontthesBme proportions as above,. *7,769 74 
There has been paid for engraving plates of tbe Zo- 

ol(^cal and Botanical Departments, 22,411 00 

Engraving steel plate for Geological Map, 750 00 

For cases for specimens, about 360 00 

Total,.... $125,480 74 

This amount leaves unaccounted for, $4,620 00 

From this sum have been paid, the transportation of 
ipedmens to Albany, labor and cartage attending the 
same, fitting op and preparing the collection in the 
old State Hall, and the college collections, firewood, 
&c., ftc., and there now remains a balance in the 
treasury of about $400 00 

The amount now due the engraver, for work already completed, 

or in a state of forwardness, is $S6,020 00 

Ur. White's statement for printing and binding, is : 

■ riiBiiliBiliii id 6im*aOTlUnr)M«tiB|aBTlDt lbaO«olii(lealBap«tUsf isn. 

, Google 


For printing volunaes now issued, and for a part of two 

others in press, 30,000 00 

Binding six volumes, 14,000 00 

Estimate for completing the two volumes now in press 

and printing two more Totumes, 15,000 00 

The present condition of the surrej is as follows : 

In the Zoolt^icai Department three volumes are already completed, 
and there will probably be three more to be printed, for which the 
engravings are nearly completed. 

In the Mineralogical Department, the Report, consisting of one 
volume, is completed. 

In the Qeolo^cal Department two volumes are already printed, 
and the remaining two are in press and nearly half finished; the en- 
gravings, except a few wood cuts, being completed, and reckoned in 
the estimate. 

The engravings for the Botanical Department are partly completed, 
but the report has not been made. 

The expense of printing to complete the two volumes now in press, 
will amount but to little more than one volume, or about six hun- 
dred pages. There are ready for printing, two volumes on the Zoo- 
logy, for which the plates are nearly completed. 

There are two modes of prinUng these works, which are offered. 

The first is to print 3,000 copies at once; and the second is to 
print 1,000 copies, and to prepare stereotype plates of the work that 
the number of copies may be increased at pleasure. By adopting 
this course, an immediate outlay of several thousand dollars will be 

The following estimate for printing and binding was sent me by 
Messrs. Gould, Kendall &, Lincoln, of Boston, publishers and book- 
sellers, to whom I had written. Fearing from circumstances that 
the work might be suspended, I was anxious to know what would be 
the expense of printing my own volume, now in press. 

, Google 

No. 59.J 7 

The estimate ia for a quarto Tolume of 400 pages, to be done in a 
style fully equal to the present volumes, as regards printing, paper, 
and binding : 

For 3,000 copies of a volume of 100 pages: 

Composition, $374 40 

Presswork, 400 tokens, 80 ctB.', - 320 00 

221 reams of paper, $6, 1,105 00 

tl,709 40 
Cloth binding, at 50 cts., 1,000 00 

$2,709 40 
or $1 .40 per volume, bound in the present style. 

Ilie volumes will somewhat exceed 400 pages, for which about 
ten cents the volume may be added; and the' binding, if there are 
many plates which fold, will cost nxty cents per volume: making 
$1.60 the extreme. 

The estimate of 50 ceiits is for the average of the volumes now 
published; there being but one with folded plates, and two volumes 
with no more than four or five plates each. 

The expense of completing the two volumes now in press, accord- 
ing to this estimate, will be : 

For printing 3,000 copies, about $4,000 00 

Binding 1,500 of each, will be 1,500 00 

Estimating three more volumes in Zoology, at $1 .60 

per copy for printing and binding, 13,600 00 

Total,... 119,000 00 

If 1,500 only are bound at first, it will reduce this esti- 
mate, 4,500 00 

Makingit $14,600 00 

I have not estimated the volume in Botany, not knowing that it is 
prepared for printing. 

If it be not desirable to print the number of 3,000 copies at once, 
there can be 1,000 copies of each printed and bound for about $1.60 

Digitized by 


8 [Sehatv 

per volume, and stereotype plates taken, from which any deared 
Dumber caa afterwards be printed, at the cost of paper and presswoik. 

By this mode the State may procure 1,000 copies of the five to- 
lumes before mentioned, at an expense, (including the stereotyped 

plates,) of about f9,000 00 

The estimate of the engraver, for completing the plates 

for the Zoology, is 2,200 00 

Total, $11,200 00 

To print one volume of Botany, and procare stereotype plates as 

above, will cost about |2,350 00 

To complete the engravings in this Department, 3,600 00 

Total...... $5,850 00 

For the Paleontolt^ there is yet nothing provided, except a few 
wood-cut illustrations of fossils, used in the volumes on Geology. I 
have made an estimate that the work can be completed, the book 
written, and the engraving, printing, and binding done, for $2.76 
per volume. If this mode is preferred, it can be accomplished in 
about two years'. 

This estimate is based upon the prices for printing and binding as 

In order to complete the Geolo^cal Department of the survey, as 
contemplated from the commencement, there are required cases to 
arrange collections of the rocks, soils, and minerals of the counties 
separately. These collections are already partly made, and remain 
packed in boxes in the old State Hall, In order to render these use- 
ful, it requires a further collection and examination of the soils, 
which, now that the rock formations are known, will soon be accom- 
plished more satisfactorily than it conld have been previously. 

The present coUectton requires to be properly labelled, and a cata- 
l<^e of the same prepared. There are also many vacancies in the 
collection which it is desirable to Gil before it can be coosiilered 
complete. This has resulted from the want of some proper place to 
arrange the specimens during the progress of the survey, so that it 

Kilized by Google 

No. 69.J 9 

could not be known what had been collected m each gronp till the 
final arraDgement. 

There must also be a collection of the fosnls made, before the To- 
lame on Paleontology can be completed- , 

The denderata here enumerated will require the services of two 
. persons for two years, to complete them. By this means the present 
collection will be greatly increased in Talue^ from being properly la- 
belled and a catalogue prepared. The collection will also be in- 
creased, by the addition of several thousand specimenBoffo8al8,soiIt, 
and other valuable objects. 

The volume on Paleontology, r^arded both in a scientific and 
practical point of view, will be the most important one of the Geolo- 
^cal Department, and it will be essentially incomplete without that. 
There will be no difficulty of bringing the whole to a close during the 
period here stated, and the collections will then be placed in a per- 
manent condition, representing the productions of the State in the 
following order : 

1. A collection of the umple minerals, arranged according to their 
affinities, without relation to the rocks. 

2. A collection of ores and other minerals, showing their associa- 
tion with certain rocks. 

3. A collection of the rodcs, arranged in their order of successioD, 
with their characteristic fossils. 

4. A collection of the fossils from all the stratified rodcs of the 
State, showing their relations to each other and to the strata in which 
they are found. 

5. A get^raphical collection, in which the rocks, minerals, and 
soils of each county shall be exhibited in connection. This will be 
a most Talnable collection for the agriculturist} showing the kind <rf 
rock, the soil resulting therefrom, and presenting the meau of im- 
proving and perfecting within bis reach. 

[Senate No. 69.J 

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No. 60. 


March 7, 1843. 

From Messrs. Emmons and Hall, State Geologists. 


Qootnutref the State vf JCew-York. 


Tlw design of the following Report is to infoim jom Ez- 
celleac; of the present condition of the Geological Surrey, the dis- 
position and armngment of the several collections which have been 
made during its progress, and to surest some plans for the increase 
and perfection of the same, which it is believed will add to their 
general value and uBefulne88> 

By the original plan of the survey, each Geolt^iat was required 
to make a collection of eight suites of the rocks, minerals, soils, &c., 
of his respective district. Ooe of these was to be deposited at Al- 
bany, as a State collection, and the seven remunbg ones were to be 
delivered to such Literary Institutions as the Secretary of State 
should direct. In the departments of Zoology and Botany, a dngle 
suite of specimens only, was required. Id the Mineralog^cal depart- 
ment, although this requirement was not made, the plan has been 
adopted and eight suites have been collected. 

By an act of the Legislature of 1840, the old State Hall, al that 

time occupied by the State Officers, was appropriated for the putpose 

[Senate No. 60.J A (u. n.) 


of arranging and exhibiting the collections id the different depart- 
ments of the surrey. In consequence of alterations required in the 
interior of the building, the \owBt rooms only were prepared for oc- 
cupation in December, iSdl; and the upp^ room in the month of 
Hay foDowiog. Since that period the vork of arranging and label- 
• liog the different collections has been constantly progiesrang, though 
it is not yet entirely completed. 

The collection is arranged in five rooms, each one presenting a dis- 
tinct department of the results of the surrey. Four of these rooms 
are upon the ground Soot, and one in the second story; the latter 
occupies the whole length and breadth of the building, being about 
70 feet long, and 40 wid«. lAiM loon is prondad witb a gallery 
extending entirely around it. 

It is found that the builiMng and rooms are admirably adapted for 
the purposes to wbicb they have been devoted, being capacious, anil 
of convenient form for the suitable disporation of the specimens and 
the admission of a sufficient light for their examination. 

Ilie geaeral plan of the arrangment of the specimens of each de- 
partment of the survey, is such as appears best adapted to promote 
BsefuhMos, and afibrd fatalities for obtaining a knowledge of the 

1. The upper hall is devoted to the GtdogUai Colltctim strictly, 
in which the different rocks are arranged in a seiies of cases in the 
order in which they occur in nature; beginning with the lowest knovm 
rocks, and progresung through the series to the highest rock in the 
llate. A single case is devoted to each rock or group, and contuna 
an asaemblage of ^ecimeus characteristic of the same. 

By this arrangement there are nearly the same facilities ofiered for 
tbe study of the rocks anil their typical fossils as we bavf in the 

It is not too much to say of this collection, that it is the only one 
known in the country where this plan is adopted; and the Oeoli^sts 
feel confident that by this method, more knowledge of the subject 
can be acquired in a few wedis' study, than in months by following 
any o^ur systeaa. 

, Google 

Ko. 60.] 8 

3. In the gallery of the some roomj aaother afrangenieirt of siini- 
hr specimenB ig desired, viz: s Gtographieai one, in vhrch the 
rocks, minerals, ores, *c.j from each anmty iH the State, will be M-' 
nmged in separate casfes, thus afibrdiog means of reference to the 
productions of every part of the state. In the same collection it is 
proposed also to place the soils of each county or town, with their re- 
lative situation to the rocks occupying the same. This measure, if 
carried into effect, will be of immense advantage, rendering the sa- 
ence of Geology, and the whole collection subservient to the interests 
of agriculture. It will at ouce be seen that if the qualities of the 
different soils and their associated rocks are known, the best method 
of improving them can readily be suggested, and in most c^ses, as 
readily carried into effect. For throughout the greater part of the 
state, the materials for replenishing worn out and exhausted soils, 
are to be found near the surface, and usodly readily obtained. 

Since Agriculture is about to take its place among the exact sci- 
ences, being in fact subject to the lavs which govern other sciences 
or objects in nature, it is dtsir^Ie to know something of its relations 
to Chemistry and Oeokigy, as it is indeed' nc other than the r«sfl[lts 
produced by chemical and vitdl laws upon geological prddoctions. 

3. On the lower floor one room ia devoted to the metallic ores and 
other minerals of the State, which are arranged according to their as- 
sociations. In explanation of this mode we remark, that observa- 
tion has proved that certain mineral substances are always found to- 
gether, in the same beds and under similar conditions or relations. 
Those kinds therefore which' are fbnnd together Erre placed in the 
same case. A v^tw is thus able to see at a glance what minerals 
occur together, and hdW they are generally disposed in thtir n^tivW 
beds, and in what rocks they are likely to be fodnd. Thus, as an 
example, the m^netic vAA specniar oxides of iron always ocenr in 
primary rocks, brown tourmEdinfJ in primary limestone, chromate of 
iron in serpentine, tin in granite, hematitic iron in rocks of the Taco- 
nic system, etc. 

For additional detaUa of the same bearing, the New- York reports 
fitmisb abondance of information, ' particularly in regard to coal, 
which (disenrstionfl, botii in this country and in Europe, prove thtilr 
important product to occupy on^ unvarying geoIogicHl poitition. 

, Google 

4 (SiBAra 

Facte of this nature being established, it becomes naefol and in 
fact highly necessary, that i^;ard should be had to them in the ar- 
langement of the mineral products. 

4. The arrangement of umple minerals in the department of 
mineral)^ proper, is according to their composition, or in other 
words it is made on chemical principles. This method has been pre- 
ferred to the natural one in which they are placed, according to ex- 
ternal resemblances. The latter, in a complete collection; if carried 
out, gives a systematic arrangement of the mineral kingdom; a viu- 
ble representation of it under a method the most instructive posabte, 
it brings together all those which belong to the same family, or are 
akin to each other, and those which are the most unlike each other 
are ^e widest apart. 

Geology of course does not permit such an arrangement, but the 
objecte of the mineral, vegetable and animal kingdoms are more use- 
fully represented by the natural method of arrangement. 

This plan, if faithfully followed, furnishes a philosophic illustra- 
tion of the gronps, families and classes of which they are respec- 
tively composed, and by this method only can we obtain general 
views of nature, and by no other can we discover the true relations 
in which beings stand to each other, or the links which bind them 
tt^ether; by any other, we discover merely disconnected parts, and 
hence but imperfect views of the beauty, de«gn and osefulnesa are 

6. In the middle room are arranged the volumes containing the 
dried ^edmras of the New-York plante. They form together an 
Herbarium of fifty bound folio volumes, arranged according to the 
natural method, on thick fine paper. It forms a collection of great 
value, which may always be consulted by those who are pursuing the 
study of this most useful department of knowledge. 

In addition to the collection of plants, one of the difierent 
kinds of wood has been commraiced. This will exhibit the cha- 
racter of onr forest trees, ut attempt never before made in this coun- 
try. The trunks are cut in various directions for showing thnr 
stmcture and grain, and their adaptation to economical purposes. To 
this collection may hereafter be added the trees ind^;enous to the 

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No. 60.] 6 

vest and south; and perhaps also those of forago growth, and of 
different climates. ' 

It is further proposed to form a collection of fruits, seeds and 
roots. That of fruits, it is f>upposed, is already in part prepared by 
the Botanist of the survey. In that of seeds and roots, as the differ- 
ent kinds of grain now under culture, and others which it is propos- 
ed to introduce, it is expected the State Agricultural Society will 
interest itself; indeed great interest is already manifested by the so- 
ciety to promote this object, inasmuch as it will form an important 
collectioa to the practical farmer. 

Id order to complete the usefulness of this collection, one of in- 
sects which are destructive to fruit and forest trees, to grain and other 
crops seems essential, particularly the lame which are known to be 
the most injurious while in that state. All may then know what 
they are, and hence be enabled to destroy them, or counteract their 
destructire habits, and thereby save an immense amount of property 
which is annually destroyed. In these objects all classes of citizens 
are equally interested. 

6. The collection in zoology is as yet incomplete; except that of 
birds, and as no cases suitable for their arrangement have yet been 
furnished, they have not been permanently arranged. 

7. Since the collection was put up numerous paintings and geo- 
logical sections have been placed in the rooms, which exhibit some 
of the remarkable features of districts of country not often visited. 
The geological sections serve to explain more clearly the structure 
and arrangement of the rocks of the state. These will be still far- 
ther increased, and to which also will be added general and local 
maps, colored according to the rock formations. A great variety of 
objects therefore are answered by the collection ; scarcely any subject 
of inquiry can come up which is not directly or indirectly illustrated 
by the museum of natural history. 

8. The suites of spedmens collected for the literary and scientific 
institutions of the State, have been packed and forwarded to the live 
incorporated collies, viz : Columbia College, and the University of 
New-York, in New-York city; Union College, at Schenectady; Ge- 
neva College, at Geneva; Hamilton College, at Clinton. 

6 {SxvAtB 

Of the two suites remaining ia the old State Kill, the Secretarr of 
State haa ordered one to the Collegiate Institute at Rochester. It 
voitM be desirable that the remaining one be placed ia some central 
pontion in the northern part of the State, that access to it xtaj be 
had by all. As this is not convenient, from the condition of the cen- 
tral portion of Korthem New- York, another collection could readily 
be made, by which one could be placed on the eastern and the other 
on the western ade of the great mountain range. By this means, 
access can be had from nearly alt parts of the State to these collec- 
tions, and the results will be, that collections of particular regions 
will be made, until the same benefits may be extended to many, or 
CTen all, the academies in the State. 

9. Of the final work, or Natural History of New- York, mx volumes 
bare been published : 

1. Zoology, by James E. De Kay, three Volumes; comprirang de- 
scriptions and figures of the quadrupeds, reptiles, and fishes. 

2. Jdintralogy, by Lewis C. Beck, one volume. 

3. Gr(o/o£;y, two volumes; being the reports of Ebenezer Emmotis 
of the second district, and of Lardner Vanuxem, of the third district. 
There are are now in press two volumes, being the reports of W. 
W. Mather, of the first district, and James Hall, of the fourth district; 
of the first, 260 pages, and of the latter, 100 pages are already printed. 

There remain still for publication, three volumes on the Zoology; 
one on the Botany; and one on Paleontology, or the organic remains of 
the rocks of the State. Under existing circumstances there is no 
provision for the latter work, and it seems very decdrable that it 
should be completed, as it will contain a large amount of' valuable 
matter, and is more important to the Department of Geology than 
any other of the volumes. 

The eogravings and other illustrations for all the volumes, except 
the last, are nearly completed, and this expense being already incur- 
red, the printing is the only item in the completion of the work. 

By BO act of the Legislature of 1840, the Governor was anthoriied 
to continue the survey till the 1st of January, 1842. At the time of 

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No. 60.] 7 

puBiBg this Bct, it ms suppoBed that possendoii of the building for 
the collection could have been obtained a year sooner than it actually 
was. In consequence of this delay, the completion of the reports 
was prevented, as it vas very necessary that the final arrangement of 
tbe collection, the adoption of a ooiform system of names, particularly 
of the stratified rocks, should all be decided before these volumes 
were printed. This arrangement, however, could not be completed 
till the middle of last summer. 

By the act before alluded to, the commisuons of all those persons 
engaged in the survey, expired on the 1st of January, 1842; since 
which time no salary has been received by any one. The only re- 
muneration received since that time being an amount about equal to 
three months* salary of the previous years, which was paid for arisng- 
ing the collection in Geology and Mineratc^ in tbe old State Hall, 
ticketing and packing the collections for the respective colleges, &c* 
For the time employed in writing reports, coDStructing geological sec- 
tions, and preparing other illustrations for the volumes, reading the 
proofi; and superintending the engraving, no compensation whatever 
has yet been received by any person engaged in tbe survey. 


1. We woald respectfully suggest that it is very essential tothecom- 
pletion of the collection that cases should be provided for the arrang- 
ments of the county collections before named, in which wUl be ex- 
hibited the rocks and mineral productions of each county in the State, 
with the difieient soils in the same association. Other cases are also 
desirable for completing the arrangement of seeds, roots and the dif- 
ferent kinds of woods, insects injurious to vegetation, &c. This 
will add greatly to the usefulness of the institution, all classes of so- 
ciety being directly interested in it. The practical and scientific farm- 
er, the mechanic as well as the man of science and the man of lei- 
sure, will here find everything which relates to their business, their 
interest or their gratification in the acquirement of valuable information . 

3. The present collection requires to be permanently labeled, and 
a catalogne, giving the name, locality, and a short explanation of 
each spedmen, prepared. The latter is not only important but es* 
sential to those who desire to become acquainted with the collection, 
and it will be necessarily incomplete without it. Such a calalt^ue will 

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8 [SsifATS 

form an interesting compendinm oi those subjects and objects wbidi 
are treated more at length in the respectiTe reports. 

3. A collection of the fossils of the State will be required before 
the volume on Paleontology can be completed. The specimens of 
this nature now id the collection are such as characterize the strata, 
but the; do not by any means constitute a complete collection. 

The objects here stated are essential to the completion of the Ge- 
ological Survey, and more particularly to the Geological Department 
of the same. It will also be necessary to provide for the future safe 
keeping and increase of the collection; for extensive as it now is, and 
far more so than any one expected at the commencement of the sur- 
vey, yet the advance of science will require constant additions to be 
made to it in order that it may hold its place and remain worthy of 
its present dengnation, the State collection. Situated as this collection 
is, made by authority of the Slate, open too, at all times to the public, 
it will not only be visited by the citizens of this State, but by per- 
sons from all parts of the Union; even more, it will be the first point 
to which scientific travellers from Europe will direct their steps. Al- 
ready has it excited more attention abroad than all that has before 
been done in the natural history of our country. 

This collection is to be considered as a nucleus around which a much 
more extenMve one will a^regate; and we believe that when it shall 
be known that it is a safe depository for valuable specimens, all the 
friends of science will be willing to contribute in various ways to its 
increase. Hence, if the various objects are properly managed and 
encouraged, this collection may be made to rival the National Insti- 
tution at Washington, the British Museum, or the Jardin des Plaotea 
at Paris. It will be a place, around which will centre our Agricut' 
tural societies, mechanic and scientific associations, all of whose ob- 
jects are almost identical, viz: Me dUaemination of tniih and knovf 
ledge. In accordance with these views, we have respectfully sug- 
gested the propriety of placing the results of the survey beyond a 

The executive committee of the State Agricultural Socie^ have 
requested through the geologists, that their interests might be promo- 
ted by occupying a room in the building in connexion with the Geo- 
logical collection; thus giving a practical application to the results 
of the survey. 

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No. 60.J 9 

la conclndmg this report, we would, with due deference to the 
opinions of all, remark that the New-York survey has excited agene- 
ral inquiry upon these subjects, and that this inquiry has produced 
an impulse in science and education, which has done more to advance 
these great objects, than any other measure of the present period. It 
has moved all classes of society to inquiries into the nature of the 
objects around them; and it has promoted agriculture and the arts. 
It furnishes a permanent foundation for the prosecution of the public 
enterprises, and it opens a way to the natural resources of the State 
and surrounding conatry, providing for the advancement of know- 
ledge forever. The avenues for information in scientific truths are 
thrown open more widely, and the number of those who can be ben- 
efited by science and its practical application to the affiurs of life, 
will be greatly increased. The effect of this kind of knowledge will 
be to preTeat speculations in uncertain and intangible things, to draw 
the minds of men from the desire of suddenly acqoirii^ wealth by 
fortuitous circumstances. The mi^piided zeal in mining enterprises 
for coal and the precious metals, will give place to more sober under- 
takings of the kind, and to the promotioQ of agriculture, the mechanic 
arts, and the extension of scientific knowledge among all classes. 
The love of money will be changed to a love of knowledge; and 
something besides mere naked wealth will be made honorable. 

We rejoice that for the future there are indications of a change of 
sentiment and feeling upon these subjects; and we rejoice further- 
more, that Kew-York as a State, as a republic, stands pre-eminent in 
the cause of the dissemination of scientific knowledge, of general ed- 
ucation and dvilizatioD. 

We are, with great respect, 

Your most ob'dt. servants, 


[Scute No. 60.] 

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No. 61. 


Mabch 7, 1843. 


or the Coraarittee OB Glftims, on the petition of Liu 
ce» Elmendorf, for ralief. 

Hr. Bugn, from the oammittm on d^iniB, to whom wsr referjed 
Htm petiti<m of I«uo«».£lmBadoFf, prajjing that the State may refund. 
to hin tlu smount of moneys aip«Ddfid bf him id the constniction of 
the Neroaink twnpike loadi 


tbat in tite jraar 1806^ an act wiui paned, toiocorponte the." If«- 
Terank Tanipike Road Company," for constracting a taropike road 
from the Hadsoa river at Kingston to Chenango Point, a distance 
of about one hundred end tventy-five miles. That previous to the 
year 1817, the said company had constructed about S4 miles of BUd 
mad at the eastern termination thereof^ 

lliat on the SStb of March, 1817, the aforesaid act incorporating 
the Nerersink Tum[nke Road Company was amended ; and this 
amended act required the Governor, by and with the advice and cob- 
sat of the Ctmncil of Appointment, ta nominate and appoint three 
decreet and- re^ectabte freeholders as Commisnonera, whose du^- 
it should be, as soon aa ibm appomtmeot waa accepted, to make a 
jtist, equitable and proportionate assessment on all lands lying in the 
counties of Ulster, Sullivan, Delaware and Broome, which were sit- 

(Senate No. 61.J A fu. n.] 

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3 [Sevatb 

uate within eight miles of the line of said road, commendng at 
the termiBatioD of the section of road already made and finished, and 
continuing along the site of that part of the said road that was there- 
after to be fioished. The assessment on the adjoining lands was li- 
mited to twelve hundred dollars for each mile of said road. The 
owners of the adjoining lands so assessed, when the said assessments 
should be completed, were to leceive certificates onder the hand and 
seal of the said corporation, acknowled^g the owners of land so 
assessed to be stockholders in said company, to the amount of the 
money paid by them respectively ; and the said assessment, when 
completed according to the terms of the said act, was to become a 
lien on the respective lots, pieces or parcels of land so assessed. 
The act provided for an assessment in each town through which the 
road should pass, to the amount to be expended therein, and not 
elsewhere, unless there should remain a surplus after completing the 
road in and through such town. The law also provided that in lieo 
of the payments assessed under said law, it should be lawful for any 
of the persons assessed, to make such road through his or their own 
lands, under the inspection of the preadent and directors of the com- 
pany ; and for the road thus made, such person or persons should be 
allowed on his or their assessment, at the rate of twelve hundred 
dollars the mile. This act made provision, that in case of default in 
paying any assessment by any individual, that the directors of said 
company m^ht certify such assessment to the sheriff of the county 
where the land so assessed was utuate, and such sherifT , should col- 
lect such assessment in the same manner as he was authorized by law 
to collect on executions. 

The petitioner states, that the Governor and Council of Appoint- 
ment under the aforesaid act, appointed three Commisuoners, who ac- 
cepted of the sud appointments and entered upon the duties assign- 
ed them in said act. 

The petitioner further states, that very soon after the passage of 
said law, he entered into a contract with the directors of said 
company to make and construct said road, and to complete the same 
within two years, for which he was to receive twelve hundred dol- 
lars per mite, to be paid oat of said assessments as the same should be 

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No. 61.] 3 

The petitioner further states, that he agreed with said directors to , 
advance and pay to said Commissioners a sum not exceeding five thou- 
sand dollars, for which advance he was to be reimbursed out of sud 
assessment tax. 

The petitioner further states that be did, on the first day of May, 
1818, commence operations on the first section of twenty miles of 
of said road, and that be continued his operations until that whole 
section was completed, and according to the terms of said contract. 

The petitioner further states, that he let out a portion of said road 
to sab-contiactors, and that such contractors finished about six addi- 
tional miles of said road, making in all about twenty-eight miles of 
finished road, under the contract made by the petitioner. 

Hke petitioner further states, that aAer the Commissioners had 
completed their assessment and delivered it over to the directors of 
the company, and before any moneys had been collected, the said&a- 
seasment by certiorari was removed to the supreme court, and the 
collection of the asBessments stayed by injunction ; that the supreme 
court decided the assessment invalid, for the reason that the Commis- 
Boners had not published a notice of said assessment, a sufiicient 
length of time in each of the different counties through which said 
road passed. 

The petitioner farther states, that after this dedsion of the supreme 
court, the CoDunisaoners re-published said notice the full time pre- 
scribed by said law, and performed anew their subsequent duties in 
order to render their assesBment complete ; that the assessment was 
again removed into the supreme court, where the proceedings remain- 
ed without decinon until August, 1820, when the assessment was 
again declared invalid and void. 

The petitioner further states, that every successive L^islature from 
1820 to 183S (except that cf 1831,) has been memorialized on this 
subject, and that many reports have been made in relation thereto, 
bat none finally passed upon, on account of the pressure of other bn- 

The petitioner contends that the grant vested rights in the corpora- 
tion, that the Legislature had not the power to repeal, and that the iiuth 
of the State vras pledged to make a good and valid assesment by its 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

4 [Sn ATB 

CommissiuierB ; tbat he, confiding and relying upon the gtant for an 
assessment to compensate him for hia labor, has a right to ask Uie 
State to make good the asseasment vf ComminsioBers appointed by a 
law of the State, or compensate the petitioner out of moneys in the 
treasury of the State. 

The petitioner further iosistS' that the making of a valid asaessneut 
yraa a legislative assumption, and a delegated trust to individuals vho 
were selected and commisBioned by the State, and that a failure in 
the effectual execution of the trust, cannot rightfully destroy the 
claim of the petitioner, which baa oeenrfed tbrongb &e invalidity of 
tiie assessment, and that the injury could not otlterwise have happen- 
ed, and its thus happening, necessarily fixes the respousibility on the 
State to provide for the full payment of damages thereby incurred. 

The petitioner farther states, that he never would havenodertaken 
the building of sud road upon the persottkl responubility of aadd 
company alone, but he, reposing implicit coiifideace in the ptblic 
ftith pledged in the act to make a good and Valid essesBisent by it« 
agents, expended bis money and labor, hoping to be speedily reim- 
bnrsed, and he therefore prays thbt bis claim may be adjustcid upon 
equitable principles, and that he ' be paid the amount of hia dann, 
when ascertained, out of the public treasorj. 

It may be proper to state that the petitioner was a director in said 
cotnpany, and a landholder to connderable extent on the line of the 
rAad ; and that many of the petitiooen and direttors in said compa- 
ny wereowners of extensive tracts of wild land on, or near the line 
of said road ; and thu the principal object of the company was to 
increase the value of their lands by making them more easy of ac- 

The CommisuoDera making the assessment were to be paid by the 
company; the law meriely prescribed thrir duties, And the mode of 
appointing them, and the State so far lent its aid to the company aa 
to appoint the Commissioners. 

The company long unce forfeited its charter, and is no longer in 

In the opinion of your oommittee, the Stateis not under any mo- 
ral or eqpntaUe obl^Mioo to the petitioner or the company to eotn- 

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No. 59.] 6 

pennte them in money, for losses sustained Uirough the ^orance or 
negligence of the Commissioners. 

The Commissioners cannot be regarded in any other light than the 
ministerial officers or agents of the company, and answerable to the 
company as such. There is no complaint that the law itself was in- 
notices had been in conformity to 
had been defective, or uncontstitu- 
of its proTistons, and they cannot 
lat they have been injured fay a law 
sed in accordance with their prayer. 

ipany with a charter, and aidbg in 
officers, does not guarantee, in the 
those officers or agents will faithful- 
mnify ^inst losses occasioned by 
' the officers or agents of the com- 
of the petitioner. 

Jed for by the petitioner, would be 
Ice away all bducement of a compa- 
its agents or officers. 

: of opinion, that the prayer of the 


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No. 62. 


March 9, 1843. 


Of the committee on manufactures, to which was 
referred the petitions of the New-Yorlc Dyeing 
and Printing Establishment 

Mr. Faulkner, from the committee on manufactures, to which was 
referred the petitions of the New- York Dyeing and Printing Establish- 


That the committee have had the same under consideration: the 
petitioners represent that the; were incorporated by a legislative act 
passed on the 27th day of February, one thousand eight hundred and 
twenty-four, and that th° aforesaid establishment has carried on the 
business as was contemplated by the aforesaid act, and no other; and 
they aisk the Legislature to renew their act of incorporation for a 
period of twenty years ; your committee further represent, that there 
is another petition pretty numerously signed, from the county of 
Richmond, in the vicinity of the establishment, also praying that the 
Legislature would renew the charter of the dying and printing compa- 
ny. The location of the building and machinery are about eight 
miles from the city of New-York, and that the company keep an 
office in the city of New-York, for the transaction of business. 

[Senate No. 62.] A (u. n.) 

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3 [Senate 

Yonr committee further state that tbey have ezamineti the act incor- 
porating the aforesaid company, find it carefally guarded, gtan^g to 
tbem theamount of capital set forth in their petition, by two hundred 
thousand dollars ; yonr committee are infonoed and beliere, that a large 
amount of the capital stock of the aforestud company is vested in 
machinery and buildings ; that the printing of silks is a business 
largely carried on by the said company that their establishment is 
capable of printing 20,000 handkerchiefs aveek,- that they dyclarge 
quantities of Etlk for exportation ; that they can dye eighteen bales or 
360 pieces of blue cotton jeans in a day, and that tbey can color 
1000 pieces of cambricks per day. When the works are in successful 
operation, they give employment to three hundred persons per day. 
A considerable portion of the capital stock of the said company is 
owned by minors, near a fifth ; to discontinue their business, and 
wind up the affairs of the corporation at this time, would resalt in 
great loss to the company and individuals ; their corporate powers 
would cease on the 27th day of February next. 

The notices reqiured by law to be published, are furnished, show- 
ing that they have complied with the law in that respect. Your 
eonmittee are uoauimooaly of opinion that the prayer of the petition- 
•rt onght to be granted, and they ask leave to introduce a bill. 

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AaaulRepMt of theGxMQtiTe Committee of the N. Y. 8. Ag. Society, .' 1 

Gormior Skwaid'b Addrei* at tke Annoal Fair, 7 

Rcporti of Comiiiitteei st the AhhqkI Fair, 19 

AuiBal AddreM of the President, J. 8. WuiawekTa, Eiq 47 

PmniniBa awarded >t the Aaanal Meeting, Jan. IS, 1843, BT 

EtMjr on the PreparalicHi and Die of Hannrea, bj Willis Oatlou, H 

Eraapoa Farm Managemoit, by Wilus GAVLOnD, 97 

DecigBB for Farm Bnildiagt, by John J. Tiioiue, UI 

Deaigna for Farm Boildiagt, by D. Q. Mitchell, |3S 

Deiigu for Farm Baildinga, byT. M. NmR, • 130 

Report of CorrapoBdiag Secretary, 138 

A^ealtnre of Cayuga Cknuty, by A. HoLuma, 189 

Agtiealtore of ChanMnqne County, by T. B. Caidbbu. 141 

A^rieallare of Chautanqoe County, by J. BOMUtwi, 142 

Agrienlture of Chemnng County, by E. C. Faoaraitd A. J. WmxooF, 14 

AgricnKoral Schools, by A. J. Wtkkoop, 149 

Agrienltnre of Conlaad County, by H. 8. Barcall, 161 

AgricnUore of GeaeMfl County, by T. C. PxTaas 163 

Agrieoltnie of Oneida County, by B. P. Johkson, 107 

Agriealtorflof OoeidaCoQBty, byC. WABusvaN 178 

AgricnltDreof OnosdagaCoanty, by Wilus QATLonc, 174 

Agiienltoie of Qneeaa County, by A. G. Cakll 18S 

AgriciiltBre of Riehmoad County, by Dr. 8. Axbklt, 188 

Agriculture of Seneca County, by S.WiujAMi 214 

Agricallnre of Wuhington County, by O. J. Bajuk, X18 

Agrieoltare of We«tch«Btei County, by T.FovNTAnr, 217 

AgriGultnreof Indiana, by S. RoBiHaoK, 221 

Agriealtnre of Maryland, by G. B, Smith, 223 

On Bee*, by Johm M. Wsxu, 225 

On Sobeoiling and Sobioil Plows, by C. ff. Bimsht, 238 

On Mill and their Management, by D. Thomas, 244 

Detcriptioa of several varieties of Wheat, by- R. Habjion, Jt 254 

BesIBreedef Cattle, fcc, byj. H. Hefsitrh, 257 

On Aynhire Cattle, by GioBOZ Rarsall, 263 

Os Native Cattle, Crossing, lu. by H. S. Raxdall, 265 

Hinu OQ Deseribiag Fruits, by J. J. Thohas 269 

Benailu on Sheep Breeding, by 8. W. Jbwxtt, 273 

OnBheepaadBoot Cultui«,by W. Chafmak, 277 

To mvenl Wheat winter-killing. Silk Cnltuie, fee, by T. Hbllen, 279 


SiMoTFMHU, ExtamiutionofWeedi, fce. bj^. H. Horxm, 184 

Oa brlfBtion and Draiiung, by Holkham, 966 

Bdnotlcw, Agriculinrc, he., byA. Waxib, S89 

TrantMlioiu of Count; AgrieoltuiU SocMtiM, IM 

Albany Counlj Agriculttiral Societj, 2M 

Cajmga Conaty Agriraltonil Sodetj, 386 

Cbaataoqne Conittj AgticoltiiTa] Socie^, 296 

Cbemvag Conaty Agricnltml Society, ilST 

Clinton Connty Agricoltnral Sodcty, 198 

Colombia Connty AgricultDzal Society,. 331 

Cortland County Agricnltaral Society, 3S2 

DatebeM Connty Agrieultnial Society, 33S 

Delaware County Agrienltnial Society, 839 

Erie County AgTienltnral Society, 834 

Greene County Agrienltonl Society, 38S 

Herkimer Connty Agrieultnral Society 341 

King! Connty Agrienltnral Society, 34fi 

IiCwii Cooaty Acricnltoral SodeQr, 347 

Madijon Connty A^coltoral Society, 361 

Monroe Conaty AsricnltnTal Society, 3fiS 

Montgomery County Agricultural Society 800 

Niagara Codnty Agricnltaral Society, 361 

Oneida County Agricultural Society, 363 

Onondaga County Agricnltnial Sodety, 364 

Ontario County Agricttltural Soeisty, 370 

Orange Connty Agricultural Society, 37S 

Orleans County Agricultural Society, 878 

Oiwego Connty Agrieultnial Society, S7S 

Otaego Conaty Agrieultsral Sodety, S7S 

Qneeni County Agricnltaral Society, STB 

Benaaclaer Conaty Apicultoral Society, 881 

8u«toga County Agricnltnial Society, 890 

Suffolk County Afrkoltnral Society, 388 

Toapkine County Agrieultoral Sodety, 894 

WaiUngton Connty Agricnltnral Society, S9ft 

Wayu County Agricultural Sodety, 408 

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No. 63. 

IN SENATE, March 9, 1843. 


z ESEcvrrm committee of the new-tork state agbl 


To tlie Hon. Sahdel Touro, 

Secretary of State: 
The Executive Committee of the New- York State Agriculta- 
ral Society, in compliance with article 4th of the Act for the Encour- 
agement of Agriculture, passed on the 5th day of May, 1S41, 


That the Committee, in accordance with a by-lew of the Society, 
have held monthly meetings, in almost every mstance attended by a 
quorum of the Committee, at which such measures have been adopt- 
ed as seemed to them calculated to promote the important objects 
indicated in the act referred to, and to secure which, the Society has 
been made the recipient of the bounty of the Legislature. 

At a meeting of the Committee, held in the city of Albany on the 
16th of February, it was determined to hold the annual fair of the 
Society in the city, of Albany, on the S7th, 28th and 39th days of 
September, and a premium list was adopted, appropriating to this 
object nearly |2,000. 

In appropriating to this purpose so large a sum, in addition to the 
unavoidably lai^e expenses of the Society, the Committee relied up- 

|Sen«te No. 63.J A (10 1.) 



on the public spirit and liberality of the friendi of agricalture, and 
they hare not been disappointed in the result 

The Committee do not deem it necessary to encumber their report 
with the voluminous details of the premium list. 

The following analysis of this appropriation, will, it is boped, sa- 
tisfactorily indicate that the Society has not orerloolred any of the 
more important branches of agricultural labor, and that it has Judi- 
ciously and fairly distributed the funds which it derives from the pub- 
lic treasury, as well as the contributions of individual liberality: 

The premiums upon f^rmatoclc, including horses, cattle, sbeep, 

and swine, amounted to, |827 

Farm implements, 173 

Agricultural products, including butter, cheese, maple sugar, 

field crops, &c 315 

Silk and domestic manufactures, 143 

Flowers, fruits, v<^etables and horticultural implements,. . .. US 
Premiums for essays — to artists for portraits of animals — plans 

of farm houses, &c. about 200 

The Committee held out inducements which drew to the exhibition 
many articles not enumerated in the premium list, connected wilh 
^ricultural pursuits, well worthy the notice of the Society, and up- 
on which a considerable fund was expended in discretionary premi- 
ums. A large number of diplomas, and several gold and silver me- 
dals, were likewise distributed. 

There is no branch of this subject to which the Committee look 
with greater confidence for results, beneficial, extensive and enduriog, 
than to the essays upon agricultural subjects, solicited rather than 
remunerated, by the premiums of the Society. In designating the 
subjects of these essays, the Committee directed their first attention 
to those points in which the numerous publications, scientific and ag- 
ricultural, now befoie the public, seemed mainly deficient. It is not 
a little surprising that the first pursuit of man, that occupation to 
which he was destined by one of the earliest, and an irrevocable law 
of his Maker, should have been the last to receive the illuminations 
of science. Of the many causes which have conduced to this result, it 
is not necessary that we should here speak, but we may be allowed to 
express nnr gratification that the light which has so long shed its lustre 
over those pursuits of industry, falsely deemed more elevated in their 
tendencies, has at length reached us, and rendered intelligible the com- 
plicated and wonderful laws by which a Beneficent Creator has or- 
dained that he who sows the seed shall reap the harvest. 

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No. 63. J 3 

Reinaikable as are the results of the aehentific inTestigation of the 
prodacts of natnre, combined with agricnltural art, explaining those 
facts, which, from the earliest days of man's exietence, hare been 
witnessed but not understood, we are compelled in admit that they 
have as jet produced but a slight impres^on upon the amount of the 
agricultural productions of our country. 

These discoveries and inventions of science have been revealed in 
the language of science, a language unhappily not tai^ht in our 
schools. Until the educational systems of our country shall have 
accomplished those higher ends which are anticipated from a more 
enlightened and vigorous administration of the liberal endowments 
of the Legislature, it is of the first importance that the results of 
scientific investigation should be laid before the practical farmer io 
the most intelligible and popular form possible. 

The Society, in accordance with these views, offered their highest 
premium for a popular treatise upon agricultural cbemistr)'. It is to 
be regretted that the committee are not hs yet prepared to offer any 
work upon this particular subject. 

The premiums for essays upon manures and upon farm manage- 
ment have, however, drawn out two treatises, herewith transmitted, 
of remarkable excellence. The essay upon manures is particularly 
worthy of commendation. It brings to the subject all the lights of mo- 
dem science, with the not less valuable aida nf practical knowledge. 

While men of science, in the pursuit of an honorable fame, are 
extending the domain of human knowledge, it is to be hoped the 
Society will persevere in the humbler, but not less important duty 
of rendering these discoveries intelligible, and cotomending them to 
the attention of the great mass of practical cultivators. 

At a meeting of the Committee on the Sth of June, a sub-com- 
mittee, consisting of Messrs. E. P. Prentice, L. Tucker, Alex. Walsh, 
George Vail and J. McD. Mclntyre, was designated to make the 
preparatory arrangements for the Annual Fair of the Society, which 
took place at the time appointed, under the most favorable circum- 
stances of weather and location. Although this was but the second 
effort of the kind attempted by this Society, it is believed that It 
would have done no discredit to the maturer efforts of »ny society in 
any country. 

About six hundred domestic animals, of the most improved breeds 
and of the highest excellence, were entered for the premiums of the 

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' 01 the very lai^e collection of form implements, some idea may 
be formed from the fact, that more than forty plows of different con- 
struction were offered for the inspection of the committee chained 
with that subject. 

It is gratifying to know that those countries from which we haxe 
borrowed the models of our most valuable farm implements, are re- 
ceiving back from our ingenious mechanics, many greatly improved 
and new instruments for facilitating and expediting agricultural 

In doibestic manufactures, works of mechanical art, fruits, and 
vegetables, the exhibition was rich and varied. 

The floral exhibition presented the most flattering testimony that 
onr countrymen are not neglecting those elegant porsoits, which, 
without any immediate practical results, are yet invaluable in their 
influence upon the refinement and purity of society, and which are 
especially worthy the attention of those devoted to rural occupations. 

The delicate duty of awarding the premiums of the Society, was 
delegated to several committees, composed of individuals selected for 
the ability and success with which they have cultivated agriculturaJ 
or kindred pursuits. 

Their reports, which have furnished the Society with a mass of 
valuable facts and suggestions, wilt be embraced in the papers ac- 
companying this report. 

Although the Society is pursuing its objects with limited means, 
this Committee have endeavored to husband its resources so as to 
commence the establishment of a permanent fund, the income of 
which will ultimately render the Society independent of the bonnty 
of the Legislature, as well as of the contributions of individuals, 
other than the moderate charge (one dollar,) for membership. 

In pursuance of this object,the Committee are happy in beibg able 
to state that at their last meeting the funds of the Society justified 
them in directing the treasurer to invest fifteen hundred dollars in the 
stocks of this State. 

The following is an abstract of the report of the treasurer: 

Amount on hand January, 1842, |969 36 

Received from State treasury, 700 GO 

Receipts during the year, from members, subscriptions, 

&c 1,649 92 

Carried forward, $3,319 2S 

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No. 63.] 


Brought forward, $3,319 S8 

1,475 36 

Bal. onhand, Jan. 18, 1843, |1,843 E 

From this balance there is to be pud the premiums awarded at the 
anDual meeting of the Society in January, as well as several award- 
ed at the September fair, which had not been called for when the 
treasurer's report was made, amounting to about $400. 

At the annual meeting of the Society, held in the dty of Albany, 
on the iSth Jan. the following officers of the Society for the year 
1843, were elected in the manner prescribed by the statute: 
JAS. S, WADSWORTH, Uvingstm. 
Ist Senate District, Jahes Lekox, JVewYork. 
2d " Robert Denistom, Orange. 

3d " Akthoky Van Bergen, Greene. 

4th " E. C. Delavak, Saratoga. 

6th " JoKATHAN D. Lestasd, Madtson. 

6th " Z. A. Leland, Steuben. 

7th " J. M. Sherwood, Cayuga. 

8th " L. B. Langwoktet, Monroe. 

H. S. Rasdall, Cortland Village, Correipondmg Secretary. 
LoTHEB Tucker, Albany, Recording Secretary. 
E. P. pREKTicE, Albany, Treasurer. 

Additional members of the Executive Committee. — C. N. Be- 
iCEHT,^/b<ini/; H. D. Orote, Buskirk's Bridge ; Alex. WiLSB,Lan- 
ringburgh; J. McD. McIktitre, Albany, and Thomas Hillhouse, 

Af^er a full hearing of the views of members of the Society, 
from different sections of the State, it was determined, by a resolu- 
tion of the Society, to hold the next annual fair in the city of Ro- 
chester, at suchlime as this Committee shall hereafter demgnate. 

The extending and increasing interest taken by the community at 
large in these annual exbibitiona of the triumphs of agricuttaral la- 
bor and skill, was forcibly indicated by the anxiety of members 
from different parts of the State, to secure for the districts which 
they represented, the advantages and gratifications derived from this 

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The citj of Rochester, the nurt of a very extensiTe district of 
country of unsarpassed fertility, occupied by a population whose 
industry and agriculttiral skill are sufficiently attested by the rapidi- 
ty with which, within less than the period of the ordinary life of 
man, they have brought that portion of the State from an untenant- 
ed wilderness, to be remarkable for the amount, the variety, and 
the value of its agricultural exports, presented claims upon the 
attention of the Society, which could not well be overlooked. 

Several topics of interest to the agriculturist were discussed at 
the annual meeting of the Society referred to, and measures adopted 
to secure the permanence and continued prosperity of the associa- 
tion, which it is not deemed necessary to communicate on this oc- 

Id conclu^on, the Committee cannot refrain from expressing their 
decided conviction that the Society, in difiiising valuable informa- 
tion, in exciting an honorable and praiseworthy spirit of emulation, 
in giving form and expression to the wants and interests of agricul- 
tural labor, in bringing into contact individuals whose isolated pur- 
suits have hitherto deprived them of all the advantages of associa- 
tion and comparison of ideas, is performing those highly useful 
functions, and accomplishing those important ends, which the Le- 
gislature had in view in extending the public bounty to this and 
other agricultural associations. 

Respectfully submitted, 

JAS. S. WADSWORTH, President. 

LuTHEB TucKEa, Secretary. 

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^t the Aimual fbtr of the JVeuhYork State Agricultural Socieli/f 
September 29, 1843. 

Feuaw CirizKHs: — 

The displajT of animal and Tegetable productions, the expo- 
ations of culture, end the trial of implements of tillage, under 
the patronage of the New-York State Agricultural Society, are com- 
pleted; and it only remains to confer the civic prizes which have 
been so honorably won. Shall scenes so animating, though so peace- 
ful, so instructive, though so simple, pass without comment t 

If our country has a citizen imbued with the philanthrophy, and 
learned in the philosophy of agriculture, eminent in political wisdom 
and transcendant in eloquence, here are his forum and his theme. 
Such a citizen you hare expected to bear. Let my temerity in as- 
suming the place he has left vacant, and others have declined, find an 
apology in the gratitude which the abundant kindness of my fellow 
citizens has inspired.* 

In that time-worn Tower, which tells many a deed of treachery 
and of tyranny, the British Government exhibits the armor and arms 
of Kings, Nobles, Knights, Soldiers and Seamen who have borne the 
standard of St. George around the circumference of the globe. 
France, with pride more refined, displays in the galleries of the Lou- 
vre, the chefs d'ouvre of her artists, with what she yet retains of the 
productions of the pencil and the chisel, of which Napoleon despoil- 
ed the nations of Europe. These monuments excite admiration, but 
they leave generous and grateful sympathies unmoved, while the be- 
nevolent mind recognizes in the axe, the plow and the loom, agents 
of civilization and humanity, and exalts them above all the weapons 

• TlM Hai. DMtiel Wftatar wu «iLp«ctad to deliver (h* AMrtm. 

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8 [Sbsats 

that ambitioD and rapine have forged, and even above all the embel- 
lishments of social life, that arts merely ornamental have ever pro- 
duced. Nor need we overvalue our agricnltaral inventions, or bestow 
exaggerated praise upon their authors. Admitting the inferiority of 
our schools to the Universities of Europe, and the deficiency of our 
artisans in learning and experience, we may yet maintiun that all aci- 
eatific acquiremrats here, and all inventions, pass immediately to the 
general use, and contribute directly to the general welfare. Such are 
now our means of diffusing and preserving Imowledge, that no real- 
ly useful invention can either be lost or fail to be wnployed in every 
region of our country. Let this festival, 

be preserved, and the increasing emulation of our yeomanry and me- 
chanics maintained, and the effect will be seen, not only in the im- 
provement of agriculture, but in the amelioration of the character of 
the people. Thirty years before the revolutionary war, at a celebra- 
tion in Massachusetts, the Matrons and Maidens of Boston appeared 
on the Mall, each industriously plying the busy spinning wheel. 
Need it then excite surprise that our sister State now excels with the 
shuttle, and extorts wealth from the floods, the ice and the rocks! 
The character of a people may be studied in their amusements. The 
warlike Greeks fixed their epochs on the recurrence of the Olym- 
pic games. The husbandmen of Switzerland at stated periods cele- 
brate the introduction of the vine. Well may we then, continue ova- 
tions in honor of agriculture, which, while they give expression to 
national rejoicing, promote the welfare of our country, and the good 
of mankind. 

Fabuebs of New-York — You do wisely in collecting from every 
district and every region, the various species of plants, and adopting 
such as find our soil and climate most congenial; in introducing new 
branches of culture and mechanic industry; in choosing out of do- 
mestic and foreign stock, the animals which propagate most rapidly, 
with the least expense of subsistence, and yield the largest returns 
for the husbandmat^'s care; in stimulating invention to the discovery 
of new principles of tillage, machines and implements, for increasing 
the fertility of the soil and the productiveness of human labor. But 
these efforts alone, well conceived and beneficial as they are, do not 
fulfill the responsibilities of the American fanner. 

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No. 63.J 9 

Similar exertions, though less eSuctive, have been made by the til- 
lers of the earth in every age, however beaighted, and in every coun- 
try, however subjected. The God of nature has given us a territory 
stretching through fifty degrees of longitude, with almost the breadth 
of the temperate zone, embosoming numerous lakes, and traversed 
by capacious rivers> £very variety of soil north of the tropics, and 
every mineral resource, with mountain, forest and plain, are abun- 
dantly eopplied. We stand, in relation to this wide territory, not un- . 
lilte the progenitor of our race in regard to the earth over which he 
received dominion from the Almighty. He has permitted us to learn 
wisdom from the rugged experience of almost sixty centuries, and to 
establish a system of government, new and peculiar, which, while it 
eSectnally secures personal rights and domestic tranquillity, does not 
fevor war, and is not adapted to aggression, which chastens avarice 
and represses ambition, which favors equality, subdues individual 
power, and stimulates, strengthens and combines the power of the 
masses — a system resting on the consent, and kept in action only by 
the agency of the governed. To these advantages is added a sot^ftl 
oi^anization which rejects, in every form, the principles of iovolunta- 
r; or reluctant labor and gradation among the members of the State, 
and by offering equal rewards, calls forth the equal industry and en- 
terprise of every citizen. These peculiarites of our political and so- 
cial condition, indicate an era in civilization, and inspire a generous 
confideDce that it may be our privilege to open for our race the way 
to a brighter and better destiny than has yet been attained. 

Hitherto, civilized men, enslaved or oppressed, have doubted 
whether advancement from the savage state of existence was a bles- 
«ng, and have straggled for liberty as if meve liberty was the end 
of htiman achievement. But we have learned that civil liberty is 
only one of the conditions of human happiness, and is desirable 
chiefly because it favors that social advancement which is the ever 
fulfilling destiny of mankind. In every stage of that advancement 
hitherto, agricultural improvement has been last, though it should 
always be first. By agriculture, nations exist; it supports and clothes 
mankind; it furnishes the resources for protection and defence, and 
the means even of moral improvement and intellectual cultivation; 
Portions of a community, cities, and even states, may exist by ex- 
ercising the mechanic arts, or by going down to the sea in ships, but 
there must nevertheless be, somewhere, some larger agricultural com- 
[Senate No. 63.J B 

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10 fScNATE 

munity to furnislL the productions and &brics indispensable even in 
such fonns of society. The necessary mineialsj iron, lead, copper, 
and otheis, are beneficial only because they are employed in aid of 
agriculture, or in preparing its productions for our use; and even 
the metals which by consent of mankind are called precious, have 
no value except as representatiTes of the fruits of industry. Other 
interests may rise and iall, and other masses may combine, dissolve 
and re-combine, and the agricultural mass be scarcely affected, bat 
the whole body politic sympathise when this interest is depressed and 
this class suffers. 

" PriDnn mni loidi nuT aooiiiti n nuy fade, 

A bnatli eui duka tbaia, u ■ bnath has mada : 

*"~" ■ "' "" " " r, ttol^oo^mtlT'ip^^l^«,— 

Bal a DDLa paaiBDirTt uunr oodiuit-b pinHf— 
Wben one* dsamrad, can umz M lapplisd." 

It is an obvious responsibility of the American people to restore 
the natural and proper order of social improvement, by renovating 
agriculture— for this is the tendency of onr institutions. It is a 
maxim in other coontries that society necessarily consists of two 
classes— the ruling few and the governed many. The latter are de- 
signated under the most liberal forms of govemmeBt as " the laboi^ 
ing poor; " in the polished countries of the South as " peasantiy,'* 
and in the ruder north as " serfs." Here we know not ag a class, 
serfs, peasantry or poor; and the laboring many coostitate sodety. 
Whether designedly or not, they who apply to our condition, analo- 
gies derived from monarchical or aristocratic States, would mislead 
us, and those deceive themselves who expect that our government 
will operate otherwise than for the security and benefit of the mnsfn^n 
The legislators of our country are its citizens; and uace the pre- 
dominating mass of dtizens consist of tillers of the soil, the Ameri- 
can iarmer is the American statesman. The government, thereiore, 
necessarily tends to sustain and promote agriculture. 

In Elnrope, the cost of land fit for tillage is twice or three times 
greater tiian here; the price of labor here is more than double that 
in Europe. Our land is therefore cultivated imperfectly, and its 
productions are seldom equal to one>half its capacity. Thus one of 
our great advantages is counterbalanced by a deficiency of phy^cal 
force. Notwithstanding our population augments with unprecedented 
rapidity, by domestic increase and immigration — yet such is the de- 
mand for labor and service in commercial towns, and in the improve- 
ment of roads and rivers, and so attractive are our new setUements 

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No. 63.1 " 

in the west, that the deficiency of labor continues the same, and ita 
valae, under ordinary drcamstancea, constantly increases. Immi- 
gration, therefore, is an auxiliary to ^ricultnre. The condition of 
society in Europe favors emigraUon. The nations are reposing afler 
long and exhansting wars. The masses increase iu disproportion to 
their territory and subsistence; and although a democratic spirit is 
d^road, slowly renovating their institutions, there is still a restless 
desire to participate in our social advantages and enjoy our perfect 
liberty. But with the sturdy, enterprising and virtuous immigrants, 
there will also arrive on our shores, the infirm, the indolent and the 
depraved, while a change of home and country is always liable to be 
attended by accident and misfortune. These circumstances increase 
the charges for public charity and justice in our populous cities, and 
heoce their inhabitants often regard immigration as itself a ca- 

But, aside from all questions of humanity — if we compare this 
inddental misfortune with the addition to the national wealth and 
strength derived from the one hundred thousand em^;rantB who an- 
noally disperse themselves over the country, and take into conside- 
ration the increase of our physical strength by their descendants, we 
find every principle of political economy sanctioning the policy of 
our ancestors, which freely opened our ports and offered an asylum 
to the exiles of every land. Nor need I urge before such an enligh- 
tened assembly, that prejudices against emigrants, and apprehensions 
of danger from their association, are as unwise as they are ungener- 
ous. The experience of mankind has proved that mutual intercourse 
and the most intimate relations between the various branches of the 
human family are indispensable to the progress of civilization and 

The agricultural interest, though the last to suffer, is always slow- 
est in recovering from any national calamity. Associations in other 
departments deranged, may be renewed. Capital destroyed may be 
supplied, and masses overborne may recover. But agriculture, once 
embarrassed, is with difBculty restored. War, however justifiable or 
necessary, or however it may stimulate production for a season, is 
always a national evil, and in its least desolating form is destructive 
of agricultural prosperity. To cultivate the disposition and the arts 
of peace, and to guard against domestic disturbance and civil discord. 

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12 [Sehate 

are important therefore, not merely to the improTement, but to the 
prosperity of agriculture. 

Agriculture can never flounsh where its rewards are precarious, or 
inferior in value to those obtained in other departments of indusfi;r- 
Perpetual care is necessary to diminish the burthens to which it naj 
be subjected. Hence the tiecesaty of an economical conduct of pub- 
lic afia)T»— of improving those inland communications which serve 
for the conveyance of agricultural productions to places of exchange 
and consumption, and of such commercial regulations as secure advan- 
tageous markets, either at home or abroad. But these considerations 
are so familiar that they need not be dwelt upon, notwithstanding 
their acknowledged importance. 

The preservation of equality among the people in regard to cod- 
stitutional and legal rights, and perpetual adherence to the policy 
which by laws regulating descents, devises and trusts, prevents the 
undue accumulation of estates, arc indispensable to agricultural pros- 
perity. It is this policy, co-operating with the natural advantagesof 
our position, which has made the agricultural class here a communi- 
ty of freeholders, in contrast with the systems of other countries, un- 
der which lands are cultivated by tenants, the rewards of whose Is- 
bor pass to the benefit of landlords. 

Not only was the ** priioal curse" of labor universal, but acquies- 
cence in it was wisely made a condition of health, happiness, wisdom 
and virtue. This condition, however, implies that equal rewards are 
allowed to mankind, while equal labor is exacted from them. What- 
ever institution, then, on any pretext, relieves any portion of a com- 
munity of the necessity of labor, or withholds its incentires or ex- 
cludes them from equal competition for its rewards, not only is une- 
qual and luijust, but by diminishing the whole amount of social la- 
bor, increases the burthens of those on whom the subsistence of so- 
ciety depends. We are all accustomed to recognize this imporlaot 
truth in the operation of domestic servitude. But every form of une- 
qual legislation, every custom and every prejudice which causes any 
mass or any portion of a mass to abate their efforts to secure iode- 
pendenceand wealth, operates in the same manner, although to a less 

While the patrons of agricalture will keep steadily in view these 
principles, their most strenuous efforts must be exerted for the dlfin- 
sion of knowledge. To knowledge we are indebted for whatever of 

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No. 63.] 13 

ease or security -we enjoy; and the safety and happiness of every 
civilized conuniinityj not overborne by foreign oppression, are exactly 
in proportion to its inteUectual caltivation. So also, as a general 
proposition, individuals prosper and I'xert influence according to the 
standard of their attainments. This truth applies also to masses in 
a community. The agricultural class here, as well as in every other 
country, notwithstanding their numbers, enjoy comparatively inade- 
quate compensation and abated influence, because they have a lower 
standard of education than other classes. There is not, as is often 
supposed, a certain amount of knowledge which it is profitable for the 
farmer to possess, and dangerous to exceed. Learned men sometimes 
fail in this honorable pursuit, but not in consequence of their acquire- 
ments; and the number of such is vastly less than those who fail 
through ignorance. It is a fact, which, however mortifying, cannot 
be too freely confessed, or too often published, that an inferior edu- 
cation is held sufficient for those who are destined to the occupation 
of agriculture. The standard established for them is seldom as high 
as the full course of instruction given in our common schools, and 
consists in an ability to read, but scarcely with pleasure or advantage, 
to write without facility or accuracy, and to perform simple process- 
es in the art of numbers. Higher attainments than these are allowed 
to alt other classes. The mechanic and the artisan are at least in- 
structed in the nature and properties of the substances which they 
use, and in the principles and combinations of the mechanical pow- 
ers tfaey employ, while each profession jealously guards against the 
intrusion of any candidate, \\ ho however skilful in its particular mys- 
teries, has not completed a course of scientific or classical learn- 

There is no just reason for this discrimination. The domestic, so- 
cial and civil responsibilities of the farmer, are precisely the same 
with those of every oQier citizen, while the political power of his 
class is ii resistible. The preparation of the soil to receive a germ, the 
culture of the plant, its protection against accidents, and the gather- 
ing of its fruit — each of these, apparently simple operations, involves 
principles of science more recondite than do the studies of the learn- 
ed profesnons. Every other department of industry has willingly 
received aid from science. In mechanism, the laws of power and 
motion are so well understood, that achievements to which human 
energy was once deemed inadequate, are easy and familiar. The 

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14 [Sevats 

band ia now almost unnecessary in tha fabrication of cloths. Animal 
pover is beginning to be dispensed with in locomotion on the land, 
and the intercourse between nations separated by seas, heretofore so 
difficult and uncertain, is rendered speedy and regular by the use of 
steam. But agriculture is r^arded as involving no laws of nature, 
requiring no aids, and capable of no improvement. Physical power 
is considered the only suitable agent, and that power is most waste- 
fully expended. Admitting the beneficent effects of the cotton gin, 
the improved plow, the cultivator, the threshing machine, and other 
implements which have been instrumental in effecting a slow ad- 
vancement in agriculture, it must still be confessed that while other 
arts are more rapidly improving, this, of human arts, the first and last, 
whose cultivation leads to plenty, and is cheered by health and con- 
tentment, remains comparatively unas^sted and stationary. 

But independently of the aid which mechanical science owes to 
agriculture, if the principles of ecmomical geology, of agricultural 
chemistry, and of animal physiology, which have been laid open by 
Lyell, by Priestly, by Davy, Liebig, Johnson, and Dana, and out own 
Suel, were universally known and applied, the productiveness of the 
soil would be incalculably increased. Regarding the education of 
the agricultural class, then, only in the light of economy, its import 
tance cannot be over estimated. But this is its least interesting as- 
pect. Education is necessary to elevate the agricultural masses to 
their just eminence, and to secure their enlightened action in the con- 
duct of government, and of the various interests of social life. Prais- 
es of agriculture, and acknowledgments of the purity, patriotism and 
wisdom, of those who pursue that most peaceful calling, are the ne- 
ver failing themes of all who court their suffrages. Yet it is a sad 
truth, that the interests of ^riculture, and of *' ■'.e Who subsist by it, 
are often conradered subordinate, and soui .ames injuriously n^Iect- 
ed. The avenues to preferment are open to all, but they are seldom 
traveled by the farmer. Questions of peace and war, of revenue, of 
commerce, of currency, of manufactures, of physical improvement, 
of free end foreign labor, of education, are too often discussed and 
decided without just consideration of their bearing upon the interests 
of agriculture. The reason is obvious. The art of agriculture is 
learned by imitation and habit. Those who are destined to that 
pursuit, are not early instructed in the principles of the government, 
or its relations to other States, in thei own legal rights, their civildu- 

Digiiized by 


Ho. 63.] IS 

ties, the pathology of the hniuBU constitntion, the nature of the sob- 
stances with which agriculture is concerned, or their properties, or 
the laws regukting their development, or even in the simple art of 
tradng geconetrical lines, and calculating their contents, not to speak 
of the range of physical and exact sciences, history and ethics, clas- 
sical teaming, the philosophy of language and the art of eloquence. 

These attainments, though open to all, are reached exclusiTely by 
other classes, and the Farmer in mature years, is sent to the Press for 
political instruction, and to the Clergy he must yield implicit confi- 
dence, and must depend upon the lawyer for the defence of his sim- 
ple rights, upon the Physician for infonnation whether he is diseased, 
upon the Professor for explanations of the properties of the soil he 
cultivates, and upon the Civil Engineer for even the measurement of 
his acres. When such dependance upon these various classes is esta- 
blished, can it be a matter of surprise, that precedence is conceded to 
them in the various department of society? Let me not be misun- 
derstood. I deprecate not the infiuence of the learned classes, and 
I would promote by every proper means their higher improvement — 
nor would I excite jealousy against them, or in the least diminish the 
respect or confidence they enjoy — but I desire to see the agricultural 
class equally elevated, and for that purpose 1 would stimulate them 
to corresponding attainments. This is the true theory of republican 
institutions. When it is carried into practical and complete operation , 
and not until then, shall we enjoy a regular, safe, equal, and enlight- 
ened administration of civil government. 

Your task, then, is nothing less than social revolution — a revolution, 
however, which, like all your pursuits, will be peaceful and benefi- 
cial. Yon aim no blows at the government of the country, or the 
power, the prospvnttr, or the influence of any class of its citizens. 
On the contrary, you wi^ render them all the aid and all the support 
they need- Nor will you justly encounter the oppodtion of any class, 
for all are equally interestMi with yourselves in the great work you 
have undertaken, and up«i wUch depend the stability and perma- 
nence of our institutions, and the hopes of mankind. 

The agency reqtured in this great work is already prepared, and 
awaits your adoption. The primary schools, the voluntary religious es- 
tablishments, the acadeinic seminaries, and the universities which you 
require, are already founded, and liberally endowed. In our school 
district libraries, an atudliar^^is ibmished, whose efficacjr is scarcely 

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16 [Sbnats 

surpassed by the inventioD of Cadmus, of Faust, ot of Fulton. 
With pride and pleasure I add> that tlus agent was called into ac- 
tion by a farmer of New-York. Tkese libraries, which are placed 
at almost every angle of our thoroughfares and by-ways, and con- 
tain treasures richer than those the world lamented in the destruc- 
tion of Alexandria, may be made the vehicles of not merely the li- 
terature which adorns, but of the science which elevates, and of that 
moral and political wisdom which gives beneficent direction to the 
human mind. 

Little remains for you but to guide the rising generation to the im- 
provement of these facilities, nor will that task be difficult. Science, 
though repulsive to the ignorant, is attractive to the initiated, and 
its attraction increases just in proportion as truths are presented 
which are adapted to the comprehension and satisfying to the curio^- 
ty of the young mind. In the dark ages, the system of iostmction 
w^ 80 contrived, as to present to faculties undeveloped, the deduc- 
tions of science without their explanation, and recondite truths with- 
out their illustration. Whatever was simple and easy of appreheo- 
uon, was thought unworthy to be known, and the philosophy which 
explains the formation oj the earth, and its perfect adaptation to the 
subsistence and happiness of our race, was not then conceived. 
Something of this strange error still remains, but a change has com- 
menced, and we may soon hope to see a system of education which 
will lead the mind by an easy and natural process, through the 
truths of external nature, to the mysteries of mind and the study of 
the Supreme Author. 

Let it be your effort to hasten tlus change, and thus divest know- 
ledge of its repulsive features, to excite the emulation and stimulate 
the patriotism of the young, by making known to them the attain- 
ments of wMch they are capable, the advantages they may acquire, 
and the responsibilities tbey are to assume. The de^re for know- 
ledge, once excited, will increase, and will find ways to continue its 
pursuit. Then the youth destined to agricultural occupations, in- 
stead of being employed in perpetual labor, will be allowed to ac- 
quire the knowledge which renders those occupations cheerful, dig- 
nified, and successful; and parents, instead of hoarding their gains to 
be divided among their offspring, to relieve them from the necessity 
of enterprise, will devote their wealth freely in bestowing that bet- 
ter patrimony which cannot be lost. Need I point out to such an 

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No. 63.J 17 

audience, how this work shall be comineDcedl Let it be the task of 
iodividual effort to awaken the attention of our fellow-citizens to the 
importance of keeping the common schools open during a greater 
portion of erery year, of a more careful regard to the qualifications 
of teachers, of the introduction of the natural sdences into the 
schools, of allowing the children of the State, at whatever cost, to 
perserere in the course of eriucation commenced; and above all, of 
removing every impediment and every prejudice which keeps the fu- 
ture citizen without the pale of the public schools. The State has 
been munificent to the rising generstion. She has not only founded 
a system of universal instruction, but she has at great cost explored 
the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, and exposed their 
mysteries. The benefits of these discoveries, though diffusive, will 
be experienced in an eminent degree by agriculture. 

You have already wisely employed the agency of association, but 
the prinuple is susceptible of more varied and comprehenuve appli- 
cation. Be not content wiUi organisdng a State Soaety and county 
associations, by which you exute the efforts of the few who least 
need improvement; but organize an agricultural society in every 
school district, and thus secure the co-operation of all our citizens. 
Such associations, while they would promote agricultural fellowship, 
and vigorously second efforts immediately tending to the improve- 
ment of the art, would apply themselves diligently in exciting an 
interest in the important subjects which have been discussed, and in 
circulating treatises upon proper studies, and watching over the io- 
teresta of education and of agriculture in the schools, in the primary 
action of society, and in the Legislative councils. 

Bat, gentlemen, ia whatever direction your efforts may be made, 
you will encounter difficulties and discouragements. You will be op- 
posed by that contented spirit which regards every improvement as 
innovation, and which perpetually, though falsely, complains that 
mankind d^enerate, without making an effort to check the pro- 
greu of error. You will be regarded as visionary, hy those who 
connder skill in acquiring, and success tn retaining wealth, as the 
perfection of human wisdom; but you will remember that such as 
these seldom bestow thur countenance upon the benefactors of man- 
kind, nor does fortune always distinguish them by her favors. Ro- 
bert Horns, the financier of the revolution, died a bankrupt. Chris- 
topher Coles, our most efficient advocate of inland navigation in the 

rSenateNo.63.J C 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


last century, was interred by private charity, in the Stranger's bury- 
ing ground. The essays of Jesse Hawley, which demonstrated the 
feasibility and importance of a continuous canal from Lake £rie to 
the Hudson river, were sent forth from a debtor's prison; and De 
Witt Clinton, whose name is written upon the capital of every co- 
lumn of our social edifice, was indebted to private hospitality for a 
resting place. It is the same generous and patriotic spiiit which 
animated these philanthropists, and sustained them in their straggles 
with the prejudices of the age in which they lived, that I desire to in- 
Toke in favor of agriculture. This spiiit, wisely directed, cannot &il, 
for it has been irresistible in every department it has hitherto en- 
tered. But let us all remember that the only true way to b^;in re- 
form, is to find the source of error; and that if we cultivate Man, 
the improvement of the animal and vegetable kingdoms will sorely 

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, Google 


OWNED >T atomaz vail, esq. tkot, >. i 

vkeofWeUincton ii > roan Bull, bred by ThomaiBitM, Esq. ol KlrfclcaTiiiftoii,TcKMura,^nc- 
1, etlved October 24, 1839; got by Oiort'hdl, (38il,) Dam OxlbKL bavinf obtalMd tka flnt prizs 
the bHt Short-Horn Cow, open to all EncUnil, in July, 1S39, (tTea by the Hoyl A(ricattBral 
lety, brDulceofCleaveUnJ, (193T0 Gnuuf Dun Halohem Cow ^ Uitebcm, (2S1;} On^OruMl 
B b^ Tonne 'Wjartzi, (28K,i MuelittM eaU*d Touf W*lli(«toa, (p. 464, Coated Bmi Book.) 

, Google 




Held at Albany, Sept. 27, 28, and 29, 1842. 


[OuMMtttM: — ^Meavt. Adav Fbbodbor cf W&terlown, IT. C; Paoli La- 
THBOP of South Hadle^, Mua.; Hmbt Whithbt of New-HftveD, CH.j uad 
J. 0. Choclbb, of New-Toib.] 

The committee appointed to judge on Classes I, II, IH, end IV} 
beg leave to report that the; have unanimously awarded the Premi- 
ums as follows: 

Class I. — 1st, to Mr. Prentice's Nero. 

2d, to Mr. Johnston's Royal William. 

3d, to Mr- Bement's Astoria. 

4th, to D. D. Campbell's Durham bull. 
Class II. — 1st, to Mr. Prentice's Fairfax.* 

2d, to Mr. Clark's Major. 

3d, to Mr. Vail's Duke of Welltngton.t 

4th, to Mr. Sampson's No. 6. 
Class III. — 1st, to Mr. Van Rensselaer's Rockingham. 

2d, to Mr. Delavan's Leopard. 

3d, to Mr. Van Rensselaer's White Prince. 

4tb, to Mr. Vail's Meteor. 
Class rV. — 1st, to Mr. Prentice's Cato. 

2d, to Mr. Sweet's. 

3d, to Mr. Vail's. 

4th|to Mr. Sherwood's Damon. 

The committee cannot close their report, without remarking upon 

* AfDTtrail of "Fuuii," focmi Itie fironliijilece of Ibli volume. "Falrbi," ■ nun ,wUm, 
bndmadiivaMlttE. F. Picnilce, Eu. Mouot Hope, nair Albin;, «i« cfllied Htr lOi tetO' Be 
wi( »lnd in BnfUiid brKrTtiomai Faiirax— d. SplcodDr, by SriDinetrr, nn— g. <L. In Tiranx 
BvdiBtd, 1701— (. E- i. V Imsc, 119»-b. g, ■. 6. bj Whltewoith, loM— g. e. i. g. d. £t WUi« 
Cdbici, Lain oT iCiaoo.J lwa-|. (. g. 1. 1. d. br > Hn oT Ctia>«e>a Kit, 117S. 

t Toitbe ponnilt and pedigTM if "Dukii of W<llin<toii," ace oppoilM patt. 

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20 [Senate 

the very creditable display of stock brought before then, and which 
reflects much credit upon the farmers of ihe State. 


lOtmmittu: — Messn. Dayid C. Collirb, Hartford, CL; I. 8. Hitchcock, 
W. K. TowRBERD, EUL Hftven, Ct.; Ch'b Bmoom and K. L. Allbs.] 

The committee of the " N. Y. State Agricultural Socie^^" on 
cows, heifers, and heifer calves, comprising classes V, VI, VII, 
and Vni, respectfully report: 

That they hare attended to the duties of their appointment, in 
which they experienced the embarrassment usual on such occadons 
from finding the animals nwnerotw, while the premiumi were ftw, — 
but adopting the rule that a majority in number of the committee, 
should of course, in all cases, be dectsive, they arrived at the follow- 
ing results: 

In Class V, the Society's 1st premium was given to Mr. Sherwood's 
Durham Short Horn cow, Stella. 

the 2d, to Mr. Prentice's cow, Daisy. 

the 3d, to Major Dill's cow, Gazelle. 

■~—^— the diploma, to Mr. Sherwood's cow. Pansy. 

In Class VI, the Ist premium to Major Dill's heifer, Hebe, a very 
superior animal. 

the 3d, to Hr. Prentice's h^fer, Sally. 

the 3d, to Mr. Prentice's heifer, Caroline. 

In Class VII, the Ist premium to Mr. Sherwood's heifer, Noma. 

the 2d, to Mr. Prentice's heifer, Charlotte. 

Your committee saw no other animal in this class, which they 
deemed on the whole, worthy of being honored by the Society's Di- 
ploma, which was accordingly withheld. 

In Class Vin, the first premium was awarded to Mr. Prentice's heifer 
calf, Nell. 

the 2d, to Mr. Prentice's white heifer calf, Duchess, f by 

Fairfox.) ' ^ ' 

the diploma, to Mr. George Vail's heifer calf, got by 

his imported bull Wellington. 

Your committee found it no easy matter to decide among so ma- 
ny /a^ calves as were shown in class VIII, their respectiTefltenffaxid 
yaulti being alike covered and hidden byVleiA, so much so that tbey 
were really better adapted for the inspection of a committee oibvick- 
trt than of breeders. 

The practice, now too common, of fattening breeding animals for 
exhibition, is not only wholly without utility, lat is so bad and inju- 
rious in every point of view, that it ought to be discountenanced. 

Digitized by 




To GtuaDa, ml awsrded tha third premiam for (he best Cow of ttnr breed, at the Fair of be 
5- T- Stale A^icnllural 8ociotr> beU at Albany, Sept 1842. She n-ai ealved in lS3&-itred br 
Charley 1816-~Dam, Crocni, b3r Romtdu*, £963— O. D. Prize, bj Marlbio, 1189— G. O. D. Tulip, 
br Bapot, MS-G. G. O. D. <M>e Hmd Book>-0. Q. a O. D. PrimroM, br It orth Btar, 4W. 


at Qie v. T. Slate Fair, September, 1842. Babe, a pnra w 

_, , ._. /AmetieanComet— Dam.Geaelle.byf^— ' - ■'■" "" 

cm, bTjbnnaliu, 2063-0. Q. D. Prixe, br Harlbro,nB9-G. G. G 
O. Q. O. G. D. PrluKMe, bj North Star, 409. (See Henl Book.] 

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No. 63.] SI 

It will not fai) to be noticed that all the foregoing premiums are 
given to animals of the valuable breed known aa " Durham Short 
Horns," against which kind there was on this occasion no other breed 
ahown in competition, except Herefordtj of which there was a beau- 
tiful and venr creditable exhibition, consisting of a portion of the herd 
of Messrs- Corning & Sotham, some individuals of which, this com- 
mittee would highly commend, especially as being good spedmens 
of that important quality, good hmdlmg, always essential to excel- 

Your committee, (of which a portion, if not a majority, is com- 
posed of what might be called ''Short Horn men," nther by pr«- 
fermee or interest as Short Horn breeders,) from motives of deUca- 
cj/f not to say generoitiyf did not deem themselves called on to decide 
fre^een these two rival breeds, and agaisut the Herefords, which 
would have been for the most part, and in ^ect, their de<uuon, if 
made on this occasion. 

In £ngland, the home of both breeds, where beef is the first and 
almost the governing consideration, the Herefords as a breed, it is 
well known, have loni; maintained a sharp and often suceessjvt compe- 
tition with the Short Horns, for feeding purposes, espeually as a graz- 
ing stock; while it is claimed, and now graerally conceded by well 
informed dispassionate persons in Kngland, that the well bred Short 
Horns have the merit of earlier maturity, and are also entitled to the 
preference for staU feeding, and more especially and decidedly so for 
dairy purposes, in which the 5Aorf iforni and fAetr crostesaie believ- 
ed to excel all other breeds, and that the pure bred males of this breed 
are capaible of improving all other breeds of cattle; certainly a most 
important conmderation, and especially so in this and alt the north- 
ern portion of the United States. 

It is understood that the Herefords have not yet been sufficiently 
tried in this country as ftuikers, in the absence of which, there seems 
to prevail at present an unfavorahle impressimi of them as davry stocky 
which impression it is to be hoped may soon be done away, if, as their 
friends clium, the Herefords are really a superior milkino; breed. 
Some of their crosses with native stodc, now existmg in Imissachu- 
settsj descended from an importation of Herefords made many years 
nnce, by Admiral Coffin, are understood to have proved excellent 

It is bemdes claimed for the Herefords, that they will make good 
working cattle, being strong and active, which is not doubted. It is 
also conceded that the quality of the Hereford beef is excellent. 
Therefore, taking no more than a fair view of their case, the Here- 
fords must, in all probability, prove a highly valuable stock in those 
portions of this conntry where the grasxng of cattle for beef is a pri- 
mary object. 

Under these drcumstances, your committee would ask in behalf of 
the newly imported Herefords, a/oir cAonce, — and that they be al- 
lowed, after coming from on ship board, to get well upon thevrfeet, 
before they " enter the lists" against the now well established Short 
Horns< If the Herefords are cherished and encour^ed for a time, it 

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S3 [Senate 

is to be hoped that the now favorite Durhams, may, Dy-and-by, in fu- 
ture competitiot), find in them " foeman worthy of their steel." 

In Tiew of the foregoing considentionB, your committee would 
respectfully beg leave to recommend that extra premiums be award- 
ed to the Herefnrds, as follows: 

To Mr. Sotham's cow Matchless, fifteen dollars. 

To his cow Martha, ten dollars. 

And a diploma to his heifer Maria. 

If the Herefords were distributed in more hands, so as to give room 
for ccnnpetition among themselves, your committee would si^^est 
the expediency of hereafter offering premiums for them in a class dis- 
tinct from other breeds. Also for jiorth Devotu, a highly use^l and 
most valuable breed, especially on light soils, and in billy districts of 

Your committee cannot in justice close their report, without re- 
marking that the want of information as to how the animals had been 
fed, also as to the milking qualities of the cows, and occasionally as 
to the pedigrees, was much felt by the committee, who, in the ab- 
sence of this needed information, were in many instances left to grope 
their way in the dark to a dedtvm, of course, in some cases, by no 
means satisfactory, even to themselves. Nor did we find persons in 
attendance, to lead out the animals for a more full and careful exami- 
nation, especially as to their ttyle of carriage or movement, which it 
is needless to remark, is, as well as form and AaTidling, an essential 
elementof any intelligent opinion, or critical decision on their merits. 


[Oommitttt. — Mewn. Jambs Ndiliow, G. T. Sackktt, and Jouw 


The committee appointed to examine grade cattle, in classes IX, 
X, and XI, beg leave to report: — 

That the competition on this occasion, has been extremely limited, 
both as to the number of cattle, and the variety of the crosses. No 
raecimeo of a cross between the Native stock and the Devon, or 
Hereford, or Ayrshire, has been presented; and the crosses of the 
Durham are much less numerous than might have been expected. 
This is much to be regretted. Nothing but experiments on all the 
breeds now imported, will enable us to ascertain their relative value 
in crossing, and it is obvious that the result of these experiments 
must be made known in the most public manner, in order to be wide- 
ly useful. 

The committee r^ard public exhibitions of this kind, eminently 
calculated to diffuse such information, and they conceive that in neg- 
lecting them, the breeder neglects as well lus own, as the interest 
of the public. 

They have selected No. 7, (Mr. Risley's cow,) of class IX, No. 

Digitized by 


No. 63.J 23 

2, (Mr. Fowler's S year old heifer,) of class X, and No. 1, (Mr. 
Bement's Cieam Pot,) of class XI, as entitled each to the &nt pre- 
intum of their respectiTe classes. Thejr have also assigned to No. 1. 
(Mr. Buel's cow,) in claw IX, and No. 3, (Mr. Schuyler's beifer,] 
in class X, the second premium in their respective classes. 


IConuMtta: — Meura. Sahdei, JAquxa, Watbos Nbwboi.d, Hcrkt 
BvBKKLL, Podittaik and J. W. Rkqua.] 

The committee on classes XII, Xm, XIV, and XV, report,— 

On class XII, cowb. Native breed — Only one was presented for 
competition, being a red cow, called Rose, 9 years old, belonging 
to E. Chesebro, of Guilderland, Albany co.; to which we award the 
second premium of $8. 

Class Xni, Native heifersi between 2 and 3 years. But two 
were presented, neither of which, in our opinion, is entitled to « 

Class XrV, Native heifers between 1 and 2 years. — But one was 
presented for competiticn, being a red, with white face, 16 months 
old, and had a calf four weeks sbce, belon^ng to L. V. V. Schuy- 
ler, of Watervliet, Albany co.; to which we award the second pre- 
mium of $5. 

Class XV, Dairy cows of any breed. — But one was presented for 
competition, agreeably to the terms and restrictions set forth in the 
prize list, and which is the native cow mentioned in class XII, and 
which made 37 lbs. butter in 30 successive days, and to which we 
award, under this class, a diploma. 

The committee add, that it is very much to be regretted that the 
owners of native stock have not presented them for exhibition and 
competition, and we are compelled to believe that the great and 
splendid display of blooded cattle, has been the canse of their not 
bong produced; and we trust that at the next annual fair and exhi- 
bition, this defect will be amply supplied, not only from the vicini- 
ty, but from more remote parts, where we are well assured they do 
exist of very superior quality, and in large numbers; and without any 
disparagement to the splendid blooded cattle, will be found, if equal 
care shall he bestowed upon their selection and breeding, to me- 
ritoriously and pecuniarily reward their owners in an eminent de- 


[OmmtHu.-— RoBBkT Colt, of PittrfeM, Man., OiaimMn.] 

The committee on woricing oxen, and three year old steers, con- 
«sting of Messrs. Colt of Fittsfield, Mass., Wadsworth of Dur- 


24 [SOATB 

ham, CoDO., CroM of SbBAsbnry, Tt, FoUer <^ acuwateles, tad 
Haswell of Hoonck 4 Corae», Kew-Toik, bare attended to the 
dnhr aaaizncd tbem, and reapectfoUy iq>ort: — 

That Uie Dumber of workiiig raen t^oa the groand, were nine 
yoke, well *»**'**^ and nnnsoulj well trained; tbere were but few 
among tbem that did not csrrj marked proofs that thej came from a 
land of peace and ploitj, and were strangers to Pharaoh's lean kine. 
We cannot bat express oar gratification at their grand display; it 
was with difficnlty the ctHnmittce conid decide between the merits 
of the competitors, which is an evidence of an improvement in this 
department; and we think by judicious crossing with stocks adapted 
to the rich gnzings of New-York, that it will not only be said that 
its blood^ stock stand among the first in oar country, but alao^ with 
its present meazu of croanng, that the working oxen may stand 

Tour committee bare carefully examined all the animals beltmg- 
ing to their prorince, and have endeavored to do strict and im- 
partial justice to all the applicants, not knowing to whom they be- 
unged until the awards were made, and gire ue premiums as fol< 

For the beat yoke of working oxen, No. 1, four years old of the 
Derm and native cross, to W. Phelps of Chatham, (20. 

For the 9d best yoke, No. 6, five years old, of the Devcm and 
Durham cross, to Benj. Aikin of Oreenbush, (13. 

For the 3d best yolce, No. 9, four years old, of the Devon and 
Durham cross, to William N. Sill of Bethlehem, $8. 

For the 4th best yoke, No. 6, ux years old, of the Devon and Na- 
tive cross, to Henry Adams of Bethlehem, t5. 

For the 6th best yoke, No. 3, six years old, of the Native breed, 
to Jacob L. Ten Eyck of BeUdehem, the Society's diploma. 

The committee r^^et to say, that tbere were no three year old 
8teer» entered for examination. All of which is respectfully sub- 


To E. P. Prentice, breeder of best bull in class I, (10. 
To Francis Rotch, breeder of best cow in class Y, $10. 
To Henry S. Randall, breeder of best heifer in class VI, $10. 


[CbMaUttM>-M«Mn. P. B. FiiK, Chablks Bb«om, Thos. Kiax- 
PATKiCK, and Jas. H. CoaTis.] 

The committee on fat cattle and sbeeji, report : — 
That the first premium is awarded to P. M. Rust of Syracuse, 
Onondt^ co.) for the fattest ox. The seciaid premium is awarded 


No. «3.] S& 

to Mr. C. Oodfrey of Qeoera, for the second best ox; and the third 
premiom is likewise awarded to Mr. Qodfrej, for the third best ox; 
and the diploma to Mr. T. E. Jones of Utica, Oneida co., for the 
fourth best ox. 

The committee have awarded the first premium to Francis Rotch 
of Butternuts, Otsego co., for the fattest wetber sheep. The second 
to Mr. John McD. Mclntjre of Albany, for the second best wether; 
and also the diplocna for the third best. 

The following certificates show the manner and the quantity of 
food, with whicn they have been fed, and the cost : 

The "Syracusian," owned by P. N. Rust of Syracuse, Onon- 
daga CO., IS 8 years old. He has been fed 19 months last past, on 
com meal, from 13 to 16 quarts per day, and in the winter season 
about half a bushel nita bagas or potatoes a day. During summer 
months, has been fed about four quarts oil meal per day, in addition 
to bis com meal. Com worth 371 cts. per bushel; say hay per week, 
SS cts.; roots 60 cents- 

C. Godfrey of Geneva, fed his cattle as follows: On IS to 14 
quarts of com and pea meal per day, during the year; the meal 
worth SO cents per bushel. In summer, on grass. In winter, on 

T. £. Jones' ox. The ox has been fed fifteen months; the first 
five months, half bushel potatoes, and 6 quarts shorts per day — 10 
months, half bushel potatoes, and 6 quarts meal per day. Hay per 
week, 35 cts. ; potatoes, 30 cts. per bushel ; shorts, SO cts. do. 
meal, 60 cts. do. 

Mr. Rotch received bis South Down wether from England, in Oc- 
tober, 1811. Through that winter, the sheep was fed as well as 
poe^ble, with hay, potatoes, oats, and oil cake, having suffered from 
the voyage. Or the 1st of May, his feed was gradually reduced, so 
that by ue lOtb of May, he was turned out to grass only, and has 
had nothing but salt from that time till he was put into ibe wagon, 
and traveled SO miles to Albany. 

Mr. Mclntyre's two wethers were grass fed through the past sum 
mer, and through the previous winter fed only on clover hay and 
tumeps; no grain whatever having been fed to them. 


ICowmitttt: — HMtrs. Edward Uabmb, J. H. Shsbwood, W. T. Pob- 
THR, and L. C. Ball.] 

The committte on horses, beg leave to report that they have 
awarded the following premiums : 
(Senate No. 63,J D 


26 [Srnate 

For Stallions over 4 year* old. 

1st premium of $20, to Mr. Long's chestnut horse Eclipse. 

2d " 12, to Mr. Long's sorrel horse Sir Henry. 

3u " 8, to Mr. M'Kinney's chestnut horse Sir Henry. 

And a diploma to Mr. Long's dapple bay horse Magnum, as 4th 

For Stallions three years old. 

The committee r^ret that but two were shown, and that, under 
the rule laid down by the Society, they did not feel authorized to 
award a premium to either. 

They have likewise to regret that in the first class of brood mares 
and colts, nothing was shown, which, in their opinion, merited the 
premiums offered by the Society. 

In the second class of 3 year old brood mares, there was but one 
mare offered ; there being no competition, no piemium could be 

For Matched Horses. 

1st premium of $15, to Mr. Brinckerhoff's pair of bay horses. 

2d " 10, to Mr. Johnson's pair of black horses. 

3d " 5, to Mr. Mesick's pair of bay horses. 

The committee are of opinion that the style of horse contemplated 
by the Society, as the " horse of all work," has not been exactly 
represented by any of the horses offered for competition. They hare 
eodeaTOred, to the best of their judgment, to award the premiums to 
such horses as approached the nearest to the required model. 

Mr. Ball saya — I agree with the committee in the foregoinit re- 
port, except as to breeding mares and colts- I think the mare Clio, 
and the colt by her »de, entered by E. Long of Cambridge, entitled 
to the first premium offered by the Society. 


[ComMitiM ; — Meain. Ubmbt S. RAwoAi-t, Fbahcib Rotch, and Gbobgk 
J. P1JMPB1.1.T.] 

The committee on Foreign Stock, would respectfully report: — 
They have had the pleasure of iexamining a grey four year old Nor- 
man stallion, presented by Mr. Edward Harris of Moorestown, New 
Jersey, and imported by that gentleman from France. This horse 
belongs to the breed used for the diligence or stage coach in France, 
and although not decidedly fleet, they are remarkable for their bot- 
tom and enduiance. It may, indeed, be well doubted whether any 
other variety of horses would drag those cumbrous vehicles so great 
distances in a given time. Like their descendants, the Canadian 
horses, they are easily kept, will feed on the coarsest materials, and 
are remarkable for their freedom from disease, and their iron hardi- 
hood and endurance under all circumstances. 

, Google 

Ko. 63.J 27 

Your committee consider Mr. Harris' horse one of unnsual sob- 
stance and symmetry, for the breed. The shoulder lies well back, 
the back is short, the whole conformation betraying immepse stren^h. 
He has a great length and substance of fore-arm, and the limb below 
the knee is clean aad short, for the character of the breed. He also 
displayed free and spirited action. Your ccdnmittee cannot but be- 
lieve that in its pure state, this variety of horses would prove one of 
the most valuable for heavy draft; and there is little doubt that cross- 
ed with the light mares of our country, would produce a peculiarly 
hardy andactive race of horses, fit for the road or the plow. 

The Society were much obliged to Henry Whitney, Esq. of New- 
Haven, Conn, for the opportunity afforded them of seeing specimens 
of his fine Short Horn stock, lus valuable imported bull 'f Rocket," by 
" Norfolk," out of " Carnation," bred by Mr. Hargrave in England, 
and his red roan cow " Strawberry," an animal that attracted much 
attention for her substance and general good appearance. More it 
would not become us to say, as she is engaged in a sweeptiakes. 
His beautiful heifer " Cornelia," we understand to be also in a sweep- 
stakes, and therefore feel it necessary to abstain from comment. 

Your committee further had th; gratiBcation of viewing a fine spe- 
cimen of the Cnke of Leed's stock, in the imported bull " His Grace)" 
brought on the ground by Paschal Morris, Esq. of Allerton, Chester 
county, Pa. This nnimal was by " Anthony," out of " Vinea," she 
by Mr. Whittaker's Frederick, &c. " His Grace" is an animal of 
great substance and much excellence. He was selected, as we ere 
mforroed, by Mr. Whittaker in England, and sent over to this coun- 
try in 1838. 

Your committee trust that no foreign stock exhibited on this occa- 
sion, was overlooked by them— if so, the immense concourse of men 
and animals on the ground, and the confusion necessarily attending 
such a scene, must serve as their apology. 


{Commttae: — Me««ra. E. Lawkkrob, E. Ktaaic, CHssTEa Mobeb and 
F. M. RoTCH.] 

The committee upon Wooled Sheep, class No. 1 , have care- 
fully examined the several specimens of this useful animal, which 
have been submitted to their inspection. Where the claims of indi- 
viduals in some instances aie so nearly balanced, it is difficult to do 
exact justice. The committee, exercising their best judgment, and 
having regard to the purpose which mainly recommends this class to 
the attention of farmers near our large towns, namely, the value of 
the carcass for the table, have endeavored to award the premiums 
with a fair discrimination, which shall command the approbation of 
theparties immediately interested. 

The committee award the premium for the best buck to Thomas 
Dunn of Albany. 

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38 (SsHATe 

The piemium for the second best buck, to J. McD. Mclntyre of 

The premium for the third best buck, to E. C. Delavan of B&ltston. 

The premium for the fourth best buck, to L. D. CliA of Putnam 

The committee award the premium for the best pen of three ewes, 
to Messrs. Coming & Sotham of Albany. 

The premium for the second best pen of three ewes, to h. D. Clifi 
of Putnam county. 

The premium for the third best pen of three ewes, to Thomas 
Dunn of Albany. 

The premium for the fourth best pen of three ewes, to J. McD. 
Mclntyre of Albany. 

The number and excellence of the animals submitted to the inspec- 
tion of the committee, cause r^ret at the limited number of premi- 
ums at their discretion. They would particularly notice a pen of 
three ewes, belonging to H. Morrison of Orange county, and a pen 
of twenty-three beantiful lambs, belonging to Messrs. Coming & 
Sotham, which commanded their admiration as choice specimens of 
this class of sheep, which is now attracting public attention, and for 
the introduction of which from abroad, the country is indebted to the 
liberal enterprise of several gentlemen, distinguished for their zeal in 
promoting the interests of agriculture. 


ICowurittt :— Mnm. E. Masks, S. W. Jbwbtt uid D. S. CtrsTia.] 

The committee on Middle Wooled Sheep, would respectfully re- 
port: — ■ 

That the sheep offered for iitai inspection,, wtre, with one excep- 
tion, all South Downs, and in these the competition was very close; 
so much so that it was with cousiderable difficulty that the commit- 
tee decided upon the comparatire merits of the sheep belonging to 
Messrs. Rotch and Mclntyre. But ailer mature deliberation, the 
committee have awarded the first prize on middle wooled bucks, to 
J. McD. Mclntyre of Albany; the second to F. M. Rotch of But- 
ternutts; the third, and diploma, to S. Wute of Montgomery. 

The committee have also awarded the first prize on middle wooled 
ewes, to F. M. Rotch of Otsego; the second to J. McD. Mclntyre 
of Albany; the third to S. Waite of Montgomery; the diploma to 
C. N. Bement of Albany. 


Vo. 63.] , 89 

t ftwwiff i« ■•— Mww. J. P. Bmkkas. E. C. Dm-Avxa and S. D. Colt.] 

The committee appointed to examine the Fine Wooled Sheep ex- 
hibited for premioms, b^ leave to report: — 

That the number of animals of that description, that were present- 
ed for exhibition, was small — nothing in number to what we were 
entitled to expect, conadering that Albany is the center around which 
it is thought there are large and valuable flocks of that useful animal. 
In the State of New-York, there are probably as numerous, and as 
fine wooled sheep, as there are in any State in the Union. Some pa- 
triotic and spirited gentlemen early entered into that branch of agri- 
culture, and it has been pursued from that period until this time, by 
a la^e number of our best farmers, with the best spirit and more or 
less success. It is a branch of agncultnre that will keep pace with 
the increasing wealth of our people, and the capacity of our manufac- 
turers to make a good article from the raw material. From the in- 
genaity of the American people, we have every reason to believe that 
in the manufacture of fine cloth, the time will soon come, that for 
cheapness, strength, and finish, tiieir cloth will compete with that of 
any people in Europe. 

We report that Charles W. Hall of New Lebanon, Columbia 
county, is entitled to $10, the first premium, for the exhibition of the 
best Suony buck. 

That Henry D. Grove of Rensselaer county, is entitled to $8, the 
second premium, for the exhibition of the second best Saxony buck. 

That John Mott of MecbanicsvUle, Saratoga county, b entitled to 
95> the third premium, for the exhibition of a fine wooled merino 

The committee would wish to draw public attention to this 
class of fine wooled sheep, which have recently been neglected for 
the finer but not more profitable Saxony, from the fact that the Meri- 
no shear much the heaviest fleece, which in quality and price is but 
little inferior to their competitor, the Saxony, but in amount of mo- 
ney realized from the same nomber of fleeces, exceeds them. The 
fleece from the buck to which the last premium has been awarded, 
and which was exhibited with the animal, for instance, weighed 9| 
lbs. and was of fair quality as to fineness. 

The committee award f 10 to Henry D. Grove of Rensselaer, for 
the best pen of ewes, and to the same person, $8 for the second best 
pen; and to Charles W. Hull of Lebanon, Columbia county, a diplo- 
ma for the fourth best pen. , 

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30 [Sexatb 


[Cb«mtttM.-^-MeMrB.WiLi.iAK LivooLNof Worcetter, ChBiiman; Samdki. 
Chekvbr, a. Mabkb uid W. B. Ludlow.] 

The committee on Swine awarded premiums as follows: 

The Gist premium of $10, for the best boar, to Oen. Wm. Salisbury 
' of Leeds — the second of $8, to Mr. John Lossing of Albany — the 
third of $5, to Mr. Samuel Shaw of Berlin. These three weie all of 
the Berkshire breed. The committee recommend diplomas to be 
given to Mr. J. B. Nott of Guitderlasd, for his Cheshire boar — to 
Mr. C. N. Bement for his improved China boar; and to Mr. B. 
Knower of Albany, and to Mr. S. S. Crocker of Kinderbook for th«r 
Berkshire boars. 

The first premium of $10, for the best breeding sow, to Mr. T. C 
Abrahams of Watervliet — the second of $8, to Mr. Benjamin Gibson 
of Albany— the third of $5, to Mr. Gerritt Middleton of Albany. 

As a testimonial of the excellence of the swine exhibited in this 
department, the committee Tecommend that diplomas should be pre- 
sented to Messrs. C. K. Bement, Jesse Buel, John Lossing, William 
Landoti, and R. Fox, all of Albany; Mr. A. Van Bei^en of Cox- 
sackie; and to Mr. Harmon Bussing of Bethlehem. 

The committee also recommend the Society to present a diploma 
for success in good breeding, to Mr. Gerrit Donalson of Bethlehem,' 
Mr. S. R. Schuyler and Mr. A. Schuyler of Watervliet, Judge Sam- 
uel Cheever and Mr. Gibson of Albany, for their fine Berkshire 
Kigs; to Mr. Thomas Pemberton, for a pig of the Grass breedj to 
Ir. Henry Sloan of Guilderland, for specimens of the Cheshire and 
Grass cross; and to Mr. Thomas Beignton and C. N. Bement, for 
examples of the mingled blood of the China and Mackay stocks. 


ICoHumttu. — Measn. C. N. Bshbht, L. B. Labgwortht, W. A. S. 
North, and Obtillb HuiieiearaKii.] 

The committee appointed to examine Threshing Machines, Fan- 
ning Mills, Straw Cutters, and Horse Rakes, beg leave to report: — 

That they have attended to the arduous duties assigned them, and 
had it ever been questioned, the exhibition at this meeting would 
satisfy us that a good portion of the spirit of Yankee ingenuity and 
enterprise had been manifested. 

The attention of the committee was first directed to the Threshing 
Machines, and they much regret there were so few competitors, there 
being only four machines entered for competition. 

Among the great improvements of the day, which have been made 
in implements of husbandry, the Threshing Machine may be named 
as an instance. Our ancestors used the flail or horses to beat out 

, Google 

No. 6a.] 31 

their grain, which, to say the least, yns a^low and tedious operation; 
but t&nks to modern inveation, a machine has been invented, moved 
by horse power, that threshes out as much, and more effectually, 
grain in one day, than one man could in thirty days with the flail. 
We now have a machine that will not only threshgbat deliver the grain 
ready for the mill or market, in the open field, without any loss in the 

On a careful examination of the different machines offered, and on 
trial, the committee did not hesitate to award the Society's first pre- 
mituD of $S0, to John A. Pitts of Albany, for his Threshing Ma- 
chine and Sep»arator. 

This is considered by the committee, as well as by those who hare 
had it in use, a very perfect machine; and the growers of wheat are 
much indebted to Mr. Pitts, for his perseverance in constructing and 
perfecting a machine that will thresh and clean, with less labor, as 
much grain in a day, with the same power, as any that has yet been 

The second premium of $10, we award to Mr. Stafford of Syra- 

This machine exhibited great skill and finished workmanship, and 
from its appearance and operation, well calculated for doing a great 
business. The horse piJwer, we consider well worthy attention, be- 
ing constrocted on correct principles, and of the best materials. The 
thresher also exhibited good workmanship, and finished in good style, 
and its performance was very satisfactory. 

On small farms, where a one or two horse power is desirable, the 
committee cannot resist the opportunity of recommending the two 
horse power presented by Leonard Bostwick of New-York, as a 
valuable portable and well constructed implement, and at the low 
price which it is offered, comes within reach of the more numerous 
and humble farmer; we Iherefuie award to Mr. Bostwick a diploma. 

The Endless Chain Power, presented by Mr. Kelts, of Clavcrack, 
was much admired for its workmanship, and presented some Improve- 
ments on Davis' machine, but there appear^ too great a dispropor- 
tion between the power and the speed of the thresher, to insure per 
feet work. Where a power on this principle is wanted, we do not 
hesitate to recommend it as well worthy of attention; and had we 
funds at our disposal, would award Mr. Kells a premium. 

Agriculture, hitherto, compared with manufactures and the mecha- 
nic arts, has derived until recently, little or no advantage from labor- 
saving machinery. The farmer is literally compelled to earn his 
bread *' by the sweat of his brow," and whatever invention may con- 
tribute to abridge his toil and enable him, at a less expense^ to extend 
bis productions, must be a welcome auxiliary ; by multiplying the 
means of human subsistence and comtort, will prove beneficial to the 
community, and encourage the hard working laborious farmer with 
the hope of keeping in sight, in his own art, the " art of all arts," 
though at an humble distance, of the other rapidly advancing inven- 
tions of the age. 

The committee are constrained to mraition with approbation, the 

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32 [SnATK 

evident improTement made withm the last year, in the constniction 
of straw cutters; there b^ng great competition in that article by 
fifteen different makers, Beveia] of which we are gratified to say, are 
from neighboring states, and afforded at prices ranging from five to 
fifty dollars. The committee found great difficulty in determining 
the superiority of several machines, asd have been influenced in their 
decision, in several cases, by their preference to those machines which 
work on the side, rather than on the front, whereby one persoa can 
feed and operate them at the same time ; which decision rejects 
sereral of great ingenuity of construction and perfection of opera- 
tion. They have endeavored to prefer those which by their arrange- 
ment and construction, seem best adapted to rhe wants of the farm- 
ing community; they have therefore awarded the first premium of 
eight dollars, to Wm. Hovey of Worcester, Mass. 

The second premium of $5, to J. Standiah of Fidbkill, Dutchesa 
county, N. Y., for his Guillotine Cutter. 

To Messrs, Botts and Burfoot of Richmond, Va. a diploma. 

This machine was exhibited under rather unfavorable circumstan- 
ces, having been injured some by transportation. The advantages of 
this machine, as set forth by the proprietors, in their statement, are 
as follows: " The extreme simplicity of the knife, it being oniy 4^ 
inches wide, and straight on the edge, pntthig it in the power of any 
laborer to grind it and set it on again. The peculiar managonent 
by which the ' drato-eut' is obtained with a straight blade; the rapid- 
ity and ease with which the straw is cut, discharging as much or more 
t^n any other machine which cuts as short as this; the great stret^:th 
and durability of the whole machine; no liability to get oat of order; 
the great excellence of the feeding apparatus, and the ease and rapid- 
ity with which it is driven, it being in the power of aboy to cut soffi- 
cient straw or hay for a large herd," &c. 

The committee avail themselves of the present opportunity of re- 
commending this machine to their southern friends, as being in their 
opinion, a very efficient machine, and well adapted to cutting hay, 
straw, and corn stalks, and earnestly hope the enterprising proprie- 
tors may receive that encouragement they so richly deserve. 

There were two machines, one for hand, the other for horse power, 
presented from the well known and popular establishment of the 
Messrs. R. Sinclair Jr. Sc. Co. of Baltimore. These machines are 
made in a workmanlike manner, combining some important improve- 
ments, great strength and power, and well adapted to large establish- 
ments; have been long in use and much approved of, and had we 
fuDtls at our disposal, would most willingly award them a premium. 
For the horse power machine, they are entitled to a diploma. 

The committee cannot pass over in silence, the new constructed 
and very ingenious machine, presented by Mr. Eells of Claverack. 
This machine embraced some new principles in the feeding apparatus, 
by which means the cut from to 2 inches could be effected by mere- 
ly raising a small bolt or slide: It also compressed the substance to 
be cut, nearly into a solid mass to receive the knife, by which means 
the straw was cut square and cleanyand the greatest objection to it 

y Google 

No. 63.] 38 

was the slownessof its operation, baving but one koife. With aa ad' 
dttioaal knife, we thiok it would be a very efficient machine. It has 
been got up in good Btyle, and reflects great credit on the inventor 
and maker, and is worthy of encouragement. 

There were other very meritorious machines on the ground, but 
the committee have not had time to enumerate and describe them. 

The Horse Rake is generally considered a great labor saving and 
important implement on most farms, and a most valuable invention, 
and its utility has exceeded the expectations of many; and that on 
tolerable smooth meadows, a man with one horse, will rake as much 
hay, and do it in as clean a manner, as eight men can do it in an equal 
time with the hand rake. 

The committee regret that there was eo little competition, there 
being only two implements of this description exhibited; and as there 
■vns no improvement manifested on the common horse rake, which 
has been long in use, the committee have thought proper to withhold 
the first premium; but in consideration of the superior workmanship, 
have awarded a premium of $3, to J. Downer of Castleton, Rensse- 
laer county, N. i . 

To Lewis Stimaa of Bethlehem, for the second best horse rake, a 

The committee next examined the Fanning Mills, four of which 
ivere entered for competition. The one exhibited by Messrs. I. E. 
Grant & Co. of Schaghticoke, Rensselaer county, has been got up 
\rLth great care and superior workmanship; and by a peculiar arrange- 
ment of the screens, it appeared to combine some improvement over 
the ordinary machines; the committee therefore have awarded them 
the first premium of $8. 

The second premium of $5, to Phineas W. Dickie of Phelps, N. 
Y. for a mill of good construction and great power, combining some 
valuable improvements, and well adapted for a large grain growing 

The committee recommend a diploma to John J. Bullock of Ouil- 
derland, Albany county, for a well finished and well constructed ma- 
chine, well adapted to this section. 

In concluding this report, the committee avail themselves of this 
opportunity to exprees their great satisfaction at the present exhibi- 
tion, and earnestly hope at the next and all future meetings of this 
Society, the mechanics and manufacturers of the country, would bring 
forward the productions of their ingenuity and industry, which so 
much contributed to make the exhibition as interesting and satisfac- 
tory as those of any other country. At the meeting of the Royal 
Agricultural Society of England, in July last, between four and five 
hundred articles of agricultural implements and machinery were ex- 

Those persons who have been accustomed to follow the same 
coarse of husbandry which their fathers and grandfathers adopted, 
have formed the opinion that little is to be learned upon this subject. 
It la difficult to make them comprehend that this art involves princi- 
ples u extensive, and as hard to be nnderstood, is any other art 

[Senate No. 63.] E {^ \ 

' Digitized by VjOOQIC 

34 [Sekatk 

wltich can occupy the attention of men. They never coDBidered that 
agriculture is an important branch of natural philosophy; nor have 
they ever attempted to understand the nature of different soilaj (he 
regular and systematic rotation of crops; improved modes of tillage; 
the difierent breeds of cattle, sheep and swine; and the diffeient lunds 
and qualities of fruit and fruit treee, Tegetables, &c.; and yet they 
are subjects which the skiliul farmer will deem nweasary to under- 
stand, and he will devote bis attention to them, aa the study of an 
important and difficult science. 


lOmmittee :— Menra. Gkoroc W. PATTKBioit, Thohab Hillhodib, R. 
Habhoh Jr., and J. B. Dili..] 

Mr. Geo. W. Patterson, from the committee on Harrows, Cultiva- 
tors, Drill Barrows, Yokes, and agricultural implementsnot specially 
under the examination of other committees, would respectfuUv 
report: — • 

That they have been exceedingly gratified with the ingenuity dis- 
played in the manufacture of many of the articles exhibited for their 
inspection, some of which will be noticed in the proper place in this 

Although Drill Barrows are in general use, and every practical far- 
mer in the State, has, (or ought to have,) an ox Yoke, stiU neither of 
those articles were presented for our inspection. 

The Harrows presented, were by no means perfect in their con- 
struction, but after mature deliberation, the committee came to the 
conclusion to award to Marcus Adams of Monroe county, for his 
wrought iron hinge Harrow, the first premium of $8. 

To Christopher Proctor of Bethlehem, Albany county, for the se- 
cond best Harrow, with sliding attachment and improved bmge, a 
premium of $6. 

To Daniel Caley of Bethlehem, Albany county, for the third best 
Harrow, a diploma. 

The committee after examining all the different Cultivators present- 
ed, came to the conclusion to award the first premium of $8, to J. H. 
Goons of Rensselaer county, for his wheat Cultivator. It will be 
found a very useful implement upon summer fallows, and for cover- 
ing the wheat when sown. 

To Rubles, Kourse and Mason of Worcester, Mass. for Sement's 
Com Cultivator, with graduating roller, and an improvement io the 
manner of extending or contracting the width of the implement, a 
premium of $5. 

To Eliakim Elmer of Delta, Oneida county, a diploma, for the 
common Com Cultivator, an article of beautiful workmanship. 

The committee examined a very superior horse hoe, invented by 
Mr. J. C. Langdon of Troy, and take great pleasure in recommend- 

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No. 63.] 3S 

ing it to tLe iaVorable conudereUon of the agricnltutal community, 
as an implement of much valne in dressin); corn, and earthing pota- 
toes, and they award to the inventor a diploma. 

There were a lai^e number of Cast Iron Com Crashers and Grim)- 
ers, presented for the examination of the committee, all from the city 
of ^Itimore. We were much pleased with all these machines, and 
more particnlarly with that pert of them which is calculated for crush- 
ing the com when taken in the ear, the grinding part being of lest 
importance to the farmers in most parts of this State. 

From the imperfect manner in which the committee were enabled 
to test these machines, it is very difBcult to determine which would 
be most useful to our farmers. The committee wonid be gratified if 
they had the necessary means at command, to bestow it liberally to 
each of the gentlemen presenting machines, but as they are not thus 
fortnnate,theyhaTecometo the conclusion to award toMr.O. Husaey, 
for the best machine, taking into consideration the price, a premium 
of $8. 

To Robert Sinclair, Jr. for the Sd best, a premium of t6j 

To James Murray, for the 3d best machine, a premium of $4- 

These machines are all calculated for horse power, anil would take 
tip but little room on the granary floors of onr farmers, and would be of 
essential service in preparing feed for stock. 

The committee would further remark, that Mr. Murray presented 
a Crusher, calcalated for hand power, on the same prindple of his 
larger (mes, which wonM be valnftble for (anners where they have 
but few cattle to feed, and are of limited pecuniary means, for which 
the committee awarrl him a diploma. 

A Grain Cutter, iiiTented by Obed Hussey, was presented by T. 
R. Hussey of Auburn, Cayuga co. for the inspection of the commit- 
tee. This machine is propelled by horse power, and is calcalated to 
cat from twelve to eighteen acres of wheat in a day. 

It 13 so constructed that the wheat may be cut at any distance from 
the ground that the jarmer may desire. It has been used in many of 
oar westem counties, with perfect success, doing the work in stand- 
ing grain, better than the ordinary way of harvesting. A great sav- 
ing of labor, as veil as grain, is effected in the use of this machine. 
Some members of the committee have seen Mr. Hussey's lately im- 
proved machines fully tested, and can speak from personal knowledge 
of their utility. They are calculated to operate well on level land, 
or where it is moderately uneven. The committee therefore award 
to T. R. Hussey, for his machine, a premium of $10. 

Mr. Calvin Olds of Marlboro,' Vt. an ingenious mechanic of the 
^* Monntein State," presented two Grain Sowers, one calculated for 
boTSe power, and the other to be drawn by hand. These machines 
are very creditable to the inventor, and furnish another evidence of 
** Yankee" ingennity and enterprise. These machines have never 
been fully tested, but are intended for sowing all kinds of grain, grass 
seed, and plaster, and there is little doubt that the inventor, after the 
machine has been in use a short time, (if it is not now perfect,) will 
endeavor to make it so; and aa there are no funds at the disposal of 

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36 tSUATB 

tbe committee, for prcminmi on Gnin Sowers, the; award to Mr> 
Olds, a diploma, which he has richly earned. 

There were Beveral Com Shelters on the ground, which were exa- 
mined by the committee. They all appeared to be well constructed^ 
bnt as the committee were unable to Ond the owners of any but one 
of the machines, they award to J. A. Whitford of Saratoga Springs, 
a diploma, for the best Cora Shelter and Cleaner examined by the 

A "Poultry Feeding Fountain," was presented by C. N> Bement, 
Esq. of Albany, a very ingenious and valuable article for feeding do- 
mestic fowls, inasmucli as there can be no waste of the grain, and 
the expense must be so trifling, that every farmer can aflbrd to pro- 
cure one. The committee therefore award to Mr. Sement, a di- 

The committee also award to Henry Burden, Esq. of Troy, a di- 
ploma, for a beautiful specimen of Horse Shoes, made by machinery. 
This " labor saving machine," in the opinion of the committee, is a 
valuable improvement, and is destined to create an important change 
in the construction of that indispensable article. 

The Screw Railway Hay and Cotton Press, offered by W. S. Jacks 
of Catskill, N. Y. It is a machine combining great power, conveni- 
ence of operation, and constructed on true and philosophical prin- 
ciples, and is a great desideratum to the river counties, and all pla- 
ces not contiguous to market, and also to Cotton and Hop growersj 
and the committee think ihey do not exag^rate, when they say, it ia 
in their opinion, the perfection of machinery for that purpose. The 
committee therefore award to Mr. Jacks, a premium of $5. 

The Thermometer Churn, presented by Mr. Crowell of LimeBock, 
Conn, seems to remedy one of the evils that have beset the dairy 
maid and housewife from time immemorial — explaining the cause of 
the difficulty of the coming of butter, and doing away with the oe- 
cessity of using the heated horse shoe, or iron wedge, to expel witch- 
es. The committee award to Mr. Crowell, a diploma. 

Self-Acting Cheese Press. An ingenious contrivance for makingthe 
weight of the cheese press itself, presented by Collins & Stone. This 
press is in use in many parts of Connecticut, with perfect success. 
The committee award to Messrs. Collins & Stone a diploma. 

The trowel tempered, cast steel, goose necked Hoe, presented by 
H. Clark of Rensselaer county, a well made, neat, and durable arti- 
cle. The committee award to Mr. Clark, a diploma. 

The Columbian Pump, made by Augustus Thayer of Chatham, Co- 
lumbia CO. New-York. This article is got up with great judgment 
as to correct principles, and combining some new and valuable prin- 
ciples not heretofore introduced. The committee award to him a di- 

A superior grain Cradle was presented by Isaac T. Grant & Co. 
for which they are entitled to a diploma. 

Mott's Agricultural Furaaces. Two of these very valuable furna- 
ces were exhibited by Mr. J. L. Mott of New-York, to whom a di 

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No. 63.1 a? 

ploma is awarded, Mr. Mott ha vii^ received the highest premium for 
the same article, at the last State Fair. 

And last, though not least in importance, among the various arti- 
cles presented for our inspection, is a ver; useful, and beautifully 
constructed and improved Probang, invented by Mr. BauieiCaley of 
Bethlehem, Albany co., for relieving choked and hoven or bloated 
cattle. This implement is calcukted for the removal of potatoes, ap- 
ples, or other substances, \fith which any ox or cow may be choked, 
without any considerable pain to the animal, and with perfect safety. 
It will, without the least difficulty, extract from the stomach of a 
bloated animal, the saliva, gas, or wind, and thus effect an instant 
cure. It is an article so much needed by every grower of cattle, that 
the committee would be glad to see them in the possession of all our 
farmers, and would urgently recommend to the Executive Committee, 
to award to Mr. Caley, a discretiooary premium or silver medal. 

ICommille*: — Menrt. S. S. Fowlkr, E. Uoi.BaooK, and Ch'bDowsiho.] 

The committee to whom was assigned the examination of Horti- 
cultural implements and Garden Ornaments, respectfully report: — 

That they have attended to this duty, but regret that there are so 
few competitors in this branch of agricultural implements. The com- 
mittee have come to the unanimous conclu^on, that Messrs. Benj. 
F. Smith &. Co. of Syracuse, are entitled to the first premium for the 
best assortment of Horticultural Implements, $10. To Mr. Mott of 
New- York, for the best cast Iron Vase, (5. 


^Coamitttt: — Meun. Hbhbt S. Rabdali., 0. HunacBroBD, and PsTxti 
Rblyda, Jr.] 

The Committee on Silk, would respectfully report: — That they 
have examined several lots of very superior Cocoons, and as between 
the three first samples, have found it nearly impossible to arrive at 
any accurate decision. 

1st premium, $15, to Miss L. Steele of Troy. 

3d premium, $10, to David Palmer of White Plains. 

3d premium, $5, to A. P. Heartt of Troy. 

4th premium, diploma, to David Palmer. 

The specimens of Reeled Silk were not as numerous as couTdhave 
been wished. Several, however, were of beautiful quality. 

Ist premium, $1S, to Doct. David Palmer. 

2d premium, |10, to A. P. Heartt. 

3d premium, $6, to Doct. David Palmer. 

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4tb premium, diploma, to Mra. Shove. 

The specimens of Manufactured Silk were nnmerons, and of a 
highly gratifying character. 

Itt premium, $15, to Henry Polhemvi of Auburn, for a quantity 
of wove Silk; also about 40 Ibt. of sewing Silk, and a qaantily of 

3d premium, $10, to Prince & Vibber of lUcbfield. 

3d premium, $6, to Darid Palmer. 

4th premium, diploma, to Mrs. T. Backus of Rochester. 

The committee would remark that the specimens to which the first 
premium was awarded, were presented by Mr. Polhemus, the agent 
of the State in the Aubarn pristm, and were the labor of convicts- 
They were presented by Mr. Polhemus, for the purpose of shoving 
to the citizens of our State, the feasibility of rendering this a success* 
ful branch of industry in our penitentiaries, and demonstratiDg be- 
yond the possibility of doubt, that silk can b? manufactured in the 
United States, equalling the best class of imported articles. In sew- 
ing Silk, your committee made as accurate a comparison as the case 
would admit of, between that presented by the State agent, and the 
best Epecimena of M. Finessio, (red letter,] and other Italian manu- 
facturers. The Auburn Silk was thought to excel all but that of M. 
Finessio, and could not be distiuE^uisbed from that, only on the clo- 
sest inspection. The wove Silk Handkerchiefs, &c. were also very 

Mr. Polhemus begged leave to return any premium vbich should 
be awarded to him, to the Society. 

The first premium of $10, was awarded to Jones, for a high- 
ly ingenious Silk Reel of a new construction. 

[OntMitfM >-Meint. A. Likh, O. Wiswall, and Akob Bbicgb.] 

The Committee on Domestic Manufactures respectfully report: — 

That having examined the various articles submitted, they award 
the following premiums, viz: 

To A. J. Fine of Ftttetown, Reus, co. for the best pair of Woolen 
Blankets, manufactured in his family, $5. 

To J. J. Viele of Hoosick, Reus. co. for the best fifteen yards and 
upwards of Wool Carpet, $5. 

To A. Eooiu of Albany, for the best double Carpet Coverlid, $6. 

To Asa Fitch, Jr. of Salem, Washington co. for twelve yards of 
Linen Diaper. The premium upon this article is $5, but inasmuch as 
there was no other competition for the premium, and the article pre- 
sented was not, in the judgment of the committee, of a superior cha- 
racter, the committee award a premium of $3. 

To E. Wilson of Oneida co. for the best Hearth Rug. This me 
was manufactured by Mrs. Southworth. of Avon, Livingston co. wiw 

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No. 03,] 39 

the needle, and is of woolen yarn. It diqilays much skill and taste, 
and is a yeiy beautiful article, and well worthy the premium of $3. 

To A. J. Fine of Fittstown, Rens. co. for the best pair of knit 
Woolen Stockings, $1. 


ICommatu: — MsMti. B. P. Johkiom, R. Dkbistsb, E. Bhoaoxs, 
HowsLL GARDxaB, andJRO. Disk,] 

The committee to whom was assigned the ezaminatioa of Butter 
submitted for premium, at the fair of the New-York State Agricul- 
tural Society, most respectfully report: — 

That in pursuance of their appointment, they hare examined th« 
▼anous samples exhibited by eleven competitors, and it is to the com- 
mittee, as it doubtiess will be to the Society, a matter of great re- 
gret, that in a State famed as is ours for the products of the dairy, 
only this small number of competitors should have presented them- 
selves with the products of the dairy. 

From the superior quality of much of the butter exhibited, the 
committee have no reason to doubt that had our dairymen generally 
exhibited their butter, an exhibition in point of quantity as well as 
quality would have been seen, excelling anything of the kind ever 
before exhibited in this country. 

Several of the samples presented were so nearly equal in quality 
88 to render decision difficult, though the committee finally unanimotts- 
ly united in awarding the premiums to the owners oi the samples 
hereafter noticed. 

Before giving their decision, the committee are of the opinion that 
the manu^cture of butter is of sufficient importance to justify some 
general remarks on the subject. 

The dairy business in this State is extensive, employing a very 
large capital and yielding a handsome revenue to the farmers, and is 
constantly on the increase; and upon the perfection of the article 
depends whether it shall secure a market as extensive as may be de- 
manded, and prices such as to remunerate the farmer, and add to the 
rapidly increasing wealth of our State. 

Without dwelhng at length on. the subject, the committee believe 
that there are some things which are indispensable to the 4>roduction 
of a very choice article, and without which, whatever else may exist, 
butter of the best quality cannot be made. We are more impressed 
with the importance of these considerations, from an examination of 
the statements accompanying the butter exhibited, which were fur- 
nbbed ns after the decision was made. 

We notice as absolutely necessary, neatness in every thing con- 
nected with the dairy. The quality of the butter, its purity as well 
as its Savor and character in market, depends upon this. The milk 
must be kept at proper temperature while the creato is separating, 
and the cream should be taken off and churned before its quality u 

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40 [SllTATK 

in any manner impaired. Salt of the very best quality should be 
used, and the taillc must be eotirel; separated from the batter, and 
DO more salt used than can be dissolved, and vhen this is accom- 
plished suitable pacicages shoulJ be prepared, and the butter solidly 
put down, entirely excluding the air. 

Much depends upon the manner of packing for market, and the 
committee regret that more attention was not paid to it wiUi some of 
the samples exhibited. Firkins and tubs are most generally used} 
and either of them, with proper care and attention, will answer 
every purpose. Some of the samples exhibited were put up very 
neatly indeed, and attracted the attention of every spectator. 

There can be no good reason assigned why all our butter should 
not be well manufactured^ and no keeper of a dairy should permit 
an inferior article to leave his premises for the market. Much of 
the butter which now finds its way to market, from a n^lect of the 
suggestions we have made, has a very poor sale, and brings an inferior 
price. This should not be S0| and we appeal to every dairyman and 
to his wife and daughters, to remedy this defect without delay. 

It is a matter of congratulation, that persons employed in purchas- 
ing butter for the markets the present season, have in some sections 
of the State made a discrimination in their purchases, which is wak- 
ing up attention to this subject. 

The committee would recommend that premiums be awarded as 

1st Premium, to Geoi^e Cooley, Blooming Grove, Orange co. 

3d " Israel F. Goodwin, Westmoreland, Oneida co. 

3d " Hamilton Morrison, Montgomery, Orange co. 

4th " B. A. Ball, New-Lebanon, Columbia co. 

Cth Diploma, to John S. Bull, Orange co. 

The committee also examined asample of butter made from scalded 
milk in 1841, and to which a premium was awarded at the annual 
fair in February last. This sample was kept by Mr. Merrifield to 
test the preserving qualities of the butter. We regret that it is not 
in as good condition in that respect as could have been desired, and 
probably does not in all respects answer the expectation of the owner. 
We believe that buttf^r can be so prepared as to remain sweet and 
good for a much longer time than this butter has been made, and 
when perfection shall have been more nearly attained, we shall ex- 
pect at every fair, butter of age competing with that of more recent 
manufacture for premiums. 

The statements of the successful competitors accompany our re- 

Mr. Cooley's statement. — Made from 13 cows, from I6th to 24th 
September, and seven pounds of salt and a teaspoon full of sale petre, 
used in keg of 80 pounds. 

Cows kept in usual way, and run in grass; had pure water daily, 
and salt twice a week. 

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No. «3] 41 

Milk set in pans until cream rises and becomes thick; then churn 
all the milk immediately; dog chum used. 

Method of freeing butter from the milk is to skim out the butter 
'with a ladle, and vork out the milk with a I&dle with pure cold wa- 
ter, but using as little water as possible, a» fhe water has a tenden- 
cy to take away the good flavor or sweetness of the butter; and care 
must be taken not to work it too much, as it will become greasy. 
The best method of keeping butter in the summer, is in a cool place 
in white oak firkins, covered with a weak br'me. 

Jtfr. GoodwMs ataiement — Tom of making. — Since the first of 
September; number of cows kept, 14. 

Mode of keeping. — Mostly in stable in winter, and feed hay; and 
in the spring roots or some grain; in summer, grass. 

TSreatment of milk and cream. — Strain in tin pans, and set in a 
room that has a northem aspect and free circulation of air; set the 
cream in a cellar till ready to churn. 

Mode of churning in summer. — In a barrel chum, in a cool room. 

fe unnter. — Keep the milk and cream in a warm, instead of a cool 
room; chum in the same manner. 

Fi^eeing milk from butter. — By pressure. 

Salt tued. — The best quality of Onondaga ground salt; the quan- 
tity is tested by the taste of the dairy women. 

A very delicate tincture of the best loaf sugar is used, but care 
should be taken not to use too much; do other substances used. 

Best time for churning in summer. — In the morning, or when it 
is cool. 

Bat manner of keeping in summer. — ^Eeep the butter in tubs, jan 
or firkins, in a cool cellar; I think jars are best. 

Mr. Morrison^s ttatemeiU. — Made in September; 10 cows kept; 
milk kept in tin pans; churned by dog machine; freed from milk oy 
lad'e and water; fine rock salt; no other ingredient used; churned in 
the morning; preserved in firkins. 

Jlfr. I&UPt statement. — The undersigned offers for the New- York 
State Agricultural Society's premium, 87 pounds butter, made from 
•even cows in two weeks of tiie present month. The cows were kept 
on grass feed only; the milk set in tin pans for 48 hours; the cream 
then taken from the milk, and kept in stone jars three or four days; 
churned in a circular chum with revolving paddles; the butter freed 
from the milk by the use of a wooden ladle; the salt the best kind 
of blown or rock salt, and the quantity regulated altogether by the 
taste^ as it requires more salt in warm weather, as more passes off 
with the milk; no other substance is used except a slight addition of 
refined lump sugar pulverized. 

The best time for chnming in hot weather is in the coolest part of 
the day; and the best mode of preserving it at any time of the year 
is in stone jars; pack it in solid, and exclude the air from it entirely. 

fSenatfi No. 63.] F 

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4S [Skmatc 

Mr. Bull's f/ofemen^— The butter vas made from the 6th to 20tb 
Sept., from nine covs; the cows were kept on a part of the farm 
known by the name of the ClintoD farm, Gov. Clinton's birth place; 
the quantity of salt used in laid firkin of butter was 6^ lbs. of fine 
salt, called Ashton salt; no salt petre-nor any other substance used. 


[CbmmiKM.— Meun. H. Baldwiit, D. Startoh, P. N. Bust, L. Bkovk, 
and H. Holmei.] 

The Committee on Cheese respectfully report: — 

That the quantity and variety of cheese ofTered for premium was 
onusQally small; none remarkably good. 

The best specimen in the judgment of your committee, was that 
presented by Mr. Ezra Chesebro of Fleming, Cayuga co. — the second 
best, that of Mr. A. L. Fish of Litchfield, Herkimer co. — the third, 
that of Mr. Samuel Greene of Fairfield, Herkimer co. — the fourth, 
that of Mr. Isaac Haswell of Watervliet, Albany co- — the fifth, that 
of Mr. Thomas Burch of Little Falls, Herkimer co. 

With the exception of the two first lots, there was but little diffe- 
rence in quality, rendering it very difficult for your committee to de- 
termine between them. 

For the mode of making this cheese, the committee ask leave to 
refir to the written statements accompanying each lot, and which are 
herewith delivered. 

Mr. Ckesebro's Statement. — Xumberof cows kept, 50; keep them 
stabled through the inclement season; feed them from three to four 
times a day with good hay; when near coming in, feed one peck of po- 
tatoes each a day, till turned to pasture; salt twice a week in summer, 
and once in winter, and water acc<<s8ible at all times; milking very 

The rennet is prepared b^ taking some whey and salting it till it 
bears an egg; it is then sufiered to stand over night; it is then skim- 
med off clear; to this is added an equal quantity of water brine, 
strong as the whey; add to this some sweet brier, thyme, cloves or 
other sweet herbs, also a little salt petre; the herbs are kept in the 
brine three or four days, after which it is put into a tight vessel clear 
from the herbs; add a little essence of lemon or orange; also four 
large rennets to six quarts of liquor; rennets saved in the ordinary 
way; cheese made from two milkings, no addition of cream. 

Treatment of Milk. — The milk at night is strained into tubs, cool- 
ed by setting stone crocksfilled with water in them; stand tilt morning, 
* then dip the top of the milk into a kettle placed over a slow fire, conti- 
nually stirring till sufficient to warm the whole blood heat, then add the 
morning's milk; very essential to have it a proper, which is of a 
blood heat; then add the rennet, two quarts to eighty gallons of milk; 
let it stand about 30 minutes, then cut it into checks about an inch 

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No. 6£.J 43 

quare, with a cheese knife; then geatly break it with the hand and 
whey off; then work it fine with a sharp knife; then add the scald- 
ing whey; have it a light scalding heat; let it stand about half an 
hour, then separate the whey from the curd; then add one tea-cup 
full of ground Onondaga salt to every 15 or 20 pounds of curd; if the 
curd is very dry of whey, to 30 pounds of curd; then dip it into the 
hoop and put to press; press in a lever press two days, turned once in 
the meantime; then taken out, rubbed with annatto, soaked in ley, 
then rubbed with lard; placed on shelves and turned daily through 
the season. 

Mr. PUKs Statement. — The cheese presented with this statement 

was made in the month of from the milk of twenty cows; 

one day's milk, or two milkings; the quantity of salt, one pound nf 
refined Salina salt to forty pounds of curd; the quantity of rennet no 
more than sufficient to digest in 30 minutes^ curd prepared for the 
hoops and put to the press; turned down the first day, and pressed in all 
48 hours; then taken from the press, placed upon tables prepared for 
the purpose; turned and rubbed daily, and moistened with whey oil 
as often as necessary, to keep them smooth and prevent cracking. 

Mr. Greenes Statement. — The cheese presented with this state- 
ment was made in June last, from the milk of twenty-three cows; 
one day's milk or two milkings; no addition of cream; the quantity 
of salt, one tea-cup full of refined Salina salt to 20 pounds curd, or 
about two and a half pounds of salt to 100 pounds curd; rennet pre- 
pared by steepins several at a time until the strength is obtained, and 
then straining off the liquor; use a sufficient quantity to digest in 46 
minutes; one tea-cup full to 30 pounds curd, generally answers the 
purpose when prepared as above; curd prepared and put into the 
hoop, pressed one hour; then turned and change of cloths, and press- 
ed from six to eight hours; then turned and cloths changed again, and 
pressed in all 24 bouis; then taken from the press; placed upon ta- 
bles prepared for the use; turned and rubbed daily, and moistened 
with whey oil as often as necessary. 

Mt. HaswelPs Statement- — My cheese was made in the month of 
July from eigbtcows, with two milkings; with no addition of cream. 
I used Liverpool salt, about a half pint; the rennet used in quantity 
about two inches square, and steeped in half a pint of cold water 
eight hours previous to being put into the milk; they were put in a 
lever press and remained there 44 hours; were turned three times, 
and salted in the press; were taken into the cheese room and rubbed 
and turned every day. 

Mr. Burch?3 Statement. — The cheese exhibited here were made on 
the 20th and 22d of May, from 44 cows and two milkings; 47 cows 
were milked in the dairy in all the season; no additions were made 
of cream, but the cream from the milk kept over night was put in. 
We use the Onondaga salt, the purest we can get, in the proportion 

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44 [StKATK 

of a common tea-cap full to 16 poimds of cheese; afler the curd is 
broken up fioe io a machine with two cylinders, set with small wire 
teeth, the salt is put in, and the whole welt stirred and mixed. 

The rennet when taken from the calf is turned inside out, and 
stripped clean with dry hands, no water being used; after layine in 
salt three days, it is turned, stretched on sticks and dried. When 
wanted for use, one rennet is soaked in two quarts of warm water, 
and one tea-cup full used for one cheese, weighing as these do, 115 
and 116 pounds. The cheese ispressed in " Hales^ Patent Self-Act* 
ing Lever Press," 24 hours, and turned once in the time. 

From the press the cheese goes on to the tables; is colored with 
annatto, and rubbed over with butter made from cream taken from the 
whey. Bandages are put on the first day; the cheese turned, rubbed 
and greased at least twice a week, and through the early part and 
warm season, nearly every day; much depends upon the faithful per- 
formance of this part of the treatment 

The cows are always milked in the stanchels, and the milk con- 
ducted from the barn to the cheese room, a distance of 118 feet, in 
three-fourths of an inch lead pipe. The advantages gained by this 
are: keeping the milk from the impurities unavoidable from milking 
out in rainy weather, and in muddy and filthy yards; and the greater 
comfort in milking. 

[OnMmHM:—M«Mn. L.BROKK, H. Baldwin,?. N.RoavtndJ. G. Ha- 

The committee on Maple Sugar respectfully report, that they have 
endeavored faithfully to discbarge the duties assigned them. There 
were seven samples presented to them for their consideration, be- 
tween some of which it was somewhat difficult to discriminate, as they 
approached each other very nearly both in flavor and color. They 
award the first premium of $16, to Mr. B. Gauss, jr. of East Bloom- 
field. This is a very splendid specimen of maple sugar, particularly 
on account of its whiteness, approaching very nearly to the best refi- 
ned loaf sugar. Your committee award the second premium of $10^ 
to Mr. W. E. White of Walton. They award the third premium of 
$5, to Mr. E. Bigelowof Sangersfield. Your committee remark that 
they consider this a very handsome specimen of maple sugar; and al- 
though not as white as those to which allusion has been made, is fully 
equal, if not superior, to them in point of flavor. They award the 
diploma to C, Uepinstall of Albany. The specimens exhibited by 
Mr. O. F. Marshall of Wheeler, and Mr. Woodworth of Watertowa, 
the committee consider as deserving of much praise. 

Mr. Gauss' Statement. — Benjamin Gauss, jr. manu&ctures from 
six to eight hundred pounds of maple sugar a year; taps about three 
hundred trees; boils in a sheet iron pan set upon an arch. When the 

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No. 63.] 45 

sap is boiled to a syrup, it is then carried to the house, strsined and 
settled; eftervardsit ia pat into a kettle, boiled and cleansed with 
milk and the white of e^s, until it will srain. It is then pnt into 
pans to drain, then put into hoxes to dram. These boxes cooTerge 
to a point, 80 that the molasses settles to the bottom. On the surface 
of the sugar in the boxes, flaonel cloths ajf placed, constantly kept 
wet with cold water. When sufficiently drained with these cloths, 
the sugar is melted over again, cleansed again with milk and eggs, and 
the same process gone through again witih the flannel cloths- These 
cloths are washed every day to extract all the coloring matter from 
the sugar. 

JIfr. Whit^i Statements — Cleanliness is necessary in every part of 
the process. Coloring matter should be carefully avoided; if the sap 
is scorched in the least, it will hurt the grain and color of the sugar. 

Hy method is, Brst have all the sap tubs scoured with sand and 
scalded before they are carried to the trees. 

Treatment of sap. — Boil the sap without delay, and strain the sap 
before it is boiled; use sheet iron boilers which hold five pails each; 
boil about twenty pails of sap into one of syrup. 

Method of cleansing. — Stir in the white of two eggs into one pail 
of sTTup; place it over a slow fire till it boils. After it is cleansed, 
strain it through a flannel strainer; place it over a brisk fire till it will 
rope an inch, then pour it into pans till it grains; from thence into 
wooden drains filled with gimlet holes, and made tapering from the 
top to the bottom. Cake sugar is made in the same way, only it is 
bculed lower till it will stir dry in a spoon. 

iCommMu: — VLa.. J.J. Thomai of Micvdon, Chairmui.] 

The committee made the toUowing awards: 

The first premium of $5, for the greatest collection of table ap- 
ples, to A. J. Downing & Co., Newburgh; the second of $3, to Wm. 
P. Buel of Albany; the third of t2, to A. P. Heartt of Troy. 

The premium of 13, for the best twelve sorts of table apples, to A. 
J. Downing & Co. Newburgh, 

The premium of |3, for the greatest variety of table pears, to A. J. 
Downing & Co.; the second of $2, to Wm. P. Buel. 

The premium of $2, for the greatest variety of winter pears, to A. 
J. Downing & Co. 

To E. Holbrook of Hyde Park, for the best twelve quinces, $2. 

To A. F. Ueartt of Troy, for the best twenty-four plums, f 2. 

To Alex. Ross of Hudson, for the best ux bunches of native grapes, 

To A. T. Van Slyke of Coxsackie, for the best «x bunches of for- 
eign grapes, (Black Hambui|[h,) $2. 

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The committee recommend a diacretiooary premlom of a diploma, 
to S. Conutock of LansingbuTgh, for his fine seedling peach; and also 
a discretionary premium to S. Van Rensselaer, for his fine specimens 
of exotic grapes. 

Report on flowers. 

[OmuniUw i—JAeun. A. Walsh, J. 0. Choulks, J. W. Jackbom ind A. 
P. Hkartt.] 

The following arc the awards of the committee: 

On the greatest quantity and variety of flowers — ^first, to L. Me- 
nard of Watervliet, $5; second, to Prof, J. "W. Jackson of Schenec- 
tady, |3; third, to A. P. Heartt of Troy, $2. 

For the best floral ornament — first, to Alexander Walsh of Lao- 
singburgh, ^; second, to S. E. Warren of Troy, $3. 

For the best twenty-five varieties of Dahlias — first, to A. J. Down- 
ing & Co. $5; second, to S. E. Warren, $3; third, to Prof. J. W. 
Jackson, $2. 


— Meitn. M. B. Batbbam, Jawb Wiliok, D. Bbi-diso, B. 
Datidioit and Wh. Bbookbbt.] 

The committee on Vegetables, awarded premiums on Celery, to 
V. P. Douw, Albany — on Broccoli, to James Wilson, Albany — on 
Carrots, to Wm. P. Buel, Albany— on Beets, to E. Holbrook, Hyde 
Park — on Parsneps, to J. B. Nott, Guilderland — on Onions, to J- H. 
Cole, Hudson — on Cabbage, to James Wilson — on Tomatoes, to Sol. 
Leonard, Albany — on Egg Plants, to £. Holbrook — on Lima Beans, 
toE, Holbrook — on Curled Parsley, to J. B, Hudson, Albany — on 
Squashes, to Dr. H. Wendell, Albany, and J. S. Fangbum, Bethle- 
hem — on Pumpkins, to E. Chesebro, Guilderland — on Melons, to D. 
Payne, Bethlehem — on Seed Corn, to J. Towi^end, Albany — on Po- 
tatoes, to Jesse Buel, Albany, Daniel Pnyne, Bethlehem, A. Walsb, 
Lansingburgh, and Dr. H. Wendell, Albany — on Ruta Bagas, to W. 
H. Sotham, Albany — on Salsify,to E. Holbrook — or German Greens, 
to James Coffee, Albany. 

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Fniident of tha Socittr- 

Gemtlehen : — tn complying with the request of the EzecutiTe 
Committee of the Society, to address you upon its progress and pros- 
pects, I find the embarrassment, which, under any circumstances, 
would on my part attend the performance of this duty, greatly en- 
hanced by the recollection that the task which now devolves upon 
me, was, on the occasion of our recent annual fair, so happily and 
eloquently performed by the late distinguished chief magistrate of 
our State. I cannot but regard that event as one of the auspicious in- 
cidents in the history of our Society. I trust that the appeal which we 
then listened to in behalf of the dignity and utility of our avocation, 
breathing as it did throughout, a high patriotism, and a deep solici- 
tude for the objects which this Society is Intended to promote, was 
not lost upon any who had the happiness to hear it. I believe that 
few of us left the capitol on that occasion, without a higher sense of 
the importance of self-cultivation as well as agricultural progress, 
and a renewed determination to improve not only the farm, but the 

The annual fair of the Society, was indeed, in all its main inci- 
dents, deemed by its friends eminently successful. The large col- 
lection of those animals, the domestication of which seems so inti- 
mately connected with the prosperity of the human race, marked the 
progress of agricultural improvement, and the great concourse of ob- 
serving spectators bore testimony to a widely diffused interest in the 
objects of the association. 

A lai^e portion of the improved breeds of farm stock, known in 
this country, or in Europe, were represented on the occadon referred 
to, by animals of the highest order. 

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48 t^UIATE 

Id the collectioa of agricaltnral implementt and domestic ma&a- 
fBChires, the exhibition was rich in the eTidences of the ingenuity 
and skill of American mechanics. 

In the distribution of premiams, the Society called to its aid as ftr 
B8 posuble, eminent agriculturisti of other States, and it is gratiiy- 
ing to know their decistons were almost universally received with 
the deference due to their acknowledged competence and impai^ 

I find great pleasure in referring to these indications that the So- 
ciety is, slowly perhaps, but certainly, accomplishing the objects for 
which it was established, and by the liberality of the Legislatore en- 
dowed. You will, gentlemen, have seen enough within your own 
observation, to satisfy you that your patriotic labors are not barren 
of the happiest results- 
It may welt add to the gratification, and to the hopeful anticipa- 
tions with which we regard these evidences of progress, so unequivo- 
cal and so universal, that they are achieved in spite of the most de- 
pressing embarrassments. 

The condltiun of the farming interests of our country, is indeed 
truly remarkable. The price of agricultural products has faJlen to 
less than half the range of prices obtained during a period of years 
so long that they had come to be regarded as settled and permanent. 
Under this impression, farms were bought, contracts made, improve- 
ments undertaken, habits of expenditure acquired, which, under the 
present range of prices cause difSculties as extensive as they are in 
many cases, unfortunately, irremediable. 

Few of us are aware of the amount of individual suffering, the sac- 
rifice of property accumulated by years of patient toil and frugali^, 
the disappointment of honest hopes, of independence and comfort 
in advandng years, effected by this revolution in prices. It is no un- 
common spectacle to see men now far advanced in life, who, in their 
earlier years, have been successful pioneers, compelled to abandon 
the comfortable homes and broad fields, which they have carved out 
of the wilderness, and seek ' again, amidst the hardships and priva- 
tions of a forest life, the recovery of their fortunes. 

If none had been swept away by this whirlwind, but those who 
sowed the storm, there would be but slight ground for oar sympa- 
thies; but unfortunately, the cause was as universal and all powerful, 
as it was concealed and sinister. 

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Ko. 63.] 49 

It would be foreign te our preaeat purpose to inquire iuto the origin, 
the history, and the raaedy for these evils, and I feai that we could 
not enter upon the task without treapaBsing upon those political ques- 
tions from which I hope this Society will, ever keep aloof. 

The p^ which these wide spread disasters must in&ict upon every 
philanthropic mind, will be greatly relieved by the fact that they 
are so aniversally met in the right spirit. Renewed industry and 
greater economy, are every where the order of the day. But the 
fact to which I wish especially to invite your attention, as Uie advo- 
cates of agricultuial improvement, is that it baa not escaped the re- 
flection of the great body of fanners, that the best way to encounter 
low }>ricea is by improved cultivation. New agricultural imple- 
ments, new modes of cultivation, improved breeds of farm stock, 
were never more readily adopted than at this moment of extreme de- 
pression of the agricultural interests. There is, in Act, every where 
depression, bat no where apathy. We meet in every direction the 
most serious difficulties, the most extensive embarrassments, but we 
find too— thanks to the influence of our free institutions, and the ac- 
knowledged energy of our race, every where at work, the persever- 
ance, the patience, and. the versatility of expedient, before which 
all obstacles of human creation must give way. Such, emphatically, 
are the difficulties with which we have to contend. They are the 
work of men's hands. They come not irom the great Di^enaec of 
good and evil, for never were the bounties of Providence more 
marked in our country than at this moment. Onr harvests have been 
almost universally abundaDt. Pestilence and famine are no where to 
be found. 

We may thus rely with a well grounded G<Hi£dence upon the ener- 
gy of a people at once educated and laborious, to overcome embar- 
rassments which now so severely oppress the whole conununLty. If 
we turn to the condition of other dviHzed nations, we shall find that, 
in the comparison, we have rather cause for self-congiatulatioo tbao 
despondency. Widely diSereut is the situation of that people, 
where the wages of labor are so high that the capitalist finds it dif- 
ficult to procure an adequate return for his invefitnents, and the situa- 
tion of a nation in which the wages of labor aie so low that the la- 
borer finds it difficult to supply the daily requirements of his half 
clothed, half fed family. 

[Senate No. 63.J G 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 

50 fSsHATB 

What are all the pecuDtary dlfficnlUes so universally felt here, com- 
pared Trith the sufferings of a people of which no small proportion, 
close the toils of the day with barely enough to supply its wants, 
and without knowing wfaer^, in case of sickness or loss of employ- 
ment, they are to find the food which will keep them alive the next 
forty-eight hours "i 

I do not point to these comparisons to gratify the impulses of na- 
tional vanity, but to show how much more ground we have for re- 
newed and hopeful effort, than for that despondency which seldom 
seizes but upon feeble uncultivated intellects. 

We have, gentlemen, other reasons for c<»ifidence in the future; 
even for the most sanguine antidpations of the developments of com- 
ing years. 

The application of science, the most profound which has yet been 
attained by the far reaching efforts of the human mind, to all the 
products of our industry, to the soil, the crop, the animal, has been 
reserved for the age in which we live. It is not claiming too much, 
to say, that more progress has been made in this direction within the 
last twenty years than in any previous century. Our own country- 
men, it is gratifying to perceive, are securing tbeir share of this 
abundant harvest. Our chemists and geologists will not, we may be 
sare, rest contented as industrious gleaners after the Davies, Liebigs 
and Johnstons of other countries, but will push forward into the am- 
ple domains, which even those acute discoverers have not pene- 

From the origin of our race almost to the present time, the path 
of the husbandman has been clouded in darkness and doubt. From 
the sowing of the seed to the gathering of the harvest, mystery at- 
tended every step. The first link in the great chain of cause and 
effect was hidden in uncertabty. The precepts of tradition, the re- 
sult of a multitude of experiments, were founded mostly in wisdom; 
but they were as inexplicable as they were sound. Not so now. 
The scientific analysts of soils, of manures, and of vegetable pro- 
ducts, explains not only the workings of nature and the practices of 
art, but opens an inexhaustible field of new combinations and novel 
results. To spread for and wide this new light in the galaxy of hu- 
man knowledge, is one of the objects, — I think it will be conceded 
to be the first object, of this association. 

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No. 63.] 61 

I will not attempt to enforce by any argument or illastration of 
TOiDe, the high importance of this trust. If other nationB, in the 
rigor of maturity, with more leisare and more means than we possess, 
have out-stripped us in the race of philosophical discovery, let it be 
our boast, that we have spread these diacoyeries teidtr, and made 
them at once available by making them part of the current know- 
ledge of the Dati<», Let it be our first aim to diffuse knowledge, 
where the constitution has rightly given power, to the whole people. 

It is not, gentlemen, the sole object of our Society, to reward 
those who brug to our Fairs the Snest animals, or to remunerate those 
who, with skiU and industry, raise the be&t crops. These are but the 
means, and part of the means, by which it is hoped to achieve high- 
er and wider ends. We wish, by association, by comparison of 
ideas, and by a generous emulation, to diffuse among ourselves, and 
the mass of the agiicultnral community, the results of experience, 
the lights of science, and the productions- of art. 

Of the incalcul^le power, for good and evil, of association and 
combined effort, the present b^ abounds in illnstrationB. That this 
great element of man's power has often been wielded to trample up- 
on the equal rights, the peace anil happiness of society, cannot be 
dented. Of the many instances in which, with widely different and 
higher aims, tt has effected the noblest achievements, I shall only refer 
to one. With what language can we describe, with what powers of 
calculation estimate, the wide spread good accomplished, the deep 
misery warded off, by temperance associations 1 What individua], 
wielding even a despot's sceptre — what government, monarcbial or 
democratic — what law— what armed force, could have achieved the 
great results brought about in our day, within our own observation, 
by these efforts 1 With this signal illustration before us, we cannot 
lack confidence in any efforts wisely directed to a good end. With 
motives which cannot be impeached, with objects which can no where 
be condemned , asking no special privileges, requiring no exclusive im- 
munities, seeking only to elevate and render more effective that labor 
from which roan is destined never to be exempt, we may surely here, 
if any where, call to our aid the great power of association and com- 
bination. With this element of strength we wish toawaken the pub- 
lic mind to a sense of the importance of our avocation, and to dispel 
whatever may be left of that ancient prejudice, that the tiller of the 
toil is the drudge of the human race. 

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53 [Seratb 

It ia strange that it should have been OTerlooleed, even in the dark- 
iat da^s of deepotistn and ignorance and superatitioD, that he who* 
BOWS the seed and reaps the harvest, works not only with the plow 
and with the hoe and with the scythe, but that he wields, far beyond 
the laborer in any other branch of industry or art, the elements and 
powers of nature. There is certunly no pursuit in which so many 
of the laws of nature must be consulted and understood, as in the 
eultiration of the earth. Every change of the season, every change 
even of the winds, every lall of rain, must affect some of the mani- 
fold operations of the farmer. In the improvement of our various 
domestic animals, some of the most abstruse principles of phynology 
must be consulted. 

Is it to be supposed that men thus called upon to study, or to ob- 
serve the laws of nature, and labor in conjunction with its powers, 
require less of the l^;bt of the highest science, than die merchant or 
manufacturer 1 Or is it to be believed, that men who go weekly, al- 
most daily, to different occupations, changing with the almost unceas- 
ing changes of the seasons, and whose bumness is to bring to maturi- 
ty such a multiplicity of products, exercise less the highest intellect- 
ual jaculttea of man, than the laborer who, day ailer day, and year 
after year, follows the unchanging manipulations of art? 

Happily for the interests of the farmer, the history of our country 
abounds in evidence that this great misconception of the nature and 
tendency of agricultural labor, no longer exists- I cannot, gentle- 
men, allow this occasion to pass without referring to a recent event, 
which, with whatever diversities of opinion we may regard the great 
political questions which agitate our country, we, as fanners, cannot 
dwell upon without emotions of pride and pleasure. When the peo- 
ple of a great State, which, in population, in wealth, in power, if it 
bad not voluntarily surrendered its immunities, might stand up among 
tiie independent empires of the earth, without fear and without re- 
proach — of a State, which, in achievements of iodustry, of genius> of 
enterprise, we may search the history of the world, and search in vain 
for a rival — when the people of such a State turn to the ranks of its 
practical farmers for the unimpeachable integrity, the enlightened 
wisdom requiriteto administer their highesttrust, we may well claim 
that agricultural labor is not iocoQMStent with the highest intellectual 
ouUivation and moral power- 

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Ko. 63.] 63 

h is not alone in the brilliant re«nlts of scientificinTeatigation, nor 
in the fertility of the soil, nor in the general salnbrity of the climate, 
that the American farmer finds the ground of hia brightest anticipa- 
tions for the future. There are other and higher elements in thecom- 
position of his &te- The go7emment which watches over 'biip is the 
gorernment of bis choice — a gOTemment in which the permanent in- 
terests of the great mass of the people are secured by placing the 
power in their own hands. Under such institutions the pendulum of 
public justice may sometimeg vibrate between dangerous extremes, 
bufc'it must eventually repose where justice and the interests of the 
many, require that it should rest. Such are the hopes of the farmen 
of our country. It is not to be denied that their interests have been 
sometimes neglected, and their rights sacrificed to the sinister aspira- 
tions of classes more favorably situated for political combinationE; bat 
if there is any foundation for our faith, that a free government is the 
fountain of equal justice, these aberrations must be corrected in the 
slow but certain progrees of tmth and right 

I trust that American agriculture will illustrate and confirm the 
striking remark of the author of the " Espnt des liois," a writer, the 
most philosophical and liberal of his time, " that it is not those coun- 
tries which possess the greatest fertility, which are the best cultiva- 
ted, but those which have secured the most liberty .'' I find this sug- 
gestion, so flattering to oar hopes, eloquently commented upon by a 
late distinguished agriculturist of our country, in an address which 
he delivered before the Agricultural Society of Pennsylvania; and I 
gladly avail myself of this opportunity to pay to his memory a tri- 
bute of respect, which is due, in a more eminent de^ee, to but one 
other name in the history of American farmers and patriots. , With 
many other improvements in agricottare, Judge Peters was emphati- 
cally the author of the plaster and clover culture. The time which 
yoar patience will allow me to occupy on this occasion, will not per- 
mit me to recount the many experiments, at once ingenious and phi- 
losophical, with which he demonstrated the wonderful efficacy of 
plaster, nor the efforts, equally persevering and philanthropic, with 
which he labored to introduce into general practice, thin great fertili- 
zer. He succeeded. None but those well acquainted with the course 
of hosbacdry in our wheat growing districts, can estimate how much 
of the eighty-four millions annually produced in our country, is ow- 
ing to the tntrodoction of plaster and clover. The benefits of this 

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64 [Sesatx 

improvement are to be counted by annual millions; and I call it np 
to your attention, not ooly to pay the debt of g»titude due to its 
(Jistini^uisbed author, but as an incentive to those wbor with the bet- 
ter instruments of a more advanced Bcience, have the same field of 
practical improvement before them. It is happily the nature of hu- 
man knowledge that the more it achieves, the latter is the field of 
achievement. As the outer circle of invention and discovery is push- 
ed farther and farther from the center, the more numerous and of a 
higher order are the objects -which present themselves to the investi< 
gatioo of those whose lofty ambition it is to add something to the 
mass of human attainment. 

The Society has endeavored to contribute something to this onward 
movement by offering prizes for essays upon the application of sci- 
ence to agriculture. I trust that the result will vindicate the wisdom 
of this policy, and lead to its continuance. 

In this country, with just laws, justly administered, where the 
popular voice can promptly correct every oppressive enactment} 
where, with common schools and an untrammeled press, knowledge 
circulates as freely almost, as the air we breathe, it would be surpris- 
ing, and not less discreditable than surprising, if agricultural im- 
provement did not keep pace with the progress of the country in 
every other respect. For one, I have no fears on this point; I be- 
lieve that our progress, with or without agricultural societies — though 
always greatly accelerated by them — is to be decided and rapid. I 
am not however, unaware, nor should we ever lose sight of the fact^ 
that agriculture, like learning, has had its dark ages. It has risen to 
great perfection, receded, and rested for centuries without any appa- 
rent improvement. The history of the world abounds with evidence 
that the cultivation of the earth was at an early day carried to a tugh 

In China, it is well known that for uncounted centuries a degree 
of skill has been exhibited in the preparation and application of che- 
mical and vegetable manures, that is not, even now, equaled in any 
part of Christendom. A recent popular writer counts it as not the 
least valuable result which may flow from the opium war, as it is pro- 
perly designated, and which it is to be hoped for the honor of human- 
ity, is now terminated, that by opening a more general commonica- 
cation with that extraordinary people, we may learn something of 
their agricultural skill. The Chinese are not the only people beyond 

Digitized by 


No. 63.] 65 

th« pale of Christianity and modern civilization, who have attained a 
remarkable degree of skill in certain branches of husbandry. The 
^Kiriginea of South America and Mexico practiced irrigation upon a 
scale, and with a perfection of detai), not surpassed in any modern 
improvements. The Spaniards, superior to tbem in the ait of war, 
overcame them in battle, hot have not equaled them in skillful and in- 
dustrious tillage. 

Throughout all those immense regions of British India, where the 
indomitable perseverance and courage of the Anglo-Saxons have sub- 
jected millions to thftcontrol of thousands, the conqueror has learn- 
ed more than he has been able to impart of practical wisdom directed 
to the cnltivati(m of the soil. A high cultivation, accompanied by 
the use of irrigation and mineral and vegetable applications, has there 
carried the productive powers of the earth to a point never yet at- 
tiuned in those parts of the globe claiming to be more enlightened. 

In ancient Egypt, the results were, if possible, more extraordinary. 
There, not only agricnltural productions, but the imperishable monu- 
ments of art, surpass even the comprehension of modern science. 

Coiping down to the early days of the Christian era, we find the 
Roman writers abounding in sound precepts and suggestions, which 
even now might be adopted with advantage. Kearly the whole of 
Varro might be read with profit by our modem farmers. True, it is 
often tinged with a superstition now happily discarded, and relates to 
a state of society and government, widely differing from our free in- 

But in all that relates to tillage, to the preparation and application 
of manures, his suggestions accord with the views of our best modem 
practical farmers. In the classification of mineral and vegetable ma- 
nures, such as lime, marl, and many varieties of compost, he gives to 
each the relative value which has been aflSxed by the most profound 
chemical analysis. 

If it is somewhat discouraging to look back and find ourselves but 
little in advance of the remotest times, in many departments of cur 
profession, we may, at least, congratulate ourselves that we live in an 
age when agriculture is in the ascendant. It is no longer given up to 
serft and slaves, as the fitting occupation of the most ignorant por- 
tions of the community. It now takes its rank among the honora- 
ble and elevating pursuits of industry. To follow the plow and tend 
the flock, is no longer, here at least, the mark of ignorance and servi- 

, Google 

56 [SmuTt 

tude, as under a false and despotic system it wss, and in some parts 
of the globe still is. In this, we stand upon ground which the an- 
cients never attained. It is the great achievement of iaodern times. 
The rights of man and the dignity of labor are vindicated; the one 
follows from the other. Agricultural improvement then rests upoo a 
foundation on vhich it never stood before. It is sustained by Aree in* 
stitntions; it is the result of laws, wise, because liberal. The enfran- 
chisement of the many, the elevation of the masses, must go hand in 
hand with the intelligent, industrious, and prosperous cultivation of 
the earth. ^ 

If agriculture owes much to the benjgn ioSuence of free institu- 
tutions, liberty owes not less to agriculture. Where do we look for 
the calm discretion, the disinterested patriotism, which must sustain a 
lepresentative government, but to the great community of cultivators 
of the earth 1 Even those most skeptical as to the fitness of man for 
self-government, admit that if the experiment ever succeeds, it wilt 
be in a nation of farmers. The experiment, thank Heaven, has suc- 
ceeded; it has succeeded in a nation of farmers; and while we must 
not be guilty of the illiberality of doubting that the great manufactu- 
ring nations of other continents may be fitted to administer the high 
duties of freemen, it becomes us to cherish a profession which, more 
than any other, prepares man to receive the highest blessing of bis 
race in this world — a free government. We must cherish it by in- 
dustry, by virtue, by intellectual cultivation; by connecting it with 
science and the arts, and with every thing which can elevate and 
adorn it. If we do our duty by ourselves and our children, agricul- 
ture will never again, it is to be hoped, know the dark ages in which 
for so many centuries, it slept with liberty and learning. Let us do 
our duty in the responsible station and happy era in which Providence 
h&s cast our destiny, and I trust the day is far, far distant, when we 
shall cease to be a nation of farmers and a nation of freemen. 

, Google 



January 18, 1843. 

At the ansoal meeting of the Mew-York State Agricultunl Soci- 
ety, held at Albany, January 18, 1843, the following premJuma were 


Oh Ebsatb— To WUIib Gaylord, Esq. Otisco, N. Y. for the bert 
Eoa; on the General Management of the Farm, $S0 — to the same, 
for the best Essay on the Management and application of ManureSf 

Os Dssioira — A gold medal, for the best Plan of a Farm House, 
Bam and necessary outbuildings, was awarded to John J. Thomas of 
Macedon, WaToe county, N. Y. and a ulver medal for the second 
best, to p. G. Mitchell of Salem, Ct. 

OiT PAinTiMoa — Gold medals of equal value, to Woodside of Phil- 
adelphia, and Yan Zandt of Albany, for portraits of Domestic Ani- 
mals. A silver medal to E. Wtdtfield, Albany, for thebest specimen 
of Floral Punting. 


Om Ihdiak Coiui — First premium to SamvtlP/uipt of Ira, Cayu- . 
ga county. 132 bushels per acre — 916. 

Second, to Wm. IngtlU of Volney, Oswego county. 89 bushds 
per acre-— $10. 

Third, to JoM^h F. Oabom of Port Byron. (5. 

Fourth, to .Anthony Van Bergen of Coxsadcie, Greenecounty. 8& 
bushels 51 lbs. per acre — diploma. 

Ok Baklst — First premium to Jfathaniet S. Wright of Vernon, 
Oo^da county. 63 bushels per acre — tlO. 

Second, to T. I. Vandeveer of Amsterdam, Montgomery county. 
40^ bushels per acre — $6. 

Oir Rtb — First premium to Israel F. Goodwin of Westmoreland, 
Oneida county. 32 bushels and 36 lbs. per acre — $10. 

Second, to T. L Vandeoeert Amsterdam. 38 bushels, 29 qnerts 
per acre — $5. 

[S«,.U»H<,.63.J H Digitized b, Google 

08 f^KWATC 

On Oats — First premium to Samtttl Phtlpt, Ira, Cayuga eowttj. 
lOS bushels pei acre — ^LO. 

Second, to Wm. A. Ruttdl, Salemj Washington county. 97 bush- 
els per acre — $5. 

Diploma, to Isratl F. GoodicKi, Westmoreland. 81 bushels per 

The committee also recommend a special premiam of $10, to Geo. 
Sheff'er of Wheatland, Monroe coustj, for bis crop of oats of 871 J 
bushels, from 9^ acres of land,beiiigan aTeragc of 91| bushelsberacre. 

Oft PfcAA^First premium to Oeargt T^i/e, Rattand, JesSersoli 
county. 33} bushels per acre — $10. 

On Potatoes — First premium to Gtorg4 White, Rutland, Jefferson 
county. 1 acre, 1 8-10 rods — 421| bushels Pinkeyes — $10. 

Second, to George Sheff'er, Wheatland. 400 bushels per acre — $6. 

Rdta Baqab — ^First premium to John McCanneli, Canandaif^. 
S&5|^ bushels per acre— $10. 

On Bscts — The first premium for beets, to G«org«£A^«r^ Wheat- 
land. 1 acre, IS rods— 1026^ bushels— f 10. 

On Carkots — First premium to Wm. Risley, Fredonia, Chau- 
tauque county. 965^ bushels per acre-^lOi 

Annttcdtr* the statements, in asomttwhat candaDsed form, of tlte 
Mveml gentlemen to whotn premiuma were awarded oa. Field <>ops: 

lasiAN Corn — Jlfr. Phelp't Statement. 

On the S3d of May, ISiS, 1 plowed tip od« acre of green award, 
for the purpose of pUatiDK it with corn. After plowing it once, I 
hai rowed it well, lengthwise of tbe furrows. I then markad out tbc 
. ground so that the rows and hills should itaod pre(»sely two feet 
apart either way. On the 25th of the same month, I planted ity and 
was careful to put precisely three kernels in each hill; when it waa 
large enough, I hoed it, and continued to hoe it three different timea, 
No other tool was used in the process of hoeing and cutting up the 
weeds, but the hoe; being Tciy careful to keep the weeds and grass 
down as much as possible, and in hoeing, to leave the ground as near 
level as pos^ble each time. 

I permitted the com to stand until it was fit for harresting, with> 
out cutting up or topping. 

Between the 10th and 15th November, I began to husk it, and al- 
so to weigh the said com. I found the a^regate weight from the 
said acre, In the ear, 13,286 lbs., of a good quality. 

About the first day of Jan. 1813, 1 thrashed out all the sound com 
that grew on said acre, and measured it in a sealed hall bushel, and 
weighed it, and found that it taWj held out 60 lbs. to tbe bushel, and 
it produced ue one hundred and twenty-two bushels of good mer- 
chantable com. My team and man were occupied one day in plow- 
ing the said acre; half a da^ harrowing; two ivta labor plant- 
ing; and NX days labor, hoeing; and ux days labor, harvesting, 
thre^ng and weighing. Einpense of cultivation, |U.— 13S buaheU 
com at 37i cents, $45. 7S.— Profit, $31.76. 

Digitized by 


Ka. 63.J 69 

Ikciak Co&ii — Mr. ingtU^ Stattment. 

The land on which it was raised, is a wann Rravelly soil, and has 
not had aaj manaTe applied for rax years. It nas been pastured for 
the last six years, untu fitting for the present com crop. The 30th 
day of April, cart«d and spread upon said piece, nine toads of 
straw manure, and plowed under. May 2d, carteil and spread upon 
the rem^der of said acre, eleven loads of straw manure, and plow- 
ed nndfld May 6tfa, carted and spread upon the furrows, ten loads 
of rottn manure, aod harrowed lengthwise of the furrows. Miy 
9th, planted said piece; rows three feet apart «aeh way. The Mtk 
of luy, plastered and ashed it, at the rate of teo bushels to thaacre; 
nine of ashes to one of plaster. June 6th, .went through witfi the 
cnltiTstor each way. Jane 7th, hoed said piece, but not the com, 
for th« ff««t had cut about three-fourths of it level with the ground. 
Jane SAth* went through with the cultivator both ways. June S5th, 
hoed it a^dn. July 12th, went through with cultivator both ways. 
July 13th, boed it the third time. July 16th, sowed on it one bush- 
el of plaster, broadcast. September I7th, cut it up at the roots, and 
put it io stooks. Oct. 1st and 3d, hnsked and weighed the entire 
crop, which amooBted to 8,640 lbs; then weighed&OO ibs. and pnt it 
by itself. Dec 6thj weighed it again, and it weighed 391 lbs., wak' 
lag in the wholr, on the Bth of Pec., 6,678 lbs. Afcordtog to th« 
weight of Dec. oth, there would be eigh^-nine bushels of con, al' 
lowing seTenty-five lbs. to the bushel. Seventy-five lb|. of enrs of 
com, will make fif^-nine ll)s. of shelled corn-^-or according to the 
first w«ight in Oct., allowing seventy-five lbs-, there would be one 
hundred and thirteen bushels and sixty-five pounds. Th« amount of 
com fodder was four loads on said puce. EzpensM, f26.7&. — 89 
bushelfloom, at37icts.,$33.38,— Frofit,$6.63. 

iHorAN CoaN. — JWr. Otborri'r ttatemmt. 
Five acres.— My com ground was a clover ley of three years 
standing; had been mowed two years; never had mueh manure if any- 
Plowed hot once, draggMl and rolled. The com was planted May 
10th and lltb, in dtilb about 3i feet apart. The corn wsi much 
injured by the wire ia oinr and a severe hail storm. Expenses, |122 . 
38.-H189I bushels at 37j^ cents, 9160. 97^-Frofit, (tll.56 per 

Baklet.— Jlfi*. Wrighi's tt<aement. 

1st. Soil in good condition at the commencement of cultivation, 
composed of clay and gravel. Plowed twice, seed harrowed in. 

2d. Previous caltivatioB, enee plowing for sping wheat, and har- 
rowed in after com upon the sward; twenty loads of manure from 
the yard, at the time of sowing the spring wheat; product, twenty- 
five boshcls per acre. 

3d. About twenty loads of yard manure used the present season. 

dth. The qnantity of seed, three bushels of two rowed barley: 
sowed the lOtb of May, broadcast. 

Digitized by 


60 [Sesate 

6tb. Harvested as follows: — Mowed; lay in awarth two dayi; 
raked and put in codes, and carted to the bam next day. Expenses 
115.13.— Product from one acre 53 bushels, 38^ lbs., $23.60. — 
Profit, $8.37. 

Barley. — Mr. Fandeveer'i ttaitm^mt. 
My acre of barley was sown upon land in potatoes last year year, 
oace plowed and harrowed, at tne rate of about three bushels jwt 
acre. Estimated expense: 

Plowing, harrowing and sowing, $2 00 

Seed, 1 88 

Harresting and threshing, 3 00 

16 88 
Product, 40 bushels, 14 quarcs, at 40 cents, .... $16 09 

Rte. — JIA*. QwAo^i itatetnent. 
Soil, a deposite from red rock formation, with muck, and a mi- 
nute portion of clay, and perhaps sandj in high condition, do manure 
this Dor the preceding year. In oats last year; plowed once; 70 
bushels to the acre. 

Seed, 11 bushels, |1 13 

Sept. Ist, sowed, plowed once, 1 day, 3 00 

Harrowed twice, half day, 1 00 

IJ days, reaping, 1 60 

Threshed and cleaned, by hand, 2 50 

Interest on land, $40 per acre, 2 80 

|10 93 
Amount of crop, 32 bushels and 36 lbs. This was 
B choice specimen of grain, and was sold princi- 
pally for seed, at 76 cents per bo^el, $24 38 

Deduct expenses, 10 93 

Profit, $13 46 

Rye, — Mr. Vandevter't itatemerU. 
My rye was sown on oat and pea stubble; soil, a yellow loam. 

Once plowing, |2 00 

Harrowing and sowing, 1 60 

Harvesting and threshing, 6 00 

Product 28 bushels, 29 quarts, at 76 cents, |21 04 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

No. 63.J 61 

OxTa.— Mr. Phelp*> $tatmttHt. 

Is obedience to the mlea, regulations, nnd Teqnirementfl nf the 
New-York State Agricnltaral Society, and for the benefit of all wbo 
■ra engaged in agricultural pursuits, I make the following state- 
ment : 

On the lOtb of May, 1842, 1 had 30 loads of manure drawn upon 
one acre of land, and spread it evenly, or nearly so, and on the 16th 
day of same month, I plowed the acre well, and harrowed it Uio- 
roughly, and sowed lire bushels oats on said acre, and dragged them 
in. The whole time nf plowing and harrowing, was two c^ys; two 
daya haxTesting and securing said crop of oats, and four days thresh- 
ing, cleaning up, and measuring the same; producing therefrom, one 
hundred ana two hushels of first quality merchantable oats. 

In the same field, I sowed one and a half acres to oats, vrithout 
mtmuring. I took full as much pains plowing, harrowing, and se- 
curing the grain from this one and a half acres, as I did on the said 
acre. I sowed on this piece, four and a half bushels, and it pro- 
duced me but eighty-five and a half bushels; clearly showing to my 
mind, that the greatest benefits always arise from a liberal use of 
manure, if put on the ground in a proper state of fermentation, and 
especial care taken to itotribate it over the surface evenly. 

Oats. — Mr. RaiteWt itatement. 
The Boil is what is generally termed a clay loam; has been in po- 
tatoes for the last five years, with the exception of one year, when 
it was sown to oats; has had a top dressing of about fifteen loads of 
manure, well rotted, per year, except this season. None the pre- 
sent year. Sowed about the 35th of April, two bushels and three 
pecks of seed, common oats. Land plowed once, and harrowed 
with a square harrow, and crossed. Grain reaped between the 1st 
and 10th of August, yielding fifty-eight dozen and six sheaves of 
oats. Threshed about twentieth of September, producing by actsat 
measurement, ninety-seven bushels and four quarts, that b^ng the 
quantity grown upon, and the product of one acre. The expense of 
cultivation is as follows: 

One day's work plowing, sowing and harrowing,. , $2 00 

Half day harrowing and sowing, 100 

Seed, St bushels, 1 03 

Reaping, raking and binding, and carting to bam, 

4 days, 3 00 

Half day for team, 1 00 

$8 03 

Oats— JIfr. Sktffet't Statement. , 

The soil on which my oat crop was grown, is Genesee flats, a dark 
clay loam. The land had lain to meadow fonrteea years previous to 
1840; in the fall of 1840, it was plowed; in the spring following, 


63 [SUUTE 

fsorn w«s planted, and prodaced fifty bosbelt p«r acre. Plowed again 
ID the till of 1841; atul in the ipring of lBi2 it was harrowed osce, 
then sowed, two buBbeU of black oats per acre, on the 13tb April; 
after which it was harrowed twica, and afterwerdi rolled with a heap 
Ty roller; l&th June, they were 12 iachei high, and were mowed by 
cutting to within 6 or 6 locbea of the ground; 10th to 20th of Au- 
gust, they were harvested by reaping; after which they were haul«d, 
(tacked, threshed and cleaned, by one of Pitt's separators. 

Expe>u9 of tht Crop. 

6 days plowin^w the^l, < $10 60 

2 days harrowing, 1st time, spring, 3 60 

Furrowing into lands, and sowing, 1 25 

Harrowing twice, 4 days, 7 00 

Rolling, one day, 2 teams, 3 76 

Mowing in June, 3 days, 3 26 

S3 days reaping, 16 50 

16 days bindbg and stouting, 11 36 

8^ men and 4^ teams, hauling and staddog, 10 88 

32 days with men, and 31 with horses, tbrestung, 

cleaning and measurtng, 34 60 

991 40 

Valneofthecrop, at 16 cts. per bnshel, |130 69 

20 loads straw, at 11.00 per load, 20 00 

$160 69 
The average yield per acre of the above crc^, is 91 bui^ela, 98 

Peas.— 3fr WMte't Staiemmt, 
Of raiaiu a crop of narrowfat peas, the teesoii cl 1843. T^ 
condition of the land, gr«en>Bward. It bad been mowed and pastur- 
ed for the last eight years. The field contained about three acres or 
more, as near as I could jsdge. The groiuid was plowed seven in- 
ches deep, which is the common depth whm I tum green-sward. 
The quantity of seed sown, was ten boahels. They were sown upon 
the furrows, then harrowed the same way Uwt it was plowed, and 
then corner ways, minding to turn back the sods that were torn up. 
There was no roller, bush or manure, used on the ground. Time of 
sowing was the 13th day of April. Cutting and drawing them in, 
was the SOth, 23d and 34th days of August. The time of threshing 
and cleaning one acre, the Ist of December. Number of bushela, 
331, measured. At the time of cutting the peas, I went and measur> 
ed off from one comer of the field, one acre, and staked it out, so 
that they could be by themselv«fl. When we drawed them in, we 

>nt them leparate frooa the osiers; threshed and cleaned sepant«. 

?faa expense of cultivating, harvectng, threduag, cleaning and seed, 
for the whole piece, is twenty-two dollars. ^^ . 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


No. 63.J 68 

PoTATOD.— .M- Whit^t Sttttement, 
Of ninug a crop of Pinkeye potatoes, the season of 1843. Pre- 
vious cttllivation of the soil; In the spring of 1S40, I turned over 
about 2i acres of green-sward, on which I raised wheat. The fol- 
lomng season I plowed it hot once, and then sowed it to barley, and 
worked it sufficiently with a barrow, intending it for mowing. But 
owing to the dry weather in the Bpring. the grass seed failed. It was 
Dot plowed in tbe fal), on account of the groand's washing; no ma- 
nure used. The present season plowed once, about seven inches 
deep, and then drawed on twenty loads of yard and stable manure 
per acre, and then it was spread and harrowed. I then took the 
iiorse and plow, and run the furrows just three feet apart, and the po- 
tatoes were then dropped in the furrows, about two feet apart; pota- 
toes cut, and three pieces put in a hill. The quantity of seed, twen- 
ty-five bushels. The quantity of land, one acre, one rod, and eight- 
tanths rod. The time of planting, the 3d day of May. Time of bar* 
vesting, the i26th, 27th and 38^ days of September. Number of 
bushels, 4211. The expense of Cultivating and harvesting the above 
crop of potatoes, is fifteen dollars and thirty-eight cent^. 

Potatoes. — Mr. SK^er't Statemmt. — 1 acre and 20 rod*. 

Tbe Boil on which my crop of potatoes was grown, is Genesee 
flats, a dark clay loam. The l^nd bad lain to meadow six years pre- 
viona to the potatoe crop, and^bout one ton of hay waa cutperacre, 
previous to the potatoe crop. 36 losd^ of stable and yard manure 
was applied is April, whi^ waa made the previous winter. The 
land was plowed once, the latter part of May; then rolled, then har- 
rowed thoroughly, then furrowed 3 inches deep, and 3i feet apart in- 
to rows, and planted the last days of May and first of June, 30 bush- 
els of Rohan potatoes, cut so as to average 3 eyes to a piece, and 
dropped in (be furrows one foot apart, and one piece of potatoe in a 
^ce, after which they were covered with a hoe, 4 inches deep. 
They were hoed twice; the first time a cultivator was uaed, and then 
followed with a plow and hoe. The first hoeing was done when the 
potatoes were about 3 inches hi^; the second time, when the pota- 
toes were 12 inches high, by plowing, and after hoeing. The crop 
was harvested the last of September and first of October, by digging 
in tbe usual way with a hoe. 

Expenses of crop, $34.14. Value of the crop, 451 bushels 28 
Ibs^at Ifil cents per acre,^6.3&. 

The aTenge yield per acre, on four acres, 401 bushels, 10 lbs. 

BsETs.— Jlfr. Sheffer't Statement. 
Ths Boil on which my crop of sugar beets was grown, is Genesee 
fiats, a dark clay loam. The condition of tbe land before planting 
this crop, was good; the crop previoaa was potatoes; thirty loads or 
manure were put on to the acre, the crop three hundred and fifty bush- 
els. Twenty loads of well rotted manure per acre, were then applied 
to the land, in tbe &11, and plowed in. The 15tb of May, commenc- 


M [Sbhatk 

«d plowing a narrov land on ooe side of the field, rolled and har- 
rowed immediately, while the ground was moiBt; then planted in drills 
S7 inches apart, five pounds seed to the acre; the seed were soaked in 
soft water until thej were sprouted, then rolled in plaster. During 
the seasoD, the crop was hoed three times. The first time the plants 
were thinned out from 10 to 12 inches apart; the second time, the 
ground was hoed and all the weeds cut; the third time a light plow 
waa used, and afterwards the hoe. The crop was harvested the last 
of October and first of November, by digging with a spade. 

Expente of the Crop. 

SO loads of manure, 3s. per load, $5 06 

Plowing in the fall, three-fourths day, 1 31 

Plowing in the spring, three-fourths day, 1 31 

Rolling and harrowing, 1 day, 1 75 

Hoeing first time, 8 days' worlc, 6 00 

Second hoeing and transplanting, 8 days, 6 00 

Plowing, boy and horse, 1 day, 1 25 

Harvesting 14 days, and 4 days with team, 14 50 

5 lbs. seed, at 2a. per lb 1 35 

$38 37 
Value of the crop, 1,026 bnshels and 40 lbs., at 

7 cents per bushel, (71 87 

The average yield, per acre, of the above crop, is 955 bushels. 

Rdta Bagab. — Mr. M'CotmelPi ttatement.-~-l acre. 

The soil on which my nita bagas were grown, was part sand and 
part clay. Two years before, had a crop of wheat, which was over- 
mn with tares and pigeon weed. The following year, I toot from 
it a crop of potatoes. After the potatoes came oflF, I plowed the 
land; also twice in the spring, followed by sufficient dragging and 
rolling, I then applied 24 wagon loads of good manure from ihe 
barn yard. They were sown 19th and 20th of May. 

Expense, (24.25. Product, 855^ bushels, at 8 cents, $68.44. 

CAHfiDTs. — Mr. Risley^s statemmi. 
The condition of the land previous to the present season, was as 
follows: — The crop of 1841, was carrots, a part for the roots, and 
a part for raising seed; the land had no manure put on it for the last 
ten years, but bad been used for a meadow for the moat part of the 
time. In the spring of 1312, there was a light covering of manure, 
- say ten loads to the acre; land plowed twice, harrowed, and raked, 
and two pounds of seed sown in rows, sixteen inches apart. Sown 
the 1st of May, and harvested the 15th of October, and the 1st of 
November, and the expense of cultivation was $31 -00. The pro- 
duct on one acre, was 985 bushels. 

, Google 




Of all the ptirsaits to which maobind, irom necesnty or incliii&- 
tioD, hare devoted themseWes, there is none more honorable, — 
jg)ff,j^i^. certainly none more useful, — than that of agricultnre. To 
"•■•^ pursue this bumness successfully, knowledge, exteDsire and 
▼aried, is required; for, although a man may succeed by following 
the beaten paths of his predecessors, occasions will frequently arise, 
when the end desired may be attained by methods much shorter than 
thoise Dsnally adopted, if the tftrmer is able to form and apply them. 
It is here that science has, within a few years, rendered the most es- 
sential aid to agriculture. Sometimes, reasoning from well Imswn 
effects to their causes, the agricultural chemist has placed in the hands 
of the farmer the means of producing results, always denrable, but 
which, under the older systems of farming, with his utmost care, he * 

frequently failed of obtaining. Again, taking well established facts 
in animal or vegetable physiology as his starting point, he has ar- 
rived at results of the highest practical importance, and is enabled to 
render more certain and effective tBe more tardy operations of na- 
ture. In no department of agricultural industry, it is believed, have 
the labors of science been more beneficial or more apparent than in 
that of the preparation and use of manures; certain it, is there is no 
department more deserving attention, or where an elucidation of the 
prindples and laws that govern the growth of plants, acts with a 
more direct and energetic influence. 

A definition of the term manure, may be necessary, in order 
to treat the subject onderstandingly, as different individuals use 
-_. the word in widely different senses, some in a wide, and 
<io*^ some in a limited one. A few instances of the meaning 
pat upon the term will be given from a few of the modem writers 

[Senate No. 63.] I r^ t 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 

66 [Sejiate 

who hare adverted to this topic. Thus Dr. Leiber, in his German 
Conversationes Lexicon, defines manore to be " vegetable, animal and 
mineral matters, introduced into the soil to accelerate vegetation, and 
increase the prodaction of crops." The Encyclopedia, published bj 
the London Society for the Promotion of Useful Knowledge, thus 
defines it: — " Every substance which has been used to improve the 
natural soil, or to restore to it the fertility which is diminished by the 
crops annually carried away, has been included in the name of ma- 
nure." Loudon, in his great work on Agriculture, says—" Every 
species of matter capable of promoting the growth of vegetables, may 
be considered aa manure." Prof. Low, in his Elements of Agricul- 
ture, says — " Ail substances which, when mixed with the matter of 
the soil, tend to fertilize it, are in common language termed ma- 
nures," Mr. Johnson, in his " Farmers' Encyclopedia," lately pub- 
lished, says — " A manure may be defined to be any fertilizing com- 
pound or umple ingredient added to a soil, of which it is naturally 
deficient." The definitions of Prof. Lieb^ and Dr. Dana, two of the 
latest writers on the subject, do not differ essentially from those al- 
ready given. Of these definitions, I prefer the most simple and com- 
prehensive, that of Loudon, and in this paper shall consider the term 
manure, as embr«cing every substance capable of promoting the 
growth of plants. 

Manures, by some, are classed as earthy, organic and saline; others 
divide them into animal and vegetable, mineral and mixed manures, 
and some speak of them as composed only of geine or hu- 
mus and salts. Others class them as organic and inorgan- 
ic; but these divisions are of little consequence, as every farmer un- 
derstands that manure is the result of decomposition or change; and 
that, whether organic, that is, derived from animal or v^etable mat- 
ter; or inorganic, such as the earths, clay, lime, the alkalies, &«■, it is 
only efficient when presented to plants in certain forms, such as de- 
composition, divifuon or solution. In France, they have tenns to dis- 
tinguish those substances which act mechanically in improving the 
texture of the soil, from those which act directly in the nourishment 
of the plant. The former class of substances they call amendements, 
and the latter ones engrait. It is probable, however, that the system 
which considers all manures as consisting of humus or geine, and 
salts, comprehending, in the latter term, all the mineral substance* 
that enter into the growth or nourishment of vegetables^ will eventu- 

Digjtized by 


No. 63.J 67 

ally be found the most sipiple, and at the same time the most accnrate 
of all the proposed divinonB of manures. Thus fanmus constitutes 
the source of the carbon, fonning the principai part of the structure 
of plants, and the salts, where they do not enter into the structure of 
plants, are active in preparing the other inorganic elements, and ex- 
citing the vegetable organs in thar reception and appropriation of 

Humus or geine is simply decomposed animal and vegetable mat- 
ter; and as from it, by the action of oxygen, carbonic gas is derived, 
Hmnm or *° '** absorbed by water and taken np by the roots, or 

°"''*'' mixed with the atmosphere and taken up by the leaves of 
plants; or, as some agricultural chemists with good rra^on suppose, is 
under certain oircomstances dissolved, or is soluble, and thus render- 
ed fit for immediate nourishment to plants, it must be considered the 
most important item in the productioo of manures. The salts, whidi 
are the most effiuent in aiding vegetation, or the most active ma- 
nures, are those formed from the alkalies and their Tarions combina- 
tions. Thus, from pure lime or calcium, is formed, by the union with 
carbonic acid, carbonate o/' lime; with phosphoric acid, pkotphate of 
Umtt the base of bones, one of the most efficient of fertilizers; with 
sulphuric acid, tulphate of /tme, or gypsum, the value of which is 
well understood; and so vrith the other alkalies, which, io their com- 
binations, form substances of the utmost consequence to plants. It 
is well known that the outer covering of some kinds of cane, cod- 
tains BO much flint or stlez as to strike fire with steel; and some of 
the grasses contain this substance in such quantity that theii ashes 
will melt into glass with potasb. Now, this hardness, so necessary 
to their perfection, could not be attained unless this flint had beai 
rendered soluble by union with an alkali, forming a silicate of potasb, 
and by this solubility been rendered fit for the action and appropria- 
tion of the plant. 

If wc would know what kind of food is required by plants, one of 
the first steps necessary is to ascertain of what the plants themselves 
Tooiot ^^^ composed. The combinations of matter may be said to 

fi»BU. {,£ absolutely endless; but the original elements of this mul- 
titude of combinations, are few in number. Chemistry bas detected 
only some fifty-five substsnces incapable of further leductioo, or what 
are called nmple substances; and of these, strange as it may appear, 
only four, except in proportions merely accidental, go to the fimna 

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68 [Sbiatb 

tion of plants. Of tliese the first u Citr&on. This forms from 40 to 

50 per cent by weight, of the plants cultivated for food ; and is there- 
fore most important to animals and to man. The second of these nm- 
ple substances, is Onggen, The quantities of this substance are im- 
mense; and though ve are acquainted with it only in the form in 
which it exists in the air, nearly one-half of the solid crust of the globe, 

51 per cent of the atmosphere, eight pounds in erery nine of water, 
and more than one-half of the liTing bodies of all plants and animals, 
are oxygen, ^drogen is the third substance pecaliar to plants. 
This is the lightest of known substances, and forma a small part of the 
weight of all animal and v^^ble bodiesj conttitnteB one-ninth part 
of the weight of water, but enters into the composition of none of the 
masses that go to form the crust of the globe, coal eicepted. The 
fourth simple substance, entering into the formation of plants, is JVt- 
trogen. This forms 79 per cent of the bulk of the atmosphere, con- 
stitutes part of most animal and some v^etable substances; ia found 
in coal to the amount of one or two per cent, but does not exist in 
any other of the mineral masses constituting the omst of the globe. 
Although not an abundant substance, the importance of it is not the 
less dedded, and some of its functions are of the most indispensable 
kind. Plants then, are composed of carbon, oxygen, hydri^en, and 
nitn^en; the first derived from carbonic atdd, the second from the 
atmosphere, the third from the decomposition of water, and the fourth 
from ammonia absorbed by water, and taken up by the roots of the 
regetables. Some of the earths are occasionally detected in plants, 
and salts of some kind are always present. In the preparation of ma- 
nures, the principal object to be aimed at, it is evident, must be to 
supply the materials needed to furnish the carbon and the ammonia; 
and ihese are found in the greatest abundance in dead or decomposed 
animal and vegetable matter. 

It seems to be a law of nature, that the higher the grade of the 
animal, or the more complicated its organization, the greater the 
LawoflTn- i^'^^^^J °f ^ Corresponding degree of organization in the 
trithM. substances used as food: indeed the manner in which the 
crude materials, found in the earth and atmosphere, are worked up 
by plants into a state suitable for converuon into the flesh of animals 
or food for man, exhibits the strongest proofs of benevolent design 
in the formation of such grades of oiganized matter. Man can, in- 
deed, live on plants, but bis teeth demonstrate that flesh was to con- 
Digitized by 


No. 63.] 69 

stitate no inconsiderable portion of his food. Ab bU animals receive 
th^ food, either directly or indirectly, from the regetable kingdom, 
it is evident their excrements, or their decomposed bodies, must form 
manures of the most valuable kind; and it is to this source, the ex- 
crements of animals, that the farmer must look for his supply of ma- 
nures to restore the fertility of the soil. In treating farther of 
manures, it vrillbebestto begin with this, as the most importaDtdass. 

A late British writer en agriculture, says: — " The chief ose of cat- 
tle on an arable farm, besides those necessary for the operations of 
j^gijj^ jg^_ husbandry, is to produce manure for the land. If the 

■>v*- cattle repay their food, and the expense and risk at- 
tending their keep) the manure is sufficient profit. Even with a 
moderate loss, they must be kept, vrhen manure cannot be purchased. 
The loss, if any, on the cattle, must be repaid by the increase of the 
CO A <^cipB. Manure is to a farm, what daily food is to an animal j 
it must be procured at any sacrifice." Common barn-yard or stable 
manure is the kind to which most fanners must look for the fertility 
of their farms. This conusts of the droppings of the cattle, mixed 
with die straw used for littering in stables or thrown into the yards 
for the amimal to feed or lie upon, the coarser hay and weeds re- 
fused by the stock, and the urine of the animals kept in the stables 
« yards. This is constantly trampled, is usually kept moist if not 
wet, and is finally decomposed, or converted into manure fit for the 
production of crops. This is the most usual course, but it is evident 
that there must, in this method, be a serious loss to the farmer, of 
the more valuable properties of the manure. In this way, the decom- 
pontton is unequal; a part will be converted into mold while the 
other will be scarcely acted upon; the salts and the more soluble 
parts of the excrements, which are the most efficient ones, are dis- 
solved by the rains, and carried off by the drains, or lost in the 
earth; and where any considerable degree of heat is evolved, as 
there will be when the decomposition ia rapid, or is gouig on in large 
masses, the escape of ammonia, so easily detected by the smell, 
shows that the nitr<^en, so essenUal to the growth and perfection of 
a grain crop, is rapidly wasting. 

To prevent these results, and secure the whole benefit of the ma- 

Pi^^^_ nure, two methods have been adopted. The first consists 

"0°- in applyingthe manure fresh, or in a-longstate, to the fields 

it ia wished to mai^uie, without, watting for it to decompose. In 

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this way the manure colkcted m the yards daring the winter, is re- 
moTed in the sprtng, and ^plied to such cropB as iequire it the 
most; and aa no fermentation ensues in ordinary cases, until the com- 
mencement of hot weather, two sources of loss at least are avoided, 
those of the waahing away of the soluble parts, or their being car- 
ried off in the shape of gas. Where there exists no necessity for re- 
taining manures far other than spring cropa, and where the crops 
cultivated are such thatlong manures aresoitablefortbeirgTOwth and 
tillage, this mode of disposing of manures must be considered one 
of the best that can be adopted. But in many cases the formation 
of manures in the yards and stables of the farmer is going on the 
whole year; and preservation in masses^ or by being scattered in 
yards during the hot months, would be to greatly lessen, if not 
mostly destroy its value. Besides, there are some crops, such as 
some of the root crops, in the cultivation of which experience has 
proved fully that rotted or decomposed manure is far preferable to long 
manure, as much of it is already in a soluble state, and is available 
to the plants at the time they need hastening the most, which is the 
period immediately after gemination. Where the waste of manure 
is to be prevented during the summer months, or it is deurable to 
provide a quantity of fully rotted manure, then the second method 
should be used; and this indeed, by many excellent farmers, is con- 
sidered the best in all cases. 

In this method, the practice is to remove the dung from the stables 
and yards at short intervals, and place it in large piles or masses, that 
Ferment*- ^^^ proper fermentation may take place previous to its use. 

tion. When a pile of manure is made in this way, the fermenta- 
tion takes place in the quantities applied, as they are successively de- 
posited, and therefore does not reach usually that point in which mate- 
rial loss is sustained. If it is found that the heat is becoming to great, 
or the fermentation injuriously rapid, so as to cause the escape of 
ammonia, a layer of earth or sods placed over the pile, will retain, 
by combination, the escaping gases, and thus prevent the loss. It has 
been found a most excellent plan, one which not only greatly increas- 
es the quantity of manures made in this way, but adds to its quality, 
to mingle with or cover the successive deposits of manure with earth 
from ditches or-ponds, peat or muck from swamps, or turf from bogs 
or plowed lands, as such layers, coasisting mostly of vegetable or 
animal matters, will, hy absorbing the drainings of the manure, or 

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No. 63.} 71 

the absorptioD of &.e escBping gawB, be converted into one of the 
most efficient of fertiiuers. The more solid mch deposits of ma- 
Dure are made, the more slow irill the fbrmentation be, and hence in 
anloading, the carts or vagona may be driTen over them if necessary 
to expedite the work, where the immediate use of the manare is not 
an object. Shonld the dung placed in these heaps be too slow in fer- 
menting, it may be hastened by opening the piles, or still better by 
making holes in the top, into which the wash of the yards and the 
orine of the stables may be poured. This method has another ad- 
vantage. The manure from the yards, ii not wanted as long ma- 
nure, may be removed to the fields where it is to be used, at times 
when the men of the farm cannot be otherwise profitably employed, 
and will be at hand, ready fermented in these piles, when a further 
transportation night be difficult if not impracticable. 

It is a question of considerable importance to the' farmer, and one 
which has been much discussed, whether it was better to apply ma- 
1^^ 1^ nure in its long state always, or always allow its full decom- 
'***^ position before using. From his own experience, the writer 
has been led to doubt the correctness of either of these positions. It 
seems to be uniTeisally admitted that matter, to be efficient as a ma- 
nare, most be soluble, and it is clear that the more solid parts of farm 
yard manure require to be softened by putrefactive fermentation be- 
fore they can be conndersd in this state. Where, then, the influence 
of manure is required to be felt at once, as on the tumep, beet and 
carrot crops, in order to push them forward at the first start beyond 
the reach of insects, my experience is, that the manure should be in a 
state redurable to powder, in which condition a large portion of it 
may be expected to be soluble, and of course at once available by the 
plant. Where, dniing the fermentative process, the mass has been 
reduced to a black carbonaceous matter, it may be inferred that the 
heat was too great, and the manure seriously damaged; on the con- 
trary, if the mass, while perfectly fine, dry and friable, still retains 
its dark brown color, it will usually be found that none of the good 
qoafities have been lost by over-fermentation. 

But where the manure is to be applied to crops which do not re- 
quire fordng forward in the early part of their growth, but demand 
as mneh or perhaps more nutriment at a late period of their vegeta- 
tion to perfect their seeds or roots, then experience has shown that it 
is best to apply the manure without any con^derable fermentation to 

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7S [Sbratb 

the soil. Indian con, potatoes, and the g^rain crops generally, are 
of this classj the two first particularly. The time when com and 
potatoes require the most nntriment, is at the time when the ears and 
tubers are forming; and when manures butparttally fermented, or used 
fresh from the yard or stable, are applied, the decomposititm is com- 
paratively gradual, and the supply greatest when most needed. I 
cannot recommend the application of manures of any'ldnd directly to 
grain crops, as it has a tendency to give straw at the expense of the 
grain, and wheat so manured, is iar more apt to suffer from nuldew 
or rust, than when the manure, by application to other and previous 
crops, has become perfectly Incorporated with the soil. In this state^ 
that rapid growth, which is the result of first fermentation, is avoided 
by the wheat plant; and the substances necessary to perfect the berry 
are already prepared and within reach of the growing or maturing 

Dung varies much in its quality, not only from the perfection or 
imperfection of the fermentation to which it is subjected, but also 
oaamy ^^°°^ ^^^ animals produ(ung it, and the food which animals re- 
orDiinc. ceive. The richest and most effective manure we have ever 
used, was that from the bog yard, and produced by fattening hogs. 
That from cattle, fed on corn meal and oil calce, will be little inferior; 
and ^ther will be found 100 per cent better than ordinary farm yard 
manure. The reason of this is very plain. Such animals are fed 
with substancea abounding in the materials most needed by plants, 
with very Uttle admixture of useless matter, and the comparatively 
small quantities of animal matter and salts added, rather contribute 
than detract from its efficacy. The dung of sheep is more valuable 
than that of horses or cattle not fattening, as the materials are more 
perfectly assimilated or mixed in mastication, and more fully decom- 

Next to farm yard manures, to keep up the fertility of his lands, 
the farmer may most certainly rely on green crops, either fed off op- 
Q^^ on the land, or turned under by the plow, and there allowed to 
Cropa. ferment and decompose- For a plant to enrich exhausted 
soils, affording as it does both top and roots to a large extent, there 
is no plant equal to clover; and particularly where it is necessary or 
desirable to have the green crop fed off by animals. I prefer letting 
the clover grow until nearly or quite in blossom, and then turning 
sheep upon it. They will eat much of it and fatten rapidly; but they 

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No. 63.} 73 

vill trample down more, and this, mixed with their dung, forma 
in its decay a most efficient top dressing; and repeated for two or 
three years, forms an admirable preparation of the soil for wheat or 
other grains. When a crop is cultivated to be plowed in, it should 
be done at the time when the plants contain the greatest quantity of 
notritiTe matter, and have least exhausted the soil in which they are 
growing. This, in most cases, will be when the plants hare come 
fully into flower. At an earlier period there may be as much weight, 
but a larger portion of it will be mere water; and, if allowed to stand 
much later, the soluble matter is lost in the seed, and the ligneous 
part of the stem becomes more difficult of decomposition. Buck- 
Tvbeat is a good plant for a green manure; its growth is rapid, and 
gives a great weight per acre, and two crops maybe plowedunder in 
a year. The best way of plowing in such green crops, is to pass a 
heavy roller over them, which lays the plants close to the ground, 
and greatly facilitates covering them by the plow. It is believed that 
com, sown broad cast, and when just showing its tassels, cat and co- 
Tered by the plow, would be one of the best crops that could be cho- 
sen for this purpose. A man or boy, in this case, would be required 
to filllow the plow, to place the corn in the furrow for covering, at 
the next passage of the plow. Taken at this time, com aboonds in 
nntritive matter, and could scarcely fail of proving a first rate fertili- 
SCT of the soil. 

A variety of decomposed vegetable matters, or those partially de- 
composed, are used as manures. The fallen leaves of trees are of 
p^^ this class; bat the instances are few in which they will repay 
the expense of gathering; perhaps never, in the United States, 
where the other soorces of an abundant supply of mannres are so na- 
merons. If collected, the best method of unng them, is to litter sta- 
bles, or form beds for pigs, or mix at imce with other manures; as, in 
mch ways, they absorb Diine and other fluids that might escape, and 
together ondeigo decompoution. But the most important source of 
decayed vegetable matter, and one, the value of which is not yet by 
any means sufficiently understood or appreciated, is to be found in 
the great d^osits of this substance in swamps, low meadows, and 
peat bogs, in all parts of oui country. On the subject of this kind 
of manure, there is no authority equal to Dr. Dana of Lowell, Mast. 
According to him, peat consists of soluble or insoluble geine or hu- 
iniu, with a few salts. From an analysis of ten specimens from dif- 

[Senate No. eS.] K 1^ I 

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74 [Suurtr 

ferent parts of Massachusetts, the highest and the lowest in the scale 
of soluble geine, is selected and gtTen here, as well as two specimens 
of pond mud. This is done, as the value of neither peat or such 
mud is sufficiently appreciated by the farmer; and they are neglected 
when they might easily be made a source of the greatest fertility: 
Solnbla Oelne. tDMlnble Odne. Total Qainl. Sill* and SUleiUt. 

. , , T, , n0.15 49.45 59.60 40.40 

AB-iyii. ""•J48.80 ■ 43.60 92.40 7.60 

„ .„ . ( 5.10 8.90 14. 86. 

Pond Mud. j g JO ggQ 14 go 34 40 

In his analysis of various manures, he takes for liis standard, cow 

dung; and it is not a little remarkable that the constituents of peat and 

cow dune, should so nearly coincide. Dr. Dana's esti- 
Conpuiaim °' ■' 

wiacaw mate of the several parts of peat of average quality, ann 

of cow dung, is as follows. The peat was fresh dug, in 
this case; before, it was dried at 300°. 

Fral. - Cow DUDf. 

Water, 86. 83.60 

Salts, 1. .98 

Geine 14. 16.46 

But notwithstanding this decayed vegetable matter is so rich in 
the Clonic elements of plants, experience proves that, applied in its 
p««i oom- iiB^ural state, it is almost valneless as a manure, compared 
P*""- with stable manures; and hence the reason it has been so 
little prized. Science has shown the cause of this result, and the 
means of obviating it; or, in other words, of unlocking the fertilizing 
powers of these v^etable deposits. To be able to give out aDuno- 
nia, the peat or swamp muck must be fermented; and this may be 
effected by the direct addition of alkalies, or by making the peat into 
a compost with fresh manures. If alkalies are added, the quantity 
necessary to bring a ton of fresh peat into the same condition, so far 
as regards ammonia, as cow dung, would be " 92 lbs. of potash, 61 
lbs. of soda, or 16 to 20 bushels of common house ashes." But the 
farmer will usually find the best method of using peat, will be to com- 
bine the peat with manure, by mixing it with dung in his yards, or 
making it into compost. Many experiments have been made by some 
of the best farmers and gardeners of Massachusetts, in relation to the 
use of peat; and all unite in pronouncing it most valuable. Mr. 
Phinney of Lexington says, that " a cord of green dung converts 
twice its bulk of peat, into a manure of equal value to itself; that is^ 
a cord of clear stable dung, composted with two of peat, &rma a 

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No. 62.] 76 

manure equal in value to three cords of green dung." Mr. Rob- 
bins of Watertown, though owning a large stock, makes no use of 
their manures. These he sells; but keeps his farm in a high state of 
fertility, by mixing swamp muck or peat with spent ashes from bis 
soap and candle factory. The proportions he uses are, one part of 
spent ashes to three of peat, dug up in the fall and mixed with the 
ashes in the spring. After shoveling over two or three times, it is 
spread and plowed in. The effect is felt at once; and so far the ma- 
nure has proved durable. 

According to Mr. Colman, in his Fourth Report, two thirds of the ma- 
nure used on the extensive garden and farm of Mr. Cusbing, near Eos- 
Cm of Prat ton, ismade from meadow muck or peat. The compost, for 
Hncic. top dressing meadow and grass lands, is made by taking the 
mack from the pit in August or September, where it lies to the next 
year. The compost heap is then made on some convenient place, by 
spreading a layer of muck eight inches thick; on the muck four in- 
ches of ashes; then another layer of muck, and so on for five layers, 
making a pile five feet high, in the form of a ridge. This lies through 
the winter, is opened and mixed in the spring, and the next fall is 
spread on the land. The compost for plowed lands is made of two- 
thirds muck and one-third manure. Fresh manure, or that which 
has not fermented, is always used, and care is taken not to put in so 
much muck as to prevent the compost's heating. The fermentation 
of the manure decomposes the muck rapidly, and when this is done, 
the compost is fit for the land. Horse manure or unslacked lime, ac- 
celerates the fermentation — colder manure retards it. It is the opi- 
nion of Mr. Gushing and his gardener, that muck for mixing with 
cowduDg, or for putting in bog styes, should he dug from the swamp 
«x months before using, as the action of the atmosphere facilitates 
the change necessary. Muck, without this preparatory fermentation, 
they consider of little importance as a manure. 

Pond mud, although not as rich in vegetable matter or humus as 
swamp muck or peat, is stilt one of the most valuable of fertilizers. 
p^j. The quantity of earthy matters it contains, is rather an advan- 
Mud. tage than otherwise, when applied to light or sandy soils, 
and will rarely be found iojarious on any. As a manure, the action 
of pond mud is more immediate than that of unfermented muck, 
owing to the much greater proportion of salts and silicates it contains. 
It is astonishing what quantities of this manure are lying worse than 

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76 [Sbhatb 

OBelen in the thousands of mill ponds in oar country. In the win- 
ter of 1839-^0, Mr. Whalen of Saratoga co., drew from a pond on 
the Eajaderosseras creek 1000 loads of pond muck} and put it on a 
field of 17 acres; soil light and sandy, or gravelly, and reduced by 
tkinning until it would produce nothing but sorrel and mullein. This 
field, planted to com^gave him 860 bushels. The extra product from 
the use of this manure, he estimated at twenty bushels per acre. In 
the winter of 1810-41, he took from the same pond 700 loads, and ap- 
plied it to two other fields, and with similar results. Mr. Whalen 
has also, at different times, drawn 800 loads of muck from an ash 
swale, and found it to nearly or quite equal in its eSect on vegetation, 
the pond mud. After the com, Mr. Whalen has uniformly grown 
oats; and on these worn out lands, where he formerly would have lost 
his seed oats, as well as the grass seeds used, he has been success- 
ful, both taking well where the mud or muck had been used. For 
heavy loams or clay, Mr. Whalen is of the opinion that a mixture of 
lime or yard manure, with the muck or mud, would be indispensable. 
This mixture, the experience of Mr. Clark of iN'orthampton, and oth- 
ers, shows, is well effected by pladng the muck in the cattle yards or 
pig styes, to be incorporated with the manures by the feet or noses of 
the animals, and to act as absorbents of the urine and soluble matters 
that are too frequently lost. 

Night soil, or the contents of privies, is one of the most powerful 
and valuable of manures; but prejudices, combined with the difficul- 
j|. jij ties formerly attending its use, have prevented much attention 
•'^ to it in England or the United States, until within a few years. 
In consequence, a substance of the greatest importance to the iarmer 
has been r^arded as a niusance, and, in the vicinitr of large cities, 
has truly been so. Now, since science has taught the mode of pre- 
paring it for use, its use is becoming general, and its value fully ap- 
preciated. According to the analysis of manures, made by Boussdn- 
gault and by Dr. Dana, there is no manure ordinarily accessible to the 
farmer so^rich in the carbonates or salts of ammonia as tins. This 
will be seen by comparing it with horse dung, the value of which 
is well understood. 

Bum DUiue. Nlchi mA. 

Oeine, 27. 23. 

Salts, 96 1.2 

Carbonate of ammonia, 3.24 15.32 

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No. 63.] 77 

The dung of tbefittteninglu^ spproachea ni^t soil in nine, more 
nearly tlian any other; indeed Dr. Dana supposes that for all the 
_^ porposes of analy^ these may be fmanged under one head. 
'^*°'- In practical use, Von Thaer, on the Pnisuan goTflnunentfarm, 
determined by experiment its comparatiTe value ss follows: If a 
soil vithoat manure, would yield three bushels of produce for one 
aovn, manured with different substances the result wa8> 

Without manure, 3forl sown. 

With cow dung, 7 " 1 " 

With home dung, 10 " 1 " 

With night soil, 14 " 1 ■* 

In some experiments made by Arthur Young, and detailed in the 
CcMWOTitive Annals of A^culture, the effect of this manure on wheat 

TUBS 0( ... 

insMSoU- W"8 *8 lollows: 

Simple soil, per acre, 13^ bushels. 

Bushels of night soil,... 320 37^ " 

" « 340 32i " 

" " 160 3H « 

Cubic yards of farm yard compost, 60 SO " 

u u u 30 231 M 

30 do. and 1 cubic yard of chalk, ...... SS " 

Applied to potatoes, the results were not less decisive; 

Simple soil produced per acre, 130 boahela. 

Night soil, lO wagon loads, 600 " 

Bones, 10 « 650 " 

Hog dung, 60 one horse cart loads, 480 " 

Ya^ compost, 60 one horse cart loads, .... 300 " 
The most common method of using night soil, or at least that in 
which it is most portable and least offensive, is to convert it into pou- 
drette. This is done to the best advantage in large mann- 
fectories; and hence they are usually established in the vi- 
cinity of lai^ atiea, where the original article is easily obtained. 
^Different processes are adopted, bat the most common is to slowly 
dry the night soil in pans, having previously mixed it with plaster 
or ground peat. The object in adding plaster or peat, is to prevent 
the escape of ammonia, on which the value of the manure is mainly 
depending. The dried mass is then pulverized — is perfectly inoder- 
Tous, resembles a dry brownish powder, and may be used broad cast 
or in drills. In Paris, a powerful manure is made, also called pou- 
diette, by boiling the oSals of the slaughter houses into a thick soup, 
making this into a stiff paste by stirring in coal ashes, then diying 
and grinding. 

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78 {Smun 

Dnte, is a miiiBre formed &om a conpoDiu] of nriac, nod and pla*> 
ter of Farii. In Paiu, where the naau f actare ia moat perfect, tbe 
Unte ETP*"™ " bnint preTioos to nsng. "Hie valoc of the nntcs^ 
IS manure, will be better nndentood from the annexed table: 

Water, 65. 

Urea, 6. 

Bone dost, • • S. 

Sal ammoniac and muriate of potash, 16. 

Sulphate of potash, 6. 

Caroonate of pota^and ammonia, 6. 

From this, it will be seen that orate aboonds in those nbstanctf 
most necessary to give fertility to soils. Dr. Dana remarks that » 
cord of loam, saturated with orine, is equal to a cord of the best rot- 
ted dung; and in some experiments made by the French Royal Soci- 
ety of Agricultnre, which may be found detailed in the Dictiautain 
^Agrietdture Pratiqat^ Parity 1828, for tbe purpose of comparing it 
with night soil, pigeon's duog, &c., known to be very effectire, tbe 
result was in favor of tbe urate. When mixed with dried night soil 
or poudrette, its effect on varions crops was very great. From the 
experiments there instituted, it appeared that orate alone acted nwit 
favorably in moist seasons. It must be remembered, boweTer, that 
night soil, when properly prepared, retains all tbe urine, or rather its 
fertilizing qualities; and the fact that urine is of itself bo valuible 
a manure, should put farmers on their guard against suffering it to be 
lost from their stables and yards, sa is usually done. 

Where tbe farmer is so situated that no poudrette manufactories 
are within bis reach, he will find that by making it into a compost 
VMof *'^ swamp muck, ashes, peat or gypsum, he will hare 
HlgbtioU. j, [QBtiure that may be easily applied, and which will pos- 
sess great fertilizing powers. The Cbinese have long been celebrat- 
ed for tbe extensive use of night soil. Their method is to make it 
into cakes with a rich marl, which, when dried in the sun, constitute 
a r^;ular article of traffic, almost a legal tender. The Flemings 
were the first of tbe Europeans to make a common use of night soil 
as a manure, and hence its name of Flemish manure. There it is ap- 
plied directly, and without preparation, to any crop for which ma- 
nure is vranted; and tbe superiority of Flemish agriculture, and the 
great fertility of their soils, may be, in a great measure, attributed to 
their careful saving and use of matters whicb others have been most 

Digitized by 


No. 63. 79 

uizioiis to be freed from. In Spain, the celebrated asparagus of Sa- 
tagossa is grown on beds oT loose gravel and Gand, but a little above 
the flow of the tide; but these beds are heavily manured, after the 
cutting of the season is closed, with fresh night soil dug in, and thus 
their fertilitj is sustained, and the unnvaled character of the Sara- 
gossa asparagus maintained. 

Bones, ground or crashed, form another powerful manure; and al- 
though but little used as yet in this country, there are some indica- 
2^,1^ tions, such as the erection of mills for crushing them, that their 
use will soon become extensive, and our farmers be saved the 
mortifying spectacle, so long witnessed here, of seeing ship loads of 
bones exported to Europe, used by farmers there, and returned to us 
in the products of the soil. Col. St. Leger of Wormswortb, was the 
first to introduce bone manuring into England in 1775; but it was 
many years before their value was fully understood; and it was only 
in connection with the turaep culture, that they came into general 
use. The manner in which bones act as manures, and their value, 
-will be best seen by a statement of their constituents. The bones of 
the oz, accordmg to Berzelius, contain in 100 parts: 

Cartilage, 33.3 

Phosphate of lime, 65.35 

Fluateof lime, 3. 

Carbonate of lime, 3.85 

Phosphate of magnesia, 3 . 05 

Soda, with a little common salt, 2.45 

The analysis of Fourcroy and Yauquelin, gives: 

Gelatine and oil, 51. 

Phosphate of lime, 37.7 

Carbonate of Ume, 10. 

Pho^bate of magnesia, 1.3 

Johnson, in his lately published work on Fertilizers, says: " Dry 
bones contain about two-thirds their weight of earthy matter, the oth- 
er third chiefly of animal matter, resembling glue. Of the earthy 
matter, Gve-sixtha consist of phosphate of lime and magnesia. A 
ton of bone dust, contains of 

Animal matter, about 746 lbs. 

Phosphate of lime, &c 1 ,245 lbs. 

Carbonate of lime, &c 249 lbs." 

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80 r^>An 

B<Miefl, tunrerer, -nxj somewhat in their conititaenta, some con- 
taining more of the earthy, and others more of the animal parts; take 
those of the calf and the elk for examples, to which the teeth of th« 
horse are added. 

FtMi^haM tt IbM. Cubooila of Urns. Animal muur. 

Calf, 64. 46. 

Elk, 90. 1. 9. 

Teeth, 86.6 16.6 

tt is efident then, that bones abound in matters capable of produ- 
cing ammonia. Dr. Dana estimates its power in this respect to be 
Um of ^^^ ^° ^ <>^ 1^ times that of cow dung, while, if the salts are 
^<"'**- regarded, 100 lbs. of bones, contain nearly 66 times as mach 
as the same quantity of cow dung. Experience proves that the pow- 
er of aiding crops, between dung and bones, is about in the propor- 
tion of the consUtuents named. It is evident that much of the value 
of bones depend on their cartilage. Boiling bones, as generally 
practiced, has but little effect in extracting the gelatine; and does not 
remove even all the fat or oil. Under high pressure, as in Papius's 
digester, the separation of the animal fiom the earthy matter is com- 
plete. The finer bones can be crushed or ground, the better or quick- 
er will their influence be felt; and boiling, by removing the exterior 
cartilage and fat, renders the crushing more perfect. It is owing to 
this cause, undoubtedly, that many of the English agriculturists pre- 
fer dry to fresh bones; as the dust made from the former, is more 
suitable for sowing or drilling with seeds, than that of the latter. 
Bone dust is the most efficient on light and dry soils. It has been 
found also very useful on licaestone soils and light loams; but on 
heavy clay or wet soils, this manure does little or no good. Bone 
dust is one of the most efficient manures on clover, particularly the 
white clover; exceeding gypsum in its effects on this planu This is 
accounted for by the fact, that white clover abounds in phosphate of 
lime; and the phosphates of bones supply it in abundance. Although 
principally employed as a manure for turneps, in consequence of their 
importance in a rotation of crops for the animals of the farm, particu- 
larly sheep, it is considered by many iarmers quite as useful, employ- 
ed as a manure for potatoes, as it is for turaeps. Bones are found to 
be more valuable, if subjected to a partial termentation before being 
applied to the crops. If mixed with five or six times tbeirweigbt of 
vegetable mold or fine rich earth, and turned over lor several times 
for a few weeks before using, the value is much increased. Since the 

Digitized by 


No. 63.J 81 

general vae of boaes has been totrodaced into England, vast quanti- 
ties are gathered and imported from all parts of the world. As an 
instance of this traffic, it may be mentioned that at Hull alone, in 
1815, 8,000 tons of bones were imported; and this amount, at tbe 
same place, had increased in 1835, to 27,500 tons. 

Guano is another manure of animal origin, which has lately been 
brought to notice. It is the excrement of sea-birds; and th* im- 
mense masses of it existing on the rocky isles of the Pacific, in 
the vicinity of Aries in Fern, are the accumulations of centu- 
ries. That, in this state, it differs from the newer excrements, can 
scarcely be questioned, as the action of the atmosphere must have 
produced many chemical changes during the lapse of years. Analy- 
sis shows it to consist chiefly of insoluble and soluble salts, chiefly 
phosphate of lime and organic matter, or salts 32 parts, and organic 
matter 68. A large portion of the organic matter is uric acid and 
sDunonia; and regarded as a manure, it may be conadered as a urate 
of ammonia. It appears as a fine brownish powder, with a strong 
marine or fishy smell, and ^ves off ammoniacal fumes when heated. 
Several ship loads of this manure have been carried to England; and 
the experiments show, what indeed the analysis would prove, that it 
is to be classed among the most efficient of manures. It has succeed- 
ed well, whether applied to grain, grasses, or to roots. There is no 
necessity of enlarging on this manure here, as it is not probable that 
it wiil ever be introduced to any extent into the United States, while 
ive have so many easily accessible sources of fertility that have as 
yet hardly been touched, among us. It may be mentioned in this 
place, that the dung of domestic fowls is one of the most valuable of 
farm manures, far exceeding in power even that of the hog or horse; and 
though not equal to guano in ammonia, probably from there not being 
as much animal food used in its production, still deserving more at- 
trition in this respect than it has received. 

All animal products, capable of putrefaction or decomposition, can 
be converted into manures; fish, (lesh, gristle, sinews, skin, horns, 
hair, wool, and indeed all animal solids or fluids are of this 
■nimai character. The man who allows his dead animals to putre- 
''"'*^' fy and waste away above ground, iftguilty of great improvi- 
dence; and converts what might be made a valuable manure into a 
decided nuisance. A dead horse, covered with earth or vegetable 
moldf mixed with a little lime or gypsum, will, when decayed and 

[Senate No. 63.J L 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

89 fSlHATB 

coDverted into manure and spread on the soil, add to the valne of 
the wheat or com grown, not enough perhaps to buy a valuble new 
one, but noi unfiequently more than the worth of the original animal. 
A more disgusting ^ght can scarcely be imagined, than to see the 
fences and trees around a farmer's yard dressed out with dead lambs 
or other defunct animals in the spring season. All such, should be 
buried at once, and thus made available in other forms. 

Of the substances named above, fish is the one most commonly used 
as a manure. In the vicinity of the sea, large quantities of &sh are 
„ . annually used in enriching the soil. This is particularly the 
case on Long Island and in Rhode Island. They are some- 
times spread broadcast on the eaith and plowed in; at other times 
deported in the hills of corn; sometimes spread over the meadows 
aAer the crop is mowed, and allowed to putrefy in the open ur. 
The stench, where the putrefaction goes on in the open air, ia intole- 
rable; and can only be endured by those whose olfactories have been 
accustomed to the nuisance. This is a most wasteful practice, and 
should long ago have been abandoned. Treated in this way, but a 
small part of the actual value of the fish is realized; and it is not to 
be wondered at, that where the methods of using this manure are bo 
different, widely different ideas of its value should be entertained. 
Fish should never be used fresh, or thrown at once upon the soil. 
The true way of preparing them as manure, is to make them into 
compost, by placing them in layers with muck, rock weed, peat, or 
even common loam, to putrefy. Where the soil is heavy or incli- 
ning to I lay, where the compost is to be used, common shore sand, 
containing as it does large quantities of particles of carbonate of 
lime, will be found useful as a composting ingredient with the fish. 
"WheD the fish are decayed or putrefied, the mass should be dug over, 
the parts thoroughly mixed, and if much ammonia or offensive gas is 
liberated, a covering ol earth should be given, and the mass be allow- 
* ed further to ferment before using. In this way, fish never fail of 
being a valuable manure. Rock wfed, eel grass, or in short any of 
those vegetable or animal matters that abound on the sea shore, may 
be advantageously used ii the preparation of these composts. 

There are many manulactories, particularly those of skins, furs and 
g^^fg^ fyf wool, where large quantities of manures of the most pow- 
Fwiioriw. erful kind are annually suffered to go to waste, though to 
a much less extent than formerly. The refuse of such ettablishmetita. 

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No. «3.] 88 

now frequentl; conndered, and jiutly aa now treated, a nuisance, 
may, by simple application to the soil, or still better by being made 
into compost, be used as the best of fertilizers. One of the best 
farmers and- most sacceasful breeders of our country was driven into 
the business of agriculture, in self defence as it were. He was an ex- 
tensive manufacturer, and the difficulty of dlspoung of the refuse and 
waste of the establishment, compelled him to purchase a farm in the 
ncinity of the city, in enriching which,these matters have been most 
successfully employed. Those farmers who formerly could not be 
induced to receive sach refuse materials as a gift, wonld now, after 
the proof they have seen of their value, be happy to purchase them 
at a liberal price. The furrier, the tanner, the morocco manufactu- 
rer, comb maker, &c. &c. are all dealing in materials of the utmost 
value, when applied to the soil aa manure; and the farmer little un- 
derstands his true interests, who, living in the vicinity of any of these, 
does not avail himself of these refuse matters to the utmost extent 

Perhaps there is no suhMance more rich in matters valuable as ma- 
nnres, than the washings and refuse of woolen factories. Cbaptal 
j^jiii^ was one of the first to call attention to thin matter, and the 
of Wool instances he gave of their fertilizing power were of the most 
convincing kind. It is but very lately, however, that any attempts 
have been made in this country to render the refuse of our factories 
available. All remember, when around every factory and every 
clothier's shop in the country, piles of refuse wool, clippings, pick- 
ings of cards, and sweepings, accumulated in masses, never thought 
ofasof value, but considered as matter of which the owners would most 
happily be quit. The method of disposing of them, when they could 
DO longer be tolerated, was to throw them into the river; to apply 
them to the garden or farm was not once thought of. Not long since, 
in one of our villages, I noticed a garden, the vegetables of which 
had a luxuriance forming a striking contrast to others near them, and 
the cause of the diiference was asked. " It is all owing to the refuse 
of that clothier's and carder's shop," was the reply. " I saw in the 
Cultivator a notice of the value of such manures, and the owner of 
the shops gladly availed himself of my offer to remove it at my own 
expense. I gave my garden a good dressing, and as this is the second 
year, you may Judge of the value of the material as a manure. It is 
probably the last I shall obt^, however," he added, " as the mill 

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owners, after seeing its effect on my garden, ate now as anxious to 
asTe this refusematterastbey were before to get rid of it." The oily 
or cweaty matter on nnwasbed wool, is a soapy substance having a 
base of potash, with an excess of oily matter, with slight traces of 
the carbonate and muriate of potash, all valoable as manures; and as 
all are easily soluble in water, such water should nerer be lost. A 
wool merchant at Mootpelier, had his washing house in the midst of 
a field, the greater part of which he had, by the use of this wash, 
with which he watered his plants, transformed into a fine gardeo. 
The experiments made by Judge Buel and by Mr. Bement, with hog's 
bristles and horn shavings, were conclusive as to the value of these 
substances for manures. In short, as ell substances of this nature 
are nearly pure gelatine, with a slight addition of the phosphates of 
lime, it is evident their decay must furnish an abundant supply of 
ammonia to plants, and therefore render them valuable as a manure. 
There is but one other manure of animal origin to which it will be 
necessary to allude in this place, and that is urine, or as it is commonly 
Lionid *^1^^<^} liquid manure. Analysis proves that this is a sub- 
Manura. stance peculiarly rich in materials required by plants, and ex- 
perience enforces the results of analysis; yet not one farmer in a thoa- ' 
sand makes an effort to convert this mine of riches to any account, 
but the whole is most generally lost to him. Dr. Dana gives the fol- 
lowing as the constituents of cattle urine, which may stand as the 
type of all others, though human urine and that of the horse differ 
from this in the chamcter and quantity of some of the salts contain- 
ed in them: 

Water, 65. 

Urea, 5. 

Bone dust, 5 . 

Sal ammoniac and muriate of potass, 16 . 

Sulphate of potash, 6 . 

Carbonate of pota^ and ammonia, 4. 

Compared with cattle dung, it will be seen thatwhile that gives only 
3 lbs. of carbonate of ammonia to 100 lbs. of dung, the urine gives 5 lbs. 
_ ^f of ammonia in its urea, and nearly three times that amount 
urina. in the other ammoniacal salts. One-third of urine is com- 
posed of salts, whose action on vegetation is of the most energetic 
and favorable kind; and yet there are thousands who call themselves 
pretty good farmers, who use all reasonable precaution to preserve 

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Mo. «3.j 86 


the solid parts of their animal manures, that bare never made an ef- 
fort to save that which is of far the greatest Talue, the liquid part. 
But it must not be foi^otten that soils must contain decayed organic 
matter or humus for these salts to act upon, otherwise liquid manure 
or pure urine can do no good. Where the wash of the barnyard 
and stables is saved, the loss of a large part of the urine is prevent- 
ed; but when, as is too often the case, this is wholly lost, not only 
is the urine thrown away, but a lai^e part of the soluble humus of 
the manure accompanies it. It is an excellent plan, therefore, to have 
some reservoir for the reception of such liquid matters as would oth- 
erwise be lost. If this cannot be done, cover the bottom of your 
yards with muck, or even common loam, as this will absorb and re- 
tain much of the urine and liquid matters of the dung. Experience 
has demonstrated that a load of loam, saturated with urine, has a 
more powerful effect on vegetation, than the same quantity of best 
rotted stable manure. Human urine is richer in salts useful to vege- 
tation than any other, containing, according to Dr. Thompson, in 
1000 parts, 421 lbs. of salts. The slightest attention on the part of 
the farmer, might prevent the loss of this; and many a load of swamp 
muck, or loam mixed witli gypsum, might, when saturated with urine, 
be added to his available manures. Liquid manures, or rather urine, 
differs much in tbe salts it contains, according as the food is rich or 
otherwise. " White turneps give a weaker urine than the Swedish, 
and green grass is worse than either," according to Dr. Dana. Tur- 
ner and Liebig found that the urine of fattening animals is richer in 
salts than that of store animals. Indeed, the law so well known with 
regard to solids, that the richer the food the more valuable the dung, 
it is probable holds good in regard to the urine also. 

Soot is a valuable manure, peculiarly rich in humus as well as salts, 
and in its composition more nearly allied to the solid substance of 
animals, than any thing else. It contains of humus or geine 
^"^ 30.70, of nitrogen 20., and of salts of lime 25.31 parts in 
100. It also abounds in salts of soda, potash and ammonia. Ac- 
cording to the analysis of Dr. Dana, 100 lbs. of soot contains as ma- 
ny of the valuable salts as a ton of cow dung, and its nitrogen, com- 
pared with that manure, is as 40 to 1. The ordinary farmer can 
make but little use of soot, as it is not to be bad in the country in 
any coDsiderable quantities; but those in the vicinity of cities may 
avail themselves of this manure with much profit. For the gardener 

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86 [StNATK 

or the floriculturist, soot is an excelloit Boatuire; but care must be ta- 
ken not to use it too freel;, as we have known tender garden plants 
at once destroyed by too liberal applications of it, particularly in a 
dry slate. Mixed with water, id the proportion of six quarts of soot 
to one hogshead of water, It has been found a most efficacious liquid 
for watering plants, particularly those grown in green houses. 

Ashes, leached or otherwise, are of great value as a fertilizer, es- 
pecially when used on soils that are sandy or light. Unleadied, the 
potash contained goes to form silicate of potash, and gives the 

^' supply of ailex necessary tor the stems of the grasses or com; 
and leached, although the potash is the greater part of it separated, 
the remaining phosphates of lime and magnesia go far to restoring to 
the fields on which such ashes are strewn, the necessary matters of 
which previous cropping has deprived them. 100 parts of the ashes of 
the wheat grain contain 32 parts of soluble, and 14 parts of inseluble 
phosphates, in all 76 parts. The value of ashes abounding in the re- 
quired phosphates, when used on grain lands, may be seen at once, 
as well as the folly of those farmers who waste or sell the ashes pro- 
duced in their dwellings. 

There is no substance, containing no animal or vegetable matter, 

which exercises a more powerful or beneficial meet than lime, in 

some one or all of its forms of carbonate, phosphate and sul- 

'' phate. In the common form in which tt is found, that of a car- 
bonate, it acts in two ways, mechanically and chemically. Being 
less porous than sand, and more so than clay, its mixture improves 
soils in which either of these prevail; while as an alkaline earth, it 
acts chemically on such animal or vegetable matters as may exist in 
the soil. Lime develops its chemical action most fully when in its 
caustic state, or when by burning, the carbonic acid has been expell- 
ed, and the lime rendered what is termed quicklime. In this state, 
it dissolves such organic matter as may exist in soils, and prepares it 
for the food of plants. Humus frequently exists in the soil in a so- 
lid and insoluble state; lime applied to this, renders it soluble in wa- 
ter, in which form it may be taken up by the roots of plants. A vast 
deal of needless controversy has been carried on respecting the value 
of lime as a manure, or the quantity which should be used per acre. 
By some, it has been extolled as the very highest on the list of effec- 
tive manures; whileothershavedecrieditasof no use whatever; and 
both have appealed to experiments as establishing their positions. A 

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No. 68.] 87 

knowledge of the nature of the action of lime, wonM have pierented 
such seeming contradictions. " Lime in excess, forms, from the hu- 
mus of the soil, an insoluble salt; and may thus, when applied to a 
■oil abounding in salts of lime, or in which ii already exists, be produc- 
tire of injury, whatever maybe the vegetable or organic matter of 
the soil. In this state of excess, lime coDverts, but at the same time 
locks up, the humus of the soil; when if applied in the right quantity, 
it would have been useful. Lime is of no value whatever as a con- 
verter, or produces no chemical effect in promoting growth, unless 
there is organic matter in the soil on which it can act. Lime is most 
efficient when used on soils full of insoluble humus, such as peaty 
matter or woody fibre, but which, from the abundance of the tannin 
principle contained, resist the ordinary processes of decomposition." 
There would seem to be no difficulty, therefore, in determiamg wheth- 
er lime can be used on any given soil to profit Indeed there are, it 
is believed, none where it would not be useful, except such as are 
already supplied with this carbonate, or those which are wholly des- 
titute of vegetable or organic matter. As a general rule, the greater 
the quantity of humus in a soil, the greater the amount of lime which 
may be applied with benefit. As long as there is a store of oi^nic 
matter in the soil, lime, if not in excess, is a valuable manure; but 
when this is exhausted, the application of lime only increases the ste- 
rility by destroying such efforts at vegetation as might in time, aid- 
ed by tight and moisture, partially remove the unproductiveness ex- 
isting. This fact may serve to explain some of the conflicting state- 
ments that have appeared in the agricultural journals of our country, 
on the use of lime. Where humus is abundant, the quantity tbitt may 
be safely used, is very greatj on soils already poor, a small portion 
speedily exhausted the remaining powers of the soil. Lime, from its 
alkaline qualities, acts in neutralizing whatever free acids ^st in 
soils, whether oxalic, phosphoric, malic, or others. It acts also in 
' decomposing some of the earthy or compound salts formed in the 
soil, and thus renders the geine held by them, available to the plant; 
but its great and most important use is in converting the insoluble or- 
ganic matters existing, into soluble ones, and thus directly furnishing 
an abundant source of nutriment. Carbonate of lime is sometimes 
used pounded or broken fine; and in this state, its mechanical value 
is great in stiff or clay soils. Such soils too, usually abound in acids; 
and these gradually acting on the lime gravel, its chemical effect is 
slowly bat benefidally apparent. 

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Marls, which ex«rt so powerful an inflneace on many soils, derive 
most of their value from the lime they contain; and with few excep- 
tions, their power as fertilizers may be measured by the per 
cent of lime shown on analyus. There are some marls, how- 
ever, which are an exception to this rule; their value appearing to 
depend on other matters than mere lime. Of thia kind is the cele- 
brated green sand marl of New-Jersey, aud some other points of the 
Atlantic coast. In tbb fonnatioo, which acts so powerfully as a ma- 
nure, there is from 6 to 10 per cent of potash; an agent, which, on 
light soils, is scarcely equaled as a manure. Jo addition to the lime 
which marl contains, the influence of the proportions of sand and clay^ 
of which the balance usually consists, must be taken into considera- 
tion in determining the value of this substance for particular soils. 
Thus, on heavy or clay lands, marls abounding in sand will be found 
preferable to those the base of which is clay; and on light or sandy 
soils, the latter will be much the most useful, the per cent of lime in 
both cases being alike. Marl should be spread over the surface, and 
pulverized by the action of air and frost before it is plowed under. 
When so treated, experience proves it is amost valuable manure, and 
a single dressing exerts an influence for many years. 

Of another salt of lime, the phosphate, notice has been taken when 
treating of hones as a manure. It will not be amiss, however, to 
state here, that when any substance is invariably found id 


any part of a plant or plants, it is right to infer that the per- 

fection of that part of the plant is impossible, unless the substance ri 
quired is within reach of the plant while growing. Thus the stems of 
the grasses abound in silex; some of them, the cane for instance, to such 
a degree as to strike fire with steel, and unless this substance, in the 
form of silicates, was presented to the plants, they would not be per- 
fect. So it is right to infer that unless soils contain the phosphates, 
or a supply is furnished for the use of plants, that the cereal grains 
could never be perfected, as the seeds of these invariably contain 
lai^e quantities of the phosphates. Phosphates are found more or 
less in all soils, and when these are deficient, bones form an abundant 
and accessible source for their supply. It is also found in considera- 
ble quantities in all animal and farm yard manures, particularly in the 
liquid part. 

Gypsum is the third principal salt of lime which exerts a powerful 
influence on plants, and is one of the most valuable of all our mine- 

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No. 63.] . 89 

ral fertilizers. Much varie^ (tf opiaion has b«en entertained re- 
Gn«Dm or 'P^'^^i'^g ^c manner in whicli it exerts its influence or pro- 

Fiaiter. duces its e&cts on plants; and tbeie opinions can scarcely 
be said to be harmonized, eren at the present time. Dav; was in- 
clined to consider it a direct food for the plant, as it is found, to some 
extent, in those plants on which it exerts the most power. Chaptal 
referred its power to its stimalating agency on plants, produced bj 
its action when dissolved in water. Liebig ascribes its value to its 
giving a fixed condition to the nitrogen or ammonia which is brought 
into the soil, and which is indispensable for the nutrition of plants. 
Daoa, to the action of the lime and acid of which the gypsum is com- 
posed, on the organic matter and silicates of the soil. He says — " It 
seems almost incredible that so minute a portion of a mineral can act 
at all; yet how beautifully is the resolt explained by the principle 
that plants decompose first this salt; the line, for plaster is a sul- 
phate of lime^ then acts on geine, which is thus rendered soluble; 
while the acid, the oil of vitriol or sulphuric acid, immediately acta 
on silicates." It seems very probable that no single one of these sup- 
positions will be found able to account in full for the action of plaster. 
That of Dr. Dana appears to approach as nearly to a solution asanyof 
them, if we extend his term silicates so as to embrace those combi- 
nations formed by the union of the acid of the gypsum with ammo- 
nia, after its separation from the lime. If the action of plaster was 
doe to its fixing ammonia alone, then it ought to be equally efficient 
at all times and places, which it certainly is not; or if it acted directly 
as nutriment, then its action would be as constant as that of rotted 
manure or compost, which fannerswell know is not the case. Plas- 
ter does not act as usefully in the vicinity of the sea, as in the inte- 
rior; and on heavy wet soils, is scarcely felt at all. Light sandy soils, 
or loamy ones, are those on which plaster acts the most sensibly; and 
clover, lucerne, potatoes, cabbages, and the leguminous plants, such 
as peas, vetches, &c., are the vegetables on which it exerts the most 
powerful influence. It is much valued as a dressing for wheat, not 
so much, perhaps, for its direct action on that plant, although that is 
not trifling, as for its effect in securing and promoting the growth of 
the clover and other grass seeds, usually, in wheat countries, sown with 
this crop. So marked is the influenoe it exerts in this respect, that 
plaster, clover, and wheat, are always assodated in the mind of the 
most successful wheat growers; and its use is the most extensive in 

fSenate No. 63.] M 

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90 [SEKATr 

the best wheat growing districts of our country. Id the minds of 
many, a senseless prejudice has existed agninst plaster, oo the grouad 
that it the more speedily exhausts the soil, and that the heavy crops 
at first obtained were the price of mined fanns. It is doubtless true 
that the man who uses plaster on his farm, who takes from his soils 
all he can get, and returns nothing to them, will soon find his soils 
worthless enough. He who intends to farm it in this way, should 
avoid plaster; but let any farmer alternate wheat and clover; hus- 
band and apply his mai^ures; feed off his clover in his fields, or to his 
stock in their stalls; let him not spare bis grass seeds in seeding, or 
his plaster in dressing, and his farm will never run down. Such men 
need not fear plaster. 

Common salt is an active and valuable manure, and has been used 
successfully as such, in all parts of the world where it can readily b« 
obtained. In England, the pickings or impure salt is used for 
this purpose; and many experiments are on record to show that 
the effect Is most marked and decisive. The following is one of a 
series of experiments instituted by Mr. Sinclair, to test the value of 
salt as a manure. The soil was light and gravelly. 

Mo. 1. Bon without uiy nuDora for lyeul. Prodnee pariera, 13 bodiali 26 lb*. 

2 Soil numnrcd with MaUg ibms to th« prerloni er<^ (polaiott,). 26 do. SQ do. 
3. BoUwilhSbinb. ofnltperaore, andiio oaiarlDuurafi)r4 tmi^ S6 do. IS do. 

/ In the opinion of Mr. Sinclair, the effect of salt as a manure was to 
lessen the produce of straw as compared with other manures, and to 
increase the weight of the grain. 

Prof. Johnston has done more than any other person to extend the 
use of salt as a manure, by giving to the world his excellent Essay on 
salt used on soils, and the mass of experiments he has recorded. It 
appears that salt in small proportions, promotes the decomposition of 
animal and vegetable substances; that it destroys vermin and kills 
weeds; that it is a direct constituent of some plants, and therefore ne< 
cessary to their perfection; that all cultivated plants of marine ori- 
gin contain it, asparagus for instance; and that all such succeed bet- 
ter when watered with salt water, than when deprived of it; thatsalt 
preserves vegetables from injury by sudden transitions in temperature, 
salted soils not freezing as readily as those to which salt has not been 
applied; and that it renders the eartb more capable of absorbing the 
moisture of the atmosphere. When salt is applied as a manure, it 
may be used in quantities from six to fifteen bushels per aore; al- 
though some have gone as high as 60 bushels. Farmers, however. 

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No. 63.] 91 

ghonld be cautious how thejr T«nture on excesuve doses, as an extra- 
vagant one could scarcely Ml of being fatal to any crop. Legrand, 
in bis experiments with salt, found that it gradually improved tbe 
crop of barley until uxteen bushels per acre vas reached, when it 
gradually diminished until the amount of forty bushels per acre was 
reached, when vegetation was destroyed. Salt combined with ma- 
nure, has proved very efficient; and in the Woburn experiments, the 
wheat so treated exceeded all others. The most favorable propor- 
tions were found to be 46 tons of dung, and five and a half bushels of 
salt per acre; tbe manure plowed in, the salt sown with the seed. 
The experiments that have been made, would seem to indicate that a 
preferable mode of using salt, in most cases, would be to sow it on 
the. land some weeks before the seed is to be put in. In this case, 
where lime exists in the soil, a chemical change takes place, at least 
partially, and muriate of lime and soda is tbe result. Such a changa 
would seem to be most favorable to vegetation. 

Salt and lime, artificially mixed as a manure, promises to be a valoa- 
ble aid to the farmer in those positions where the soil abounds with insol- 
-j^^ ublenlicates or geine, and where other manures necessary to 
.Line, produce decomposition or fermentation are not at hand. Prof. 
Johnston recommends a mixture of two parts of lime and one part of 
salt, the mixture to remain incorporated in a shady place, or covered with 
sods two or three months before using. Salt and lime should not be used 
immediately aAer mixing, as bad results are apt to ensue; but after be- 
ing well mixed in a dry state and lying as directed, it may be applied 
at the rat« of from thirty to ^zty bushels per acre, either before or 
at the time of sowing. Mixed with soot, salt acts with great power 
on roots. Mr. Sinclair mixed six and a half bushels of soot with the 
same quantity of salt, and used the mixture on lands sowed to carrots. 
The result was, that onmanured land gave twenty-three tons of roots 
per acre, and the manured yielded forty tons per acre; and Mr. Carb- 
wrigbt found that where unmanured soil gave 167 bushels of potatoes 
per acre, 30 bushels of soot and ux of salt, made it produce 240 bush- 
els per acre. Dr. Dana furnishes so beautiful an explanation of the 
manner in which this manure acts, that it deserves a place eotire: 
*' By mixing quicklime with common salt, its soda is let loose, the 
acid combines with the lime, fonaiog a soluble salt of lime, and so 
long as tbe soda remains caustic, it has no effect on tbe muriate of 
lime, but as soon as the soda becomes mild or carbonated, decompo- 

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lition of the mnriate of lime is produced, snd the comm<ai salt regen- 
erated. ComnieDciiig then vith quicktime and salt, ^re pass to a so- 
luble salt of lime and caustic soda, and from that to mild soda, and 
to carbonate of lime and the original salt. If these varions changes 
take place in the midst of peat or geine, it is evident that the cattstic 
coda acts upon the geine, and also eroWes ammonia from that sub- 
staoce; BecoDdly, that the muriate of lime, in its finely soluble state, 
insinuates itself among the particles of the geine; that the soda is also 
eqtlally diffused, and that when the soda becomes carbonated, it pro- 
duces an almost impalpable carbonate of lime throughout the whole 
mass, which, by its equal difTosion through the soil with the g^ne, 
acts upon the silicates, as has been heretofore explained''' To pro- 
duce these effects, Dr. D. directs to take one bushel of salt and two bush- 
els of lime; to make the salt mto strong brine, and with it alack the 
lime. Mix both well together, and let them remain ten days; then 
let them be well mixed with three cords of peat, shoveled well over for 
about ax weeks, when it may be used. A quantity of salt sufficient 
to destroy all vegetation, may be applied to a soil with safety when a 
few months are to elapse before the crop is to be put on; as the che- 
mical changes which take place, partially neutralize its effect during 
this time. A small quantity mixed with the soil in each hill of com, 
has been found to protect it from the wire worm and the cut worm; 
indeed there is no substance that insects of all kinds more dread than 
salt. It is probable, Uierefore, that further experiments wilt show 
ihat not the least value of salt is to be found in its preventive pro- 
perties Bgmnst these depredators. 

- Charcoal is a valuable manure, and applied directly to the soil in 
a pulverized state, produces excellent effects. It acts by rendering 
the soil more i^rmeable to atmospheric air, by absorbing and 
retaining for tixe use of plants the ammonia of the at- 
mosphere, or such as falls in showers; by rendering soils with which 
it is incorporated warmer; and by furnishing a constant supply of 
carbonic gas to growing plants. The great productiveness of what 
are called coal hearths, or those places on which charcoal has been 
burned, has long been a common remark, but this has been common- 
ly attributed to the ashes, burned earth, &c. on sach spots, rather than 
the coal. The use of coal alone, however, shows that though these 
other matters are not without their value, the great additional fertility 
of these places is mostly owing to the coal. Immense quantities (^ 

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No. 63.] 9» 

Ibis sabstance are wasted in the Tictcity of forges, furnaces, smiths* 
shops, &c. which would b« of great vslue, were farmers to collect 
such refuse or dust coa), and apply them to their farms. On heavy 
soils in Europe, it has long been customary to pare the surface, and 
bum the turf so collected, taking care to incorporate as much of the 
day soil as will consist with the ignidon of the turf. This burnt 
mass of clay and ashes is scattered over the ground, and is found to 
make a Talaable dressing on such soils. 

It is impossible to particolarize all substances that may be used as 
matiBre. tt is evideot, from the definition first given, that they would 

Q^^ embrace all animal matters withoat exception; all excremen- 
i'*"'***- tiUoos secretions of animals, and alt vegetable ingredients in 
one form or another, together with a few of the nuneral salts, such 
as the alkalies, silicates, See. Thus, oil-cake, bran, yeast, brewers' 
graioa, putrid meat, in short any substance that can be classed under 
the above diviuons of matter, may be useful as manures, and this fact 
should induce great caution in their preservation and application. 
Wliatever may be the present condition of a particle of matter, if it 
has ever formed a part of an organic body, it can a^in become such 
under drcnmstances favorable to such a condition. 

In the preceding rapid sketch of the principal substances valuable 
as manures, the best methods of preparation and use have also, to a 
considerable ext«it, bem ^ven. All then that would now seem n«- 
eeasftry for the purpose of this Essay, is a condensed view of the 
principles laid down, with such incidental topics as have been passed 
over, but of which a notice appears necessary. 

As the common farmer must always rely on stable or farmyard ma- 
Bure, as his principal means of fertilization and renovation of bis soils, 
PNtsntkm it is to these, to their preparation and use, that his atten- 

mbiema- tion most be prin<»paUy directed. It is an important 
question for him to decide, whetiter he should apply his 
1 a long state, that is, apply it fresh from his stables and 
yards before undergoing decomposition, or let it remun until the lit- 
ter and straw has fermented and become rotten, before using it. 
Some remarks on this t<^ic have been made in the preceding pageS} 
when treating of such manures, but its importance will justify their 
extension in this place. It has been said that rotted manure contuns 
mora gcine or bumna, weight for weight, than unrotted or fresh ma- 
nure. Iliis is [vobable; but to make this test decisive, equal weights 




of duDg should be taken while fresh, one analyzed at the time, and the 
othe¥ when fermented and rotted. This course, it is believed, would 
show a result in favor of the unrotted. There can be no doubt, how- 
ever, that straw, stable litter, &c. should be partially fermented be- 
fore using, and the moisture necessary for the process should, if pos- 
uhle, be the urine of the animals or the drainings of the yards. 
Straw, in dung iDtended for a particular crop, is of little use unlesa 
the fermentation has far prt^essed; and a distiaguished German lar- 
mer has asserted that he considered straw as of no consequence in 
manure, except as acting the part of a sponge to retain the fluid parts 
of the animal manures. There are some exceptions- to this remark, 
as when straw is applied to heavy clay grounds before rotting. In 
this case, when plowed under, it gives a degree of porosity to the 
soil, absorbs part of the moisture, and acts'the part of a valuable 
amender, while it is eventually converted into a manure, or a source 
of carbonic gas. Where the unfennented dung of the yard or sta- 
ble is applied to the soil, it should be covered at once by the plow, 
that the gases liberated in fermentatioD may not be lost, and that the 
moisture necessary for fermentation may be secured. Wbeo rotted 
or fermented, the covering is not of so much consequence, and it may, 
without loss, be scattered on the surface and mixed with it. If used 
without fermenting, it should be applied to hoed or summer crops, 
such as corn or roots, as these are in that state while the manure is 
at the height oi its fermentation, when forcing manures are the most 
useful; but if applied to the smaller grains, they are most active 
when matter for the perfection of the seed, not the enlargement of 
the straw, is most needod, and the last is iacreased at the expense of 
the first. Taking all these circumstances into consideration, there 
can be little question that the most economical way of makii^ 
and using manures, is to convert the stable and barnyard manare into 
compost, by the addition of peat, swamp muck, cleansing of ditches, 
wash of roads, leached ashes, or even common loam or earth, taking 
care, when the manure is wanted for heavy soils, that the earth used 
in the compost should be as light or sandy as may be; and where the 
soil is light, that the compost earth should be marly clay. Into such 
a compost heap, aU weeds, straw, litter, animal matter of all kinds, 
night soil, &c. &c., may be thrown, and upon it all the wash of the 
yards and urine of the stables may be poured; and if the animal and 
vegetable matters as they accumulate, are kept covered and moist, the 

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No. 63.] 96 

fermentation will go on successfuUj; the alkalies and salts of the ani* 
mal matters will act on the vegetable part and saturate the earths 
uaed, and the whole will be converted into manure of the most valu- 
able quality. The labor of preparing compost, it is true, is much 
Pnparation greater than merely drawingit from the yard, butthequan- 
oomiMiit. tity is so much increased, and the quality so much improv- 
ed, that it b the most economical tn the end. The only method that 
can compare with it, is to place these matters over the yard, and let 
them be composted or fermented is that place; but there will always be 
great waste in this way; and where turf or vegetable mold is used for 
composting with theanimal manure, the compost heaps can frequent- 
ly be made where they are to be used, and the labor of drawing ma- 
terials greatly lessened. Bommer's patent manure is only compost 
made in a sdentific and accurate manner, every part of the process 
BO managed as to produce a perfect fermentation, without the loss of 
any of the valuable parts of the constituents used. From a know- 
ledge of the processes employed by him, we are able to say that 
where his directions are followed, a powerful and valuable manure 
cannot fait to be produced. The fundamental principle upon which 
composts have been made, is that of impregnating the earths used in 
the process with the soluble salts and the gases, which, in the ordina- 
ry methods of rotting, are wholly or partially lost to the farmer. 
The discussions which have been carried on, aR to the propriety or 
impropriety of burying manures in the soil, have arisen from not stat- 
ing the kind of manure to be used. The solid and soluble parts of 
manures have a tendency to sink into the soil; the gases evolved in 
fermentation a tendency to rise. The true principle, then, is to bury 
the unfermented matters no deeper than is necessary to secure the 
moisture required for fermentation, while the fermented or decomposed 
doog, having no fertilizing gases to lose, may be mixed at once with 
the surface earth. Some of the greatest crops of Indian com ever 
grown in the United States, have been produced by placing a heavy 
dressing of unfermented manure on turf land, and turning it under 
with the plow. The surface is then rolled to press the sod close upon 
the manure, and afterwards harrowed, to loosen the earth for the re- 
ception of the seed^ Into each hill, a small portion of fully rotted 
manure or compost is pnt at planting. This promotes germination, 
gives the young plant a vigorous start, and by the time the roots have 

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penetrated beyond this, active fermentation has commenced in the long 
manure, and thus fertilizing matteis are funiiahed in the greatest 
abundance when most wanted by the plant. 

Of the mineral manures used, lime, aa has been already stated^ is 
the most important, and under all its forms, is ezteasively used in 
Europe and in this country. The German fanners of 
" ** ' Lancaster, Chester, and the adjoining counties of Pennsyl- 
vania, use lime more extensively than in any other part of this coun- 
try. Considerable discussion has been had at different titaes as to 
the comparative value of limes that co&taia magn«sia, or such as are 
free from it; but the value of lime as a dressing for soils, seems to be 
every where conceded in those flistiicts where it has been used. It 
appears as the result of experience, that lime produces the best e&ct 
on what are called stiff kiams,or loatasiaclining to clay, and in which 
a good proportion of decayed o^nic matter is found. It is found, 
too, that it operates more favorably on soils natural to oak and its 
Ictndred trees, such as walnut, poplar, &c. than on those where the 
beech, elm and maple cimstitute the principal timber. It is ungular 
that the richest limestone lands, as they are called from being based 
on this rock, are frequently those cm which heavy dressings of lime 
operate like a charm. If used as a top dressing, lime is usually ap- 
plied to the sod in the iall; but the practice most approved, is to lim« 
the com ground in the spring, on the inverted sod. Manure is applir 
ed to the wheat crop after lime. The quantity of lime used varies 
much. There is no doubt it has soMethncs been used in excessive 
quantities; and when used on soils nearly destitute of vegetable nut- 
ter, can produce no good effect. On a medium soil, fifty bushels per 
acre may be ctmsidered an abundant dressing; but three or four times 
that quantity is sometimies used. The best method of using lime, ia 
to take it from the kiln, unslacked, and deposit it in heaps in the 
field where it is to be used, not more than tlu^e or four bushels in a 
place; and either alack it by pouring water over it, or, which is bet- 
ter, by covering each pile with earth, and letting then slack by the 
moisture thus furnished. When suffituently fine, the earth and the 
lime are mixed by shoveling over, and the mass is then scattered over 
the land to be dressed. The soil should be well harrowed after the 
applicatiMi of lime, to incorporate it more completely with the sur- 
face earth. 

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No. 63.J 97 

It is obvious that the manuring of a farm should only b« limited hy 
the ability of the owner. On a plentiful supply of manures, is de- 
pending the fertility of his soils, the amount of his crops, 
M*™**' and consequently the extent to which his labor is reward- 
, ed. There is no expenditure on a farm, so safe as that for manure; 
and the labor required to increase it, is never labor lost; at least, if 
directetl by an ordinary share of agricultural knowledge and skill. 
Every source of supply should be made available; niothing capable of 
fertilizing should be lost. The farmer who takes from his soil more 
than he returns to it, is surely impOTerishing it; and if he escapes 
such a calamity himself, he leaves to his successors a worn out farm. 
If he returns as mtich as be receives, his farm will retain its original 
fertility only; but the true farmer will scarcely be content with this. 
To increase its fertility, and the amount and quality of the crop taken 
from the soil, shoald be the aim of the husbandman- This done, his 
labor is lessened, his profits are greater, his farm is worth more; nor 
must the pleasure arising from beautiful fields, golden harvests, fine 
animals, and accnmnlatiDg prosperity, be omitted in making up our 
estimate of the advantages of successful culture. Manure may be a 
homely subject, but on its preparation and use every thing is depend- 
ing. Without it, the deep green of our pastures, the golden yellow 
of our corn fields, and the fine beef and white loaf of our tables could 
not exist. To the farmer, manure must be the first thing, and it must 
be the last thing; with it, he can do every thing; without it, nothing. 



Here are very few individuals, whether farmers or otherwise, from 
whom expressions of admiration will not be elicited while passing or 
j^^ viewing a well managed farm. There is something in good 
Hot. husbandry that commends itself to the approval of all, as 
indicating good sense, good taste, and love of order. It indicates 
habits of correct thinking, sound moral feelings, good business habits, 
and a man in whom confidence may be placed by his fellow men. 
In addition to this, it is almost inseparably connected with thrift; and 

[Senate No. 63. | N C^ \ 

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98 [SutATB 

the man who manages bis farm well, can scarcely foil to do well id 
the world. It is true the reward of labor must in a great measure 
be dependant on circumEtances, such aa the quality of the soil or ease of 
culture, suitableness for particular crops, position in regard to markets, 
&c., but wherever the good formmanageriaplaced, improvement and 
eventual profit follow in his footsteps. The well managed farm may 
not be productive of as great profit in Missouri or Iowa, as in the vi- 
cinity of New- York or Philadelphia; but compared with those around 
it, no matter where it may be, a striking advantage will always be 
fouod in its favor. To manage a farm well, requires intellif^ence, 
forethought, an acquaintance with the various methods of agri- 
culture; well directed economy, not stinted or par^monious; and 
above all, persevering industry. It is evident, therefore, that good 
hitebandry does not come by instinct, but muat result from experi- 
ence, observation, reflection, and a knowledge of what has been done 
by others. The necessity of this knowledge, will be seen at once, 
when we remember that the inquirer after agricultural truth may' 
spend a life in experiments, and at the same time not advance a sin- 
gle step beyond the point reached by hundreds before him; whereas, 
bad he been acquainted with their labors* that point would have been 
his starting place; and his advance in that case, a decided gain. To 
point out some of the things likely to interest and aid the farmer 
who aspires to manage his farm well, will be the object of this Essay. 
The soils most suitable for farming purposes, are those in which 
sand preponderates, and which, when combined with decayed vege- 
^^^ table and animal matters, form a friable loam. Such are proper 
for most crops; are cultivated with ease,aDd kept fertile with little 
di£Sculty. Heavy soils, or those in which clay preponderates, are fre- 
quently rich and productive, particularly for wheat and clover, if the 
subsoil is of the right character, or sufficiently porous to prevent all 
stagnant water about the roots of plants. But whatever may be the 
character of the surface soil, whether light or heavy, it cannot be fit 
for the culture of crops, so long as a retentive and impenetrable sab- 
sotl prevents the escape of surface or spring water, and exposes the 
roots of the plants to the poisonous influence of water having little or 
CO motion. The first step, therefore, in the management of a farm, is 
to fit it for the production of crops. This is done, if too light, by the 
addition of clay marls, or even common clay; if too heavy or wet, by 

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No. 6S.J 99 

thorough Bubsoil draining, one of the most efficacious converters of 
soil yet devised.* On light soils, the use of the roller, combined 
with the application of manures, will usually correct the evils that 
arise from that source; but where the mechanical texture uf the earth 
allows too easy an escape of water, clayey earths must be resorted to. 
Pond mud, swamp muck, or the earth from ditches, are here particu- 
larly useful.f Experience proves that there is no soil mechanically 

• TbBboufiobJeflbottof dnlnincmajbeawlnlyatlribatod totwo thlBCi. Itmidan 
the loU poioui, and it givei to it & higlier l«inp«n(itr«. Th« opaoity of « aoil to nliin 
wsler, is miwUy depending on id CI17 and huiniu. When wUer is giveo to a toil, til th« 
pwtlole* of lli«M«ib«tuie«s become ntimted, or fiUed; and thiiii the condition of grood 
•oU. If moN wttet li added. It moat oconpy tha q>ace between theae particlu and tha 
other earthy partidei, and thm the air !■ excluded, or the mil loaea it> pormilyj ao eaaea- 
tial to fertility. Draining removea thia exceaa of water, and restore! porouanett to the 
•oil. In a aeries of eiperiinenia made by Dr. Madden, he fband that In aoila of precisely 
the auoe quality, and the aanie external tempeialure, tnit one dnuned, or in a proper state 
or moisture for vegetation, and the other filled with water, there was adifierence in tem- 
pentiveo[6| degrees in &vor of the drained soil. The experience of every brmer who 
baa tried draining, will eonflrm these experimcoits. 

For pr*cllc«l illuatration, (he writer may be permitted to refer to thelkrm of£. Mark% 
Esq., which received the flnt premium for (arms, offered by tha Onondaga A^rieultoral 
Society in 1842. A large portion of this brm waa naturally heavy teod, level, with a re- 
tentive aubeoil, and black muck lurbce. Part of it waa so awampy.that previoos to his 
taking posseoion, no attempt bad been made to cultivate it. The lint operatloo of Mr. 
U., was to thoroughly drain this wet and oaeless part of his Sum. Thi» was done by a 
skilltiUyconitniotsdnetwork of under dnlni, which have been gradually extended until 
a large portion of bis heavy soils have been drained, and with the best results, as heavy 
crops of roots, com, and wheat, are now taken f^om (hose parts where before nothing; but 
ooarM nUural grasses could be made to grow. [Sm CvUivator, Vol. viii., pagt S3.] 

t There is no more important ordeciaive charaeterof good or bad soils, than thelroa- 
paci^ to al)sorb or retain water, aa thIa in a great degree ioSuences their fertility. Tha 
following', collated bom Frof. Schublar's numeroos experiments and tablea, will show 
some of the moM important dlAerencea in the most common earths, in this respect; as 
also in thkl of retaining heat 1 

I Time required 

KnfD or XUaTH. 

Caleareou* sand, . . . . 


Oypauin powder,. - . 

Sandy clay, 

Louny clay, 

Brick, or atitr clay,. 

Pure grey clay, 

Oanfen mold, 

Arable toil, 

Slaty marl,. 



i Ingrs. 

in volume 
in lOOOpts. 

IT ab- bySOcu 
by SO ches of 1 

Wal .. 
sortied by SOfc^esof earlhat 
" iches 144° to cool to 
Df surface of 70°, the sur- 
ilry earth inlrounding tern- 
re bourii w't perahire at 61", 

groins. in hours and 

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100 [SUATS 

suited for cultivation, however heavy it may naturally be, vhichcsn- 
not be rendered fertile, by freeing it from all unnecessary moisture^ 
and of all the various processee which an improved husbaodry has in- 
troduced into the management of the farm, there is none more impor- 
tant than draining. 

An important matter in farm management is the size of the farm. 
It cannot be denied that the tendency in this country is to large farms, 
bIm of '^'^^i' ^^^^ small ones; not that large farms may not be as well 
^""^ cultivated as smaller ones, but that the present system here 
prevents the application of capital, (labor, &c) which is necessary to 
render farming profitable. The consequence is, that the labor, the 
taanures, and the seeds of the farmer, are spread over too much sur- 
foce, and the land occupied is but half tilled, manured or seeded.* 
How much land an able bodied man can properly cultivate, is a ques- 
tion rather difficult to answer- One thing, however, is certain, that 

■ It doM Dot wem to b« genenlly understood what a great atnount of produce em be 
taken Erom a few acres of weU cultinteil bud. I have selected from a iiig» number of 
imtancei now before roe, a few wkich will placetbia matter in > clear light. In nona 
of titew ca>e< wai there anrtfaing- which tnay not be equaled om an; well constituted and 
veil eultiTaled loil. David Wedgenood, Esq. of Greenland, New-Hampihlre, g«tlier«d 
Jnlfaefidlof 18^ tbe following prodocts from If acres of land.- 

2T4 bulhela of potatoes. } 86) bushels of com. 

19 " " ipplea. bi " " beans. 

6 " " green peas. g « " currants. 

4 " " red clierriel. | 4 « <i ,„jg ^p^ peaoiiea. 

The value of these product^ at the average market priecj was il20. 

Another instanse is, that of the Model Farm of Olainerin, near Dublin, Ireland, of OS 
acres. On it are beptSS head of eatUe, and3 horses. It supplies, on an average, 90 per- 
•ODS during tlie jtna, with farm produce, grain, milk, butter, vegetables, potatoes, meat, 
iMSides a number of private hmilies. A large qoantity of grain, and various vegetable* 
are carried to maHret. The manager realizes a handsome sum, afterpaying various roita, 
taxes, &c., to the amount of £400, 

In 1S37, Jonathan Jenkins of KenV Delaware, took th>m 38 acres divided into 5 Qelda, 
llie following products: 

It straw. 

290 bushels ol oats. 

150 " " winter wheat. 

in " " epring wheat. 
325 " " yeUow com, 

3fi tons of clover hay. 

13 tons of wheat and 01 
■ ■ of Irish p 

" sweet potalOM. 


I Pasture for 4cows. 

At the higii prices of thai year, fliese products were worth 1,692 dollars. This 1 
originally a very poor, light soil; but labor and manure had brought it to such a state tl 
the annual clear profit on the 38 acres, was equal to the interest on $!0,000. 

Mr. HoyI of DeerSeld, Mass., in 1833, took the foUowing produce fh>m 3J sera of lai 

Hay, 3} tons, $42 00 

Wheat, 11 basheJs, 16 50 
Clover, 1 ton, 4 00 

Cora fodder, 10 OD 

Ckim, 130 bushels, (98 00 
Potatoes, 117 " 23 40 
Apples, 60 " 7 » 

Pumpk Ins, 1 carl load, 2 00 

le of the product at the then market price it wUI be seen, was tS01.40. 


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No. 63. 101 

the most highly caltivated farms, and Uiose that yield the greatest 
profit on the capital invested, belong to those called stnall; that is, 
those ranging from forty to axty acres each. Considerable obserT»- 
tion, and an experience of some thirty years, has convinced us that 
unless under very fovoiable circumstances, thirty acres of land in cul- 
tivation will fiimish employment to one man, and one boy of an age 
sufficient to drive a team for plowing, and unless a suitable portion of 
this is in meadow and pasture, even this thirty acres will not be pro- 
perly tilled. Where sisty acres are in cultivation, two men and two 
boys, or three men, will find abundant employment; yet how often 
is the labor of three men spread over from 100 to 160 acres, and the 
result is such as might be readily anticipated. In England, it is e»- 
timated that one span of horses will do the work of 50 acres of til- 
lage land, but it must be remembered that the plow can be kept mov- 
ing there the whole year, with the exception perhaps of a month or 
two of the most severe weather — and one band, called the plowman, 
is exclusively devoted to this business. Here, with our limited time 
for the use of the plow, it is believed one team to 30 acres would 
be nearer the truth than the foreign estimate; certainly would this 
be the case where the team was used, as is generally the case in this 
country, for both the plow and the road. 

The proper divbion of farms, with reference to cultivation, is an 
important item in farm management, and a proper rotation of crops 
jffrfgfg^ is almost impossible unless attention is in the first place paid 
o( Fainu- to this point. In the remaks to be made, it will be suppos- 
ed that the farm contains one hundred acres, of which eighty are un- 
der culture, leaving twenty acres for woodland, buildings, gardens, 
&c. This eighty acres is either naturally, or has been artificially, 
brought into that condition which renders it suitable for any of the 
cultivated crops. As a general rule, it may be stated that a soil 
which will produce good wheat and clover, will be fit for any other 
crop of grain or roots, and the first thing to be done is to bring it in- 
to that condition. This course has been already explained; and this 
being done, the division into fields of proper size, by good substan- 
tial fences, must be attended to. The objection to large fields is, 
that they are not favorable to rotation; that tosmall ones is, that too 
mnch land is occupied by fences. Where the animals of a farm are 
only cattle and horses, and these kept in stalls throughout the year, 
as they are in many parts of Belgium, Francs ant) Holland, fences 

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103 [SUATE 

may be dispeoBed vith, and the only divisions those made by the 
crops themselTes. But the mixed husbandry of this country, vhich 
is found the safest for our farmers, prevents the adoption of this sys- 
tem here, and renders permanent divi^ons of farms necessary. Ten 
acres is found to make a very suitable ^ed field, and the eighty acres 
under culUvation will make eight fields of this size. If the soil is 
properly coDStttuted, any one of these lots may be made to pro- 
duce either wheat, com, barley, oats, rye, peas or roots, at the plea- 
sure of the manager or the wants of the farm. A proper rotation 
of thtse and other crops, however, is demanded of every farmer who 
would keep up the fertility of his soils, and not suffer the desire of 
present profit to lead to future exhaustion. It is much ea«er by skil- 
ful management, to keep up or add to the fertility of e soil, than to 
restore an exhausted one to productiveness. 

The necessity of a rotation of crops, appears to exist in the nature 
of plants themselves, some preferring some one of the materials or 
^^ elements of the soil, and being unable to perfect themselves 
otcropt. Tvbere this element is not present; while by others, this sub- 
stance is mostly or entirely rejected. Thusthe silicates are indispensa- 
ble to the growth of the grasses, and lime to the perfection of wheat; 
while but a minute portion of the former is required for the soft coated 
plants, and of lime but little is wanted for the production of the bul- 
bous roots. The application of manures too, in their result on crops, 
would lead to the propriety of rotation. Fresh or barn yard ma- 
nures, do not seem proper for direct application to grain crops. They 
require to have their first or fermentative action given to crops in 
which the rapid growth of the plant is of more consequence at first, 
than the perfecting of the seeds, of which nature are corn and roots.* 

• Some pluili coDtwD mora ■lote or n)trog«ii than othen, ind in Kime UiU ubilaDce 
laeoDtiiiiediiilberooti, and in othen in lb« leaili. Thui, wheU and peai ciKitaia fkr 
more uoU Umn turnapa or potatook To Increaw the ■upplj' of alarch in a plant, the 
qaantlty of azotizedmaauremii>tbeiiiei«aMd,aiull(mu9tbe preaent at the time wbeo 
moit required by the p'tnt. Rooti io general have m, large tjttea of leave*, do not eoo- 
tain a large portion of azote, and relf for flieir development mainly on a lar|;« extent of 
leaf nirjiue. .The great object to be aimed at, then. In the manuriDg of root*, it to fimuth 
the meaniof rapid growth at flnt, aaon thiithe amount of crop will be depending. Thia 
ia more the case with the tnmep and carrot than the potatoe, ai the former are not requir- 
ed to prodnce aeed, while the tatter of the polatoe la in one aenee ■ aeed, aitd conaaqoenl- 
I7 requirea azoUied material! forita perfection. On the contrary, the fpvlnaare ctddva- 
ted for their seed i and as (hia i> the moat highly aiotlied portion, Uiey require not ao much 
manure to act quickly in developing leavei, aa one that will fnmiah suppliea of aiote to 
the last, or during the formaiion of the grain. Hence it ii, that while freah manure* ar« 
Uiebeat for root*, com, be, or those plant* which have large leavea, thoroughly dacom- 
poaed onei are to be preferred for the cerealla. [Stt UaMtn M JCsMtrM.] 


No. ea.l 


For the peifection of the seeds of the small grain plants, it appears 
that manute produces the best effect whea it has had time to decom- 
pose, and the salts it contaioa opportunity for forming new combina- 
tions necessary to the new plant. Bat whatever theory may be 
adopted to explain the propriety of rotation, the existence of the ne- 
cessity will not be denied by any farmer who has paid attention to 
the effects resnlting from a snccession of the same crops on the same 
soil, or a rotation of crops. The methods and the courses of rotation 
are very rariedj but they should be made and pursued with reference 
to a definite object. If grain is the principal object, then a larger 
portion of the farm each year must be embraced in that culture; if 
cattle husbandry, then more must be added to the meadow and pas- 
ture. In the farm under supposition, grain will be the principal ob- 
ject; one-fourth part, or twenty acres, being annually in wheat, and 
the rotation will be arranged accordingly. 







Third real. 

Fourth year. 


VTbtal with Clo- 








Oat* and btrlar 





Com and rooti 


Wheat with olo- 


ObU and bulsr 
witb olover wed. 



Com brooU with 

Wheal with elo- 

Com, rooli, vllta 

Wheat irith'cio- 


The nature of this rotation will be seen at a glance. Of the eighty 
acres, twenty each year are in wheat, twenty in pasture, ten in mea- 
dow, ten in summer fallow, ten in oats and barley, and ten in corn 
and roots. The manure is given to the corn and root crop, which 
would manure every field once in eight years. Thist although better 
than is done on most farms, is not enough; and exertion should be 
made to give a heavy compost dressing to the meadow each year; or 
if deemed preferable, to the oat and barley field. It will be seen that 
to give twenty acres of wheat, ten acres of it follow the corn and root 
crop. If the com is of the right kind, planted early and tended pro- 
perly, there will be no difficulty in removing it from the ground by 
the middle of September or before, and having the wheat sown by the 

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IM rSsirAn 

SOth of the same month. In this country, the ground can rarely have 
a crop of roots taken frotn it, ahd be sown to wheat the same season 
with much prospect of success. That part of the com field, there- 
fore, occupied by roots, (potatoes, tttriieps, carrots, beets, &c) be it 
three or be it five acres, may be sown with spring wheat and grass or 
clover seeds, as the other part, so as to give the annual twenty acres 
of wheat, and not break in upon the regular course of rotation. Ten 
acres in winter and spring wheat, and ten acres in oats and barlej, 
are yearly seeded to grass. Clover is preferred fot this purpose, as 
a better renovator of the soil than almost any other plant, and fur- 
nishing more bay or pasture per acre than any other grasses do. 
There should be a mixture of white clover with the other seeds, as 
this will give a thicker bottom, and add greatly to the value of the 
pasture or the hay. In all cases where grass seeds are sown, a dress- 
ing of plaster, two bushels to the acre, must be given, soon after Ihe 
plants make their appearance. On the clover, it will act like a 
charm, giving the young plants a vigor which enables them general- 
ly to resist drouth and the effects of the first winter on the roots. 
The stock kept on the farm, will be two span of horses, four cows 
to furnish milk and butter, and one hundred sheep. Half a dozen 
good pigs are fattened annually. Sheep, on a wheat growing farm, 
are preferred to other stock, as scattering their manure more liberally 
and equally, and trampling down and cutting up with their hoofs 
* more completely that part of the clover which grows coarse, and is 
unpalatable to stock generally; thus rendering its ilecomposition more 
certain and rapid. Twenty acres of pasture will furnish a supply for 
this quantity of stock; and the hay, straw, and roots, an abandant 
supply for winter. Where the soil is clean and free from weeds, the 
summer fallow may, when the land is brought in good condition, be 
dispensed with, and some valuable crop be substituted. As this crop 
is to precede wheat, the pea will be found an excellent substi- 
tute for a fallow; the clover seed being turned over in the spring, roll- 
ed, harrowed, and the peas sown upon it. When the peas are remo- 
ved, a single plowing, well executed, will fit the ground for the re- 
ception of wheat. There are few farms, however, in which a fallow 
as a cleaner of the soil, is not required in such a rotation. 

In this course of cropping, each field is in clover one-half of the 
fjf^igj^ (,[ time; receives one dressing of manure and two dressings of 
''"^'•'S- plaster during the rotation, or indeed more of each if the 
farmer chooses, and has only one crop of each kind, wheat excepted, 


No. 68. j 196 

on it during th« eight year*.* In £ngland,the following coarse is prac- 
ticed with mucb>ac«eai,u)d with some Tariation might do wellhere. 
First year turneps; second, barlejr; third and fourth, clover; fifth, 
wheat; sixth, beans and peas; serenlbv wheat. For the turaeps and 
the beans substitutes would bsve to be provided. Com night t|ike 
the place of the first, and peas that of the last. In the wheat grow- 
ing districts of this country, the rotation of crops itf very simple. It 
is first wheat with clover seed; second, meadow or pasture; third, 
meadow or pasture plowed in July; fourth year wheat. Sometimes 
the plowing takes place one year earlier, making a wheat crop every 
third year. But this cannot be recommended, as such a course can- 
not fail to exhaust the soil, however fertile in the outset. It is well 
known that Belgium exceeds all other countries in its products on ^ 
given quantity of land. The following, from the excellent work on 
Flemish Husbandry, will show at once a favorite course of rotatiop, 
and the manner in which the Flemish farmer manures bis lands. 
This was naturally a ^S* clay losni, ^ut by cultivation and manuring 
it has been converted into a soil, firnc, mellow and brown, resembling 
the best gardoi mold: 

1. Potatoes, with twenty tons .of dung per acr^. 

2. Wheat, with three and a half tons, and fifty barrels of urine. 

3. Flax, with twelve tons of dang, fifty barrels urine, and fire cwt. 
rape [oil] cake. 

4' Clover, with twenty bushels wood ashes. 
6. Rye, with eight tons dung, fifty barrels urine. 

6. Oats, with fifty barrds urine. 

7. Bucktrheat, no manure. 

With us, -the urine so liberally and profitably used hy the Flemish 
husbandman, is mostly if not wholly lost; and though, as a stimu- 
lant, its powei;s are mostly exerted on the first crop, its effects on th? 

■ Tb* foUowing coone is B fkTOrits MM intoaeoffliebeitciiIdTBladillitiletoof Fann- 
^tnalai com, UiMi a«U, then irtiMt, lfe«B it*, Iban olOTar t>d timcitfaj. OnsoatSaU 
aad (na elorar fl«Id, Ulovad for whMt. MuiQraiiippUadlolba vbaiilinekpdplu- 
ter are alao oaed fraaly. Ilia cropa of two brmen in tba Tioinitr ot Lancutar, will Ulna, 
tnta Oiif eonnet tliefir«tl*or4Q, andthsMCoadafEOOacnt: 

No. I. 


lOWhaii,".'.'.''.!... m~ do 

OOala, 300 do 



[Scnnt* No. 63.J 

Ho. 3. 
Aana. Prodnea. 

abCora, IfSODbodida. 

flOWlieal, 1,200 do 


[SWJfr.JHIBarf BVPrf.J 


106 {Sbhatb 

toi), as an alteratiTe, are verj favorable. Hie course of crops would 
not answer here, such is the difference of our seasons; but it is be- 
lieved a profitable lesson might be derived hy the American farmer, 
from studying the Flemish system of manuring. 

It is perfectly idle for any individnal to undertake the management 
of a farm, without a proper supply of implements with which to per- 
j^^j,j^_ fonn the labor of the farm. There should not only be 
^«°'*°>*- enough of them, but they should also be of the best kind, 
for experience shows that there is a gain every way, in using only the 
best implements. It is easier for the animal, for the man; the work 
is better done, and as a necessary consequence the crops are better 
and more valuable. The number of each implement will of course 
depend on the size of the farm, and the teams and laborers employed. 
Of all agricultural implements the plow is at the head, and in none 
has such decided improvements been made within a few years, as in 
this. Much controversy has been had as to the best plow of the two 
principal kinds, the one that lays the furrow flat, or the one that lays 
it lapping on the last. This matter may be said to be wholly de- 
pending on the nature of the soil. If this is light or sandy, the fur- 
row should be laid flat; if heavy, or inclining to consolidation, the fur- 
row should be lapped; and the reasons are self-evident. On the light 
soils, there is no danger of surface vrater; and the more compact a 
sandy surface can be made by rolling, treading of animals, or other- 
wise, the better it is for the crop; while on a heavy or clay soil, it is 
directly the reverse in all things. This should be left as porous and 
light as possible; and lapping the furrows does much to accomplish 
this. In selecting plows, then, the farmer must be governed by the 
nature of h'is'soil. In only one instance is a flat furrow admissible 
on heavy land; it is when the i^rf is manured before it is turned over; 
and where a crop of com or spritig- grain with grass seeds is to imme- 
diately follow the operation. In thiis case, the turf should be laid 
flat. There are few farms on which there is not sufficient variation 
in the soil to render one or more of each of these plows necessary in 
their management. In addition to these, a subsoil plow may be 
deemed indispensable, where a thorough system of farm management 
is intended. Although not in as general use as it should be, the sub- 
soil plow is deservedly winning its way into favor with the agricul- 
tural public; and as an implement for changing the character of heavy 
dense sculs, it certainly is unrivaled. Perhaps it may he well to 

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No. 85.J 107 

place together the implemeitts required oq a farm, remarldng that the 
statemeDt will be for one team and one man, unleis the contiarj ia 
statnl. The prices are affixed, but this can only be conBidet.ed an ap- 
prozimatioD, as prices vary much with the kind and quality of th* 

1 Plow for layingflatfurrowa, 9)2 00 

1 Plow for lapping furrows, IS 00 

1 Subsoil plow, 12 00 for the farm. 

1 Cultivator, 600 « 

1 Drill barrow, 8 00 " 

1 Roller, 5 00 « 

1 Hand hoe — steel plate, 75 

1 Farm wagon with hay rack, &c 100 00 " 

1 One horse cart, with racks, &c 60 00 " 

1 Set farm harness for horses, 30 00 " 

1 Chaff or si raw-cutter, 30 00 «* 

1 Shovel and one spade, 3 00 

1 Dung fork and 1 hay fork— both steel, 3 00 

1 Double harrow, 10 00 

1 Grain cradle, 4 00 

1 Scythe and snathe, 2 00 

1 Fanning mill, 20 00 for the farm. 

1 Hand cart or wheel-barrow, from $3 to 10 00 " 

1 Mott's furnace and fixtures, 60 00 " 

We have not included a threshing machine, as it isdbubtleEs better 
to empley an ambulatory or moveable one, where they can be had, 
than to incur the expense of purchase, fixtures, &c., on an ordinary 
farm. There will also be a multitude of minor articles to be used 
about the farm, house, bam, stables, &.c., the whole of which can- 
not be estimated at a less expense than one hundred dollars. The 
expenses, therefore, of implements on a farm of 100 acres, including 
only the most common and indispensable ones, will not fall short of 
$500; and they may easily be made to exceed a much larger sum 
than this. 

Manures hare already been spoken of incidentally, but they are 
too important a part of farm management to be passed over lightly. 
The necessity of attention to manuring, is founded on prin- 
ciples too plain to require extended elucidation. There ia 
no soil, however fertile, which contains more than a given quantity 
of vegetable or animal matter in a decayed state. The pure earths 
will not support vegetable life, and every plant grown in a soil, makes 
a greater or less draft on the organic matters in the earth. The con- 

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sequence necesiiarilf is, that a cootinned course of cn^ping must 
eventually exKaust this fund of matter, and leave the land nnproduc- 
tive, a result perfectly consonant with experience. To prevent this 
result, the plants and vegetable or organic matter, taken from ttie 
■oil, or its equivalent, must be returned to it in tbe shape of manure. 
When this is done, there is no such thing as exhausting a soil, or 
rendering it unproductive. Farmers talk about lands becoming unfit 
for the production of cropa, for tvbich they Were once excellent. 
Why is this? Simply because some substance Vhicb existed in that 
soil, to but a limited extent, but which was essential to the perfection 
of the crop grown, wheat for example, had been exhausted by crop- 
ping, and therefore the grain could not be perfected. It is evident 
that if as much, or more of this substance had been returned to the 
soil in the shape of mannre than had been taken from it in the shape 
of crops, the fertility would not only have been maintained, but even 
increased. There are no farmers that manure so heavily as the Fle- 
mish ones; and there are no farms, which as a whole, approach so 
near the state of rich gardm mold as these ; and in no department 
of farm management in the United States, is there such culpable waste 
of money as is shown in our neglect of manures. It is unnecessary here 
to go into an elaborate notice of the different kinds of manures. Ex- 
cept in the immediate vicinity of cities, the farmer must rely princi- 
pally on stable and bain-yard manure; making use occasionally of 
lime, marl, gypsum, or such other articles as the soil may demand, or 
his ability permit. Of the mineral manures, gypsum or plaster is most 
used, and is certainly one of the most valuable of the whole class. 
It is therefore to the preparation and use of stable and barn-yard 
manure, that the farmer must look for bis supply of manures; and in 
thu, much of the skill of farm management consists. A much greater 
quantity of manure will be saved where animals are fed in stables, 
or soiled as this mode of feeding is called, throughout the year, than 
where they are allowed to run at large in pastures during the summer 
months, or in open yards during the winter. To increase the quan- 
tity of manure and its value, the stables, yards, pig-pens, and cow- 
bouses, &c., should be furnished with r^;ular and ample supplies of 
straw litter, as this will absorb and retain a large portion of the urine 
and fluid matters which might otherwise escape and be lost. A large 
supply of swamp muck, or peat, should be always provided to be 


No. es.] 109 

iB*de into compostB* with the stable nuuinre, night «(hI, orine, Ste., 
collected on the farm. This » done by piecing the materials in piles 
«f the requisite width and length, two parts of the muck to one of the 
tnanure, in separate layers, to the height of five or six feet^ and wa- 
tering the mass with what urine, wash of the yards, &c. can be col- 
lected. In this way the mack or peat will undergo fermentation witb 
the stable manure, end be converted into manure of the best quality. 
Tbismethod is pnctioed by many of the best fbrmers in New-England, 
«Dd with the best success. Another method of adding to the quanti- 
ty end value of manures made on the farm, is to cover the bottom of 
the yards on which the cattle and sheep of the farm are to He, with 
swamp made to the depth of IS or 16 inches. In foddering, straw 
and the litter of the stables is to be spread over this yard covering, 
to be cut up and trampled upon by the animals, and assist in ab- 

■ TbB bat pUca for ■ eompoM liMpi U the bun yard ; ind tha bat BKlarlali, iwamli 
^oek or pulanil stable manure. The mock ihoold be duf lo loDg lu to be drained be- 
ftm niing-, ud then dram uid piled iu& conTontent uunner tor d^^. 'nis heap maf 
b« Bade by a Ujti ot muck of the t«Qiiiil(a ItBgfb ud widtfa, and liz iocha io thioknew) 
tben tea Ineliei of liable maaare, then lii looha of mudi, then five of dung, then aix 
mot* of muck, and another layer of nuuiure, and lo on until the pile ii iiboat four feet In 
iMlCht To every tweoty loadl of mannre, Itiianexcellent plan toaddaloadofaihwi 
■■d a lajat of mndk ihooId alvayi cover tbe heap. In the faimeatation which eniuea ia 
pw heap, care mnit Iw takm that the heat doe* not riae too high ; l^om 100" to 120° li 
about right. The high temperature force* the gennlnalion of all teeda in the manure, and 
Oim daatioy* them. The heap ahould have the urine of the ttabiM thrown upon It, or flia 
wMhof theysTd*,orli«erabbIidi in tool mler maybe uaed. In making tfaecooipoat 
bev, layer* of *trair, weeds,iu:. may Iw mixed with the other material*, and aid In tb* 

In Sprengcl'a late wuk on UamiN*, Qm fbUowing ii gi*aa aa a pi«patat]on for eom- 
poat, Omt hat in Q«imany l>Mn MeuMd by patoit : 

Twaoly lneliaafMiawdimg,or«l**«lTtt«,dryla«v«i,we«da^ potato* ttamt, turf, mutlc, 
«cmaii. Thi* ia to be welled with dsDrw^er, ot with oommon water, andofreVred with 
nVil loil) ponllci' dung, alteet aweeping*, polTwiaad bDoea, o&l, hitehen alOM &«• 

One-fonrth of an inch of coal or wood aiha. 

Hree ineha of good earth mold or marl. 

Eighteen inche* of hor*e, iheep, or cattle dung. The heap ii again wet with dung or 
eommoo water, and dien covered with a l^er of pond mud, ditch icnpioga, noM or 

One-fourth ofan inch ofeoal or wood aihaj and thenaaaeoadeonneofttrawjdnnK, 
MtitM. mold or niai'l, hotie, *heep, or eitlta dung, with a Snal covering ofmnd, muck or 
■Mri. Ftom two to ttiree wedi* ia •nniiner, and (Hnn four to ali weeks in winter are r«- 
qoiied !<»' tlie fumnrfatioa. If osany paitof themaialbalHat !a loo great. It It again 
eovered with earth or mud, and wetted with water. If any part does not ftnaent, holM 
are made, Uiat the air >nay t^ach these parte. When tlie maas ii properly fermented, and 
As -*i*— "— decomposed, it is welt wet with water, worked over, put up In heaps from 
•Ix to eight fketliigh,aiidaoTeMd with rich eailh ten or twelve incha thick. AAarHand- 
1^ a bw days, 11 Ia carried to the fialdi and hamwad fat with tha gtaim 

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Borbiog what urine and fluid animal matterg may fall upon it. Such 
muck spread in the fall, will be found in the spring, when wanted for 
the corn lands, an efficient manure. Figs are the very best manufac- 
turers of manure if they are only furnished with meana. The pig 
yard should have its supply of muck for them to root in and work 
over, and into which a liberal supply of weeds, pea-straw, or indeed 
any vegetable matter may be cast with profit. The pens should b« 
kept clean, and the matters scattered over the yards. If Ibey do not 
incline to work for a living, sprinkle some dry corn or peas over the 
muck, and they will soon manifest symptoms of industry, and the 
habit once acquired is not easily lost. 

In regard to the application of manures to soils, a few simple prin- 
ciples, well considered, will furnish the best guide. Ist. The ma- 
nures should be placed m that position where they can 
most effectually contribute to the nourishment of the 
plant. 2d. They should be placed where their decomposition, (if 
used in the fresh or long slate,) can be completed with the least 
waste of nutritive matter. To effect what is indicated in the first 
principle named, the manure must be in the immediate vicinity, or 
in contact with the seeds. For this purpose, as seeds are deposited 
near the surface, the manures should be so applied, and deep covei^ 
ing must be considered unsuitable; or if thoroughly decomposed, lit- 
tle is lost, if no covering at all is given.* To effect the last object 
named, no fresh or long manures, should be used without covering. 
All fermenting manures give off more or less valuable matters in the 
shape of gases, which, when they are covered with earth, are re- 

• Th« effect or the reliti*« vaJoa «r wvend kindi of toamret for Ihe poutoe crop, im 
vaiT ireU ihown in th« fallowing •xpOTiment EMd« tij Tonng. Muwrei Uwt affbnl tb* 
mottnitrofeD, aMilMmoitnMnili hanee tbow mbmuidiof liiuiimki prodoot*, u« np«- 
rlcH' to olhen : 

S<id <tf Mamtrt. QaantUy and ptr aert. PnOuc* in bMJMIt. 


^^ '^^^. "'°'.": \ 32 cubic yardi, . . 

Urine and soap >iuli, equal ) 

qiiantltlea, { 

Buley Kniw, 


S cubic yards, j 

Salt, IflOpoami,.... j 

Daott, 32 cubic yanli, ) 

Lime, leObiuhels,.... j 

Dong, S2 cubic janli, [ 

tlrini^ 480aaUai^....i 

, Google 

No. 63.J 111 

Uined for the ase of plants, but if not covered, are dissipated and 
lost to the farmer. A little attCDtion to the question of the coadi- 
tion of the maoares lued, might have prevented many of those con- 
troveisies that have ariaea on the point whether manures are the 
most effective covered or merely spread on the surface. Manure, 
fully fermented and rotted, gives off no gases; and as the humut it 
contains is soluble, if mixed vrith the earth containing the seeds, or 
if only spread on the surface, tbcy are sure to receive the whole 
benefit of its application. On the other hand, if the manure is ap- 
plied uafermented and uncovered, a certain loss of nutritive matter 
ensues to the farmer. The fact then seems to be, that fully rotted 
manure ma; be covered or not, at the pleasure of the user; while 
the unrotted should always be covered; but no manure deeply. 

All soils intended for seeds, should be mellow, deep and fine, be- 
Pnpaiotion of ^*'^* **"* seeds are sown or planted. They should be 
EoUiforSMd*. mellow, that the roots of the plants, as well as the 
yonng shoots, may penetrate them readily; they should be deep that 
the roots may have ample range for pasture and for security against 
drouth; they must be fine, as the power of absorption and conduct- 
ing moisture ia mainly depending on this circumstance. In addition 
to these, they must be rich; that is, they must contain an abundant 
supply of matter for the formation of the new plant. All wet soils 
are cold and heavy. Draining will make them warm, light or fria- 
ble, and the plow then will make them mellow and deep. It is be- 
lieved more injury results to the farmer from an excess of water in 
bis soils, than from all other causes combined. On such, manures 
are comparatively inert; and cultivation only renders them more dead 
and unfertile. Draining is the first, and the great step in the pre- 
paration of the soil for crops; this done, all the rest is simple and 
easy. Od the plow, the former justly relies for the preparation of 
his soil for crops, and it can scarcely be used too effectively, never 
if the soil is in that condition which alone can justify the expecta- 
tion of first rate crops. The use of the plow makes the soil mellow 
and fine, and if well managed, will give a depth sufficient for the 
growth of most cultivated plants. If farmers were generally sensi- 
ble how much of their success was depending on the preparation of 
their soils, on the plowing, cleaning, manuring, &c. there would 
not be so many failures, and the quantity and quality of our harvests 
would be materially changed for the bettsr. When the soil has been 

, Google 

Woc^t into the conditioD described^ ih«t is, wheB it U made deep, 
fine, dean and rich, the cultiTation becomeB much more eas;, &• lest 
labor with the plow will be required to fit it for crops, than prcTioiu 
to such preparation would have been indispensable. A sbgle plowing 
of such lands, invertiDg a tarf or clover lay, followed by the roller 
and harrow, will make a better bed for the reception of most seeds, 
than repeated plowings of ordinary lands, and ensure a better crop. 
It should always be renieiiibered, that if the earthy constitnents of 
a soil — the sand, clay, lime, &c., are present in their proper pro- 
portions, :t is scarcely possible to make it too rieb for the perfec- 
tion of grainB; but where this proportion does not exist, excessiT* 
manuring will generally be tonnd to give abundanee of straw, with 
little or inferior grain. 

Much, it is beliered, is gained by the former, ui the management 
of the farm, by paying particular attention to his seeds, and their 

preparation for germination. Good perfect seed, is as ne- 
pnpa(«uoa cessary for the production of a healthy perfect plant, as in 

a good conditioned, well formed animal fortbe production 
of good stock. The substance of the seed forms the first food of th« 
young plant, and if this is vitiated or defective in quantity or qiiality, 
its influence will assuredly be visible in the plant produced. Maoj 
of the diseases of plants may be prevented by preparation of the 
seed* Thus smut, which is one of the frequent causes of injury to 
wheat, is effectually prevented by a thorough washing in brine, and 
drying in new or caustic lime.' The attack of the wire worm, 
birds, &c., on com newly planted, is in a great measure checked by 
rolling the seed in tar, and drying it with plaster or lime. There«r« 

• There ia, mnrti (o Iha iiagne* and lorn of our brtaeit, Urge qoanUCiai of mnltr 
wheat aniHiBllr prodoced in tfali toualij. HoOdng it eidarthiu to prevent ttil^ and 
wheie proper preeaottona, in the prapMaUcn of teed are ntad, umt ii naknown. im 
•iperimeDt recorOed in Iha "Annata of Agricnltnrc," iD»de with Ttrj neoaj wbetf 
fare the foUowing reaulla: 

No. 1, >own dry, no prepuation, had on the piece of gmaad,,.,. 377 amnttr eara. 

2, waafaed wdl in eloui water, plot MBMaiie, 3S6 " 

3, " id lime water, " " 43 " 

4, " inalfeof wobdaHtiei " " 31 « 

5, " In a wine of nit and anenlc, " 28 " 

6, Bte^iedlii lima water 4 hcaua " IS " 

7, " inl7e4hoDn, " 3 " 

8, " inarBanie4hMaa, ■' 1 » 

9, " in lime water 12 boora " 6 « 

JO, •• InlyeUhoiira, •• " 

11, " Jn anenic 12 houn, •< 4 - 

la, " in lima watw 34 bowa, '< " 

13, •< inlreS4boun, " " 

14, " ittWM^oMhmm, " B " 

, Google 

No. 63. J 113 

frequently great failures and complaints in regard to the germination 
of beet, carrot, and onion seeds, which may be prevented by soaking in 
TRter and garden mold, of a proper temperature, untilthe germination 
has commenced, and then sowing or planting them in the usual man- 
ner. One thing, however, must be remembered, and that is, if seeds 
once brought to this condition, are afterwards thoroughly dried, 
whether in the ground or otherwise, a failure must be expected. A 
spoonful of common salt strewed around a hill of corn, a few inches 
distance from the plants, will protect it from the cut worm, as it also 
will cabbi^es and other garden plants attacked by them. The tur- 
nep fly is the most formidable enemy the root grower has to encoun- 
ter; but all trouble from this source is avoided, if the seed previous 
to sowing is fully steeped in train or blubber oil. These are only a 
few of the instances in which much benefit is gained by attention to 
the seed; to the experienced cultivator, many other instances will 
readily suggest themselves. In the after culture of crops, much, in- 
deed it may be said every thing, is depending on their being kept 
clean or free from weeds. Every thing growing, not belonging to 
the crop under cultivation at the time, however valuable it may be in 
another place or at another time, is a weed, and muat be treated as 
such. Where cultivated crops are grown for a particular use, a mix- 
ture of seeds is sometimes admissible; as when peas and oats are 
sown for fodder; but where perfection in a plant is expected, there 
should be nothing to lessen its hold on the soil, or detract from its 
nourishment. The value of any grain is much enhanced by its being 
free from admixture with any other; and the man who allows what 
are commonly called weeds, to grow in his com, root or grain fields, 
cannot be said to have practiced the first and simplest elements of 
agricultural success. 

One of the most vital, yet most common examples of mismanage- 
ment on the part of farmers, is to be found in their selections of stock 
Cboieeof ^°^ *■"" piloses and for rearing. If there is one truth 
^*°^* more self-evident than another, it is that the best breeds 
and the best animals always pay beat on the farm, and that the at- 
tention of the farmer should be directed to such in stocking his farm. 
The difiecence, in coming to maturity, in weight, in ease of fattening, 
and in other respects, is so much in favor of the improved breeds, 
that the fanner may be said to exhibit a culpable neglect who does 

[Senate No. 63.J P 


114 [SSHATB 

not, BS apportanity offers, iDtroduce sucl) upoo bis farm.* Ther« it 
■mother rule of much importance in the stock management of the 
farmer, and that is, never to keep more animals of any kind upon it 
than can be kept veil; for although it is a great error to suppose, as 
tome do, that there is more in the keeping of animals than in the 
breed or any thing else, still much of the value and consequent profit 
does depend on the keeping and treatment they receive. It may not 
be pos^ble to avoid occasional casualties in the management of stock, 
but it is certainly a very bad sign when a farmer carries a wagon load 
of hides to the tanner in the spring, or has a large lot of pulled voolt 
gathered from sheep that became defunct in consequence of starvation. 
All animals require less food during our vrinters, and vill maintain a 
better condition, if kept in warm, dry, ventilated stables or yards, 
where tbey are protected from the cold and storm, than when exposed 
to the changes and vicissitudes of the weather. Diseased animals 
should always be separated from the sound ones, as there are many 
diseases destructive to the stock of the farmer, that are decidedly con- 
tagions. This is particularly the case with sheep; and good ma- 
nagement requires that flodcs should be frequently examined, to 
insure the health of the whole. It is not enough that animals should 
have plenty of good food. They should have access to salt at all 
times; hor8es*should once a week have a handful of ashes with their 

• In Ml my li the gteK ImproTCtncnl in *"*»"' -j bj attentloa lo breeding, mora coo- 
elotivelf ihown, than In the 2.Tenge idnuee in weight, daring the lut 40 or 50 jetit. 
nM Tccordi of the Smifiifleld nurket in London, put (hii nuSw beyond a donbt, giTing 
Aa foUowlng reraU for k teriei of ytm : 

FwB-. AvragtnM^iftaUU. Avm-agtittlt/aiffikMf milmmtt. 

1810, as (bme, «lb«. 2«iaiM, Oibe. 

1830, 39 « 9" 3 " 8" 

18«, 46 " 12"...; 6 " 6" 

In Dm United Stmlo, Itae wlniice hu mt perhape been quite u decided ; butthe A)Uow- 

ing italement bj C. E. Norton, £■]. which bai i.ppe«red in the eKricultiml popen^ will 

Aow we we not In fliie raqiect, tu behind. They are (nnairibed ttom ta old reeonlt 

andRew-EDKlaodMnhunlibmenrxwb- The Mkinttli were UUed in Nor. 1790: 

AaimaL WHiM. 

Hatch ox, aeiilba. 

do rMTlinK heifer, . . 
do 2 year old heifer. 

, Google 

No. «S0 11& 

proTeader, and if bept in stables, a fev carrota or apples three or 
four times ■ week; hogs require charcoal, rotten wood, or other simi- 
lar matters, occasionally; and the sheep grower will find a great 
adTantage in frequ^tly spreading orer the bottom of the troughs 
from which his sheep take their salt, a little tar, and sprinkling the 
salt upon it. It must be remembered that domesticated animals are 
not in the state of nature, aod require a treatment in some respects 
founded on their state of subjection. 

Where a farm is subjected to a regular course of rotation, the for- 
mation of pasture and meadow land follows as part of the system, 
Hradow and ^''^ "** difficulty IB experienced. But there are many 
P"*»"- farms in the country, where, from the nature of the soil, 
or from location, rotation is not deemed proper, and more attention is 
given to grazing than to grain. In such, the mans^^emeot or occa- 
rional renovation of meadow and pasture land, becomes an object ctf 
much consequence, as every former is aware that in a course of years 
the cultivated and valuable grasses ttre apt to run out, and have their 
places occupied by the more hardy, but coarser indigenous and com- 
paratively useless grasses. In all such cases, re-seeding the land with 
the cultivated grasses becomes necessary; and several ways have 
been recommended for doing this without going through a series of 
cropping. One of these is to sow the requisite quantity of the de- 
sired grass seeds over the deteriorated turf, and then with a sharp 
toothed heavy harrow, incorporate the seed with the soil by repeatedly 
pasdng over it. In this case, if a dressing of Sue manure is added, 
the seeds will be found to spring more freely, and occupy the ground 
more quickly. Another method is to turn over the turf in the spring, 
lay it smooth, apply a dressing of manure, and plant It to com. 
This crop is cultivated without hilling; at the time of the last hoe- 
ing, the grass seeds are sown over the com, and covered with 
the hoe, care being taken to leave the ground as level as posa- 
ble. The seeds spring up, and protected by the com from the sun, 
get such root that they rarely suffer when the com is removed in the 
fall. This method has been very successful on light lands, or such 
as were subject to drouth, and on which spring sown grass-seed is 
liable to suffer from this cause. A third method is, to turn over the 
defective meadow or pasture in the fall. In the spring give a dress- 
ing of manure, and sow to spring wheat, oats, or barley, as the cha- 
racter of the soil may indicate as most suitable. On these the grass 


J ^ 

116 fSsHATB 

seeds are to be sown, and ligttly harrowed in. This method fre- 
quently^ succeeds admirably. There is another mode of: lenovating 
pastures or meadows, which has of late been introduced into some 
parts of New-England, and it is said with great success. In this 
way the land is plowed, or the surface iuverted in August or Septem- 
ber, the soil made fine by harrowing, and the grass seeds are then 
sown alone, or without any crop. If the land is much exhausted, or 
poor, a dressing of compost manure harrowed in with the seeds, is 
found very useful. The young plants generally stand the winter 
well, and the next season shows a fine growth of the valuable grasses. 
Where soils are so situated that they cannot well be plowed, the 
first method may be used with great advantage, but where the turf 
can be inverted, it will be found advisable to do it in all cases, as the 
roots of the coarse grasses decomposed will furnish nutriment for the 
new ones, even where no manure or compost is added. There can 
be little doubt of the propriety of taking a crop of some kind at the 
time of re-seeding, certainly if a dressing of manure is given. It is 
very certain, however, that a crop without manure, will only still 
further exhaust the soil; while re-seeding without cropping adds the 
decomposed roots of the grasses already in the soil to its elements of 
fertility; consequently in already impoverished soils, seeding without 
cropping may be advisable. The practice of fall feeding meadows, 
so commonly pursued by our farmers, b a most injurious one, if the 
feeding is as close as it usually is. It is necessary for the perfection 
of the roots of all the grasses, and consequently for their durability, 
that leaves should be permitted to exist in full vigor at some time, 
and as the first ones formed are each year cot by the scythe, it ap- 
pears rational that the succeeding ones should perform their functions 
undisturbed. In addition to this, if the second growth is left, it 
forms a good protection for the roots during the winter, and in its 
decay furnishes precisely the material the future growth and vigor 
of the plant requires. 

No farm can be well and successfully managed, that is destitute of 
good fence; and there are few ugnsless equivocal than that of farmer's 
„^^ fences. Of fence there many kinds, such as Virginia or worm 
fence, stone wall, post and rail fence, post and board fence, turf 
wall, hedge fence, &c. Of these kinds the stone wall, wherever suita- 
ble materials are to be had, is decidedly thp best. It occupies as 
little ground as any, and is the most permanent. The worm or rail 

, Google 

No. 68.] 117 

fence is most common, and the worst of al]. Id its constrnction 
there is a great waste of timber; it decays earl;, and it renders tise- 
less for culture no small part of a fann. In a farm of 100 acres 
fenced into suitable ^ed fields by worm fence, from one-fifteenth to 
one-twentietb of the whole is occupied by them. Besides, the cor- 
ners not being reached by the plow, are nurseries 'for weeds and 
Termin. Hedges have not proved very successful in our climate, 
particularly when made of plants used for that purpose in other 
couDtrie<<. With our own we may hereafter succeed belter. A fence, 
the posts of which are heart locust wood or red cedar, with pine 
boards, will last for many years, and in value and durability be next 
to stone.* Turf walls, on moist or clay lands, have in many instan- 
ces proved excellent and -durable structures, but on rich ox loamy 
soils, the turf does not acquire sufficient firmness to resist animals. 
But whatever may be the kind of fence, it must be kept in repair, or . 
mach of the labor spent on the farm will be lost. Unruly animals, 
broken down fences, destroyed crops and quarrelsome neighbors 
usually go together; good management of the farm avoids them all. 
A very important thing on a farm is its woodland, and particularly is 
this the case in this and the other northern states, where it must be exten- 
^„^_ sively relied upon for fuel. There has been great, not to say 
'"'^ criminal negligence, on the part of the land-holders and farmers 

* Few arc ainiTeadbecoitordlvidingiEuiii Into luitabl* liMd fleldi. So great hu 
Ob beeoma ilreadr, iniomBpartiof our nmntry, from OieMucltyofniatcrUb •ndcori 
of procnrlnE tbeni,tlut tlw nacoaUj of adoptliicm mode of huibaidrr which iholldi*- 
penaa with fiBnoei, wanu impenUTa. Id Belgioin or li^UMCi wbere ttiare ua no fencei, 
■U uitnuls, not token cue of bj thepbenl*, &.O., are aoiled, or kept up the whole rear. 
neaoatofdUhrentklatliorfanaei, in ordinary tuei, hu been ettlHtfled m toUowi; 

XSikI tfFtna. CoH ftr Sod. 

Worm, oreommoQ railfenoe, • SO 79 

Whiteeeilar fence, {HMtaDilrBlIa,! 
& rails higb, thi«eleoKthB to 2 [-Coft of aetting and making not inoluded, 91 

^lite pine rails, 2 inches Ire I 

cheeliiut poiU, 4 null high, 

lenrtbi to 2 t(ws> 

Four and a half feet itODe wall, fiY)m (I to •2.60 per rod, 1 76 

Hedge fanca, Tirginla thoma. Si to a rod at 4 years old, coat par rod, 40 

Itt Ike Addretiof atr. Blddle, befbre the Philadelphia AKricnltural Society, in 1842, are 
aome ttatemenls and ealeuladoni that place this matter in ■ forcible lig'hL He sayihe has 
heard of a £irm surroimded by a cedar fence, which woald actually sell at auction for more 
fh.n the fhmi,ilaelf; and another brmer assured him that the fencing of bis brm of 300 
aerat cost bin (C,000. Mr. B. estinutas the cost of fencing the improred lands of Penn- 
iylTOnia, at not less than (100,000,000; and as much of it will not last more than from ten 
to ftfteen yean, the annual tax on the Stale, for fences alone, is from five to eight millioiu 

, Google 

118 [Sbuts 

in thb matter. 14'ot content with clearing ot its timber more land 
than they could pos^bly cultivate, they have gone on to destroy and 
vaste in a manner which has already left many districts of our 
country almost bare of wood for fencing or for fueL It seems to 
have been forgotten that a tree does not spring np lilce a mushroom, 
but is the work of a centaryj and while little pains have been taken 
to preserre and plant, the ax has plied its work of destruction in- 
cessantly. On every farm of 100 acres, from 15 to 80 acres of 
land should be kept in wood. This will not be more than sufficient 
for ordinary building purposes, for fences, and for fuel; and it will 
leave for cultivation, jar more land on every farm, than is asually 
cultivated well. Many seem to think that when they reserve a piece 
of woodland, if the timber is spared, all is done that is required, 
but it is not so. The timber should be cot with system, and 
not at random. The land should be kept fenced, and all animals 
excluded, or the young growth of timber, on which every thing is 
depending, is destroyed. Too many of our formers allow theirwood- 
lands to be fed, and though some profit may be derived ham this 
source, and their woods cleared, yet there is a serious loss in the 
end. Oak and chestnut lands are not so much injured by cattle and 
sheep, as maple, elm, beech and basswood lands, yet all suffer more 
or less. Ten acres kept fenced, will produce in a given number of 
years, at least one third more timber than the unfenced, and the last 
must eventually be destroyed. This is as certain as it is that con- 
tinual cropping and no manuring will exhaust fertility in any soil. 
But it is not enough that a regular piece of woodland should 
be reserved. There is scarcely a farm or fiild, on or around 
which large numbers of trees may not be advantageously grown. 
Planting trees should be the yearly bu^ess of the farmer, not 
fruit trees merely, but forest trees; and the man who neglects 
to do this, neglects one of the simplest elements of success. Every 
vacancy in his wood lot should be kept filled; the roadsides planted 
with trees, and clumps or scattering trees in his pastures or fields 
will add far more to the beauty and value of the farm, than they 
will detract from the crops cultivated. All trees may be transplanted 
with success, if sufficient care is taken during the operation, and if 
the soil into which the tree is removed, is in a proper condition to 
receive it. It is ooly necessary to remove so much of the earth with 
the i'oots, that the finer fibres shall not have their hold on the soil 

, Google 

No. 63. J 119 

brolcoi, or the rootlets dried by exposure to the air. That fanner 
baa an opportunity for profitable employmect, who has on his farm 
a single suitable spot not yet occupied by a tree. 

The garden must not be orerlooked in this brief outline of farm 
B^j^ management. The farm garden, well iQanaged, contributes 
more than any other part to the comfort of the family, and 
in no Email degree to the profits of the 'nbole. The garden should 
be the miniature of a well conducted farm, as the latter is or should 
be but an extended garden. In it should be found all things suitable 
or necsssary for cultivatioD, and all arranged and kept with the 
greatest neatness. That farmer labors to little profit, either on his 
fiirm 01 in his garden, who allows the weeds to perfect their seeds 
before he commences their extirpation. One hour, while weeds are 
young, will do more for cleaning the land, than a day after the seeds 
are matured. A garden requires a great depth of soil, freedom from 
all mrface or stagnant water, great richness, and perfect exemption 
from weeds. On soils so conditioned, labor will not be expended in 

There are very few farms on which the dairy or the making of 
batter and cheese, does not come in for a considerable share of the 
labor and the profits. A good cow will produce during the 
season, at least twenty dollars in butter or cheese, or both. 
Great neatness is required in every department of the dairy, from the 
milking of the cows to the sending the products to market. A large 
portion of the butter sent to our markets is of an inferior quality. 
This must be oning to the making, as there are no finer or sweeter 
pastures than those of this country. Milk houses should be so situ- 
ated as to preserve, as far as possible, the proper temperature; and 
above all, should be kept free from all matters which aSbrd unplea- 
sant odors. They should never be connected with the kitchen, as 
they usually are, as the fumes from the cookery will certainly affect 
the quality of the cream. In working the buttermilk from the but- 
ter, the hand should never be used. It will convert a part of the 
butter to oil, and small as this part may be, its bad influence will per- 
vade the whole. The great secret of making first rate butter, may 
be comprised in few words. Perfect neatness in every part; churn- 
ing the cream while sweety u^ng salt of the best quality, and not be- 
iag too liberal of that; never allowing the hand to come in contact 
with the butter; completely freeing the butter from the buttermilk; 



130 [Sehatk 

pacldng in cIom sweet Tessels, (those of stone are the best,) and Bto- 
ling in a place where the ur is cool and pure. 

This paper will be closed with a few remarlcs on farm bnildings. 
That there is a sad neglect of attention to this matter, is evident to 
^^ all. Our farm buildings are too often large, inconvenient, 
B"ii<lin«»' and unfavorably located. No attention is paid to the por- 
tion of the farm; the great object seems to be to get as near the road aa 
possible. Our farmers seem to have something of the feeling that ac- 
tuated the English stage-driver, who, when dying, requested to be bu- 
ried as near the road aa possible that he might have the satisfaction 
of hearing the carriages pass. The general situation of the farm, the 
ease of working it, the moving of the crops and manures, ready ac- 
cess to water, good ground for yards and buildings, and a healthy 
lipot, should all be considered when fixing on a location for farm 
buildings. How often do we see farm houses fixed in the edge of a 
swamp, or at a distance from water, simply because the road happen- 
ed to pass at that pointj thus endangering health and incuning con- 
stant inconvenience to gratify an idle whim. In building, utility 
should always, as far as possible, be combined with good appearance, 
and when a correct taste governs, this is easily done; but convenience 
must never be sacrificed to show. Whatever is built, let it be done 
well. Slightness and cheapness are the two last things to be con- 
sulted in farm buildings; firmness and durability are the essential 

In managing a farm well, there must be economy, there must be 
labor. The head must be intelligent and the bands active. The 
master's eye and the master's influence, must be every where, that all 
' may move harmoniously, and the de«red results be certainly produ- 
ced. No more work should be laid out, than can be done well and 
in time. No more land must be cultivated than can be so manured 
as to preclude the possibility of its growing poorer. The farmer 
must labor, but there is no necessity of his being a slave; and he 
should never for a moment foi^et that honest industry, whatever nay 
be its nature, is, and always will be, honorable. 

, Google 




FiovREfl 1, 2y 3, represent the farm house — fig. 1, the elevation, 
partaking of the Italian style — fig. 3, the ground plan, and fig. 3, 
plan of the second floor. A form nearly square is given to the build- 
ing, for the sake of economy, reqairing fht less external covering for 
the space enclosed; at the same time the outline is somewhat broken, 
to prevent heaviness and monotony of expression. About half is sur- 
rounded with a veranda, under which lathing and plastering may 

take the place of clapboards, and thus save expense. The whole 
building may be considered as composed of two parts or wings, ex- 
tending from front to back, the ridge of their roofs also in the same 
direction, connected by a center building with the roof at right an- 
gles to the two former. The two wings are chiefly occupied bs par- 
lor and family room in front, and kitchen and nursery back; and the 
center part as a library, (for books, minerals, maps, astronomicali dia- 
grams, &.C-) lighted by a sky-light in the roof, through a circular 
opening, surrounded by a railing, in the second floor. This opening 
[SenateNo. 63.] Q 

y Google 

123 fSsMATB 

win admit of thorough veatilation of the adjacent nwms below, if de- 
sired, or it may be closed by a sash of glass, the light softened by a 
translucent rarnish. The kitchen is lighted with one very broad 

Oimmd Flu— m. »-«o«ll«, abant 90 IMt I 

window. A. A. are chimneys, and admit of open Greplaces for the 
parlor, nursery, kitchen and family room. If a hot air furnace is 
need, by placing it under the center of the library, the heated air may 
be eauly conducted to all the rooms above. The nursery entry 
opens on the large veranda, enabling children to take fresh air in all 
weathers. A back entrance to the parlor may be easily made from 

Floor— Fig. t. 

the same entry if wished. The bed-room adjoining the nunery, is 
covered with a lower roof, separate from the rest of the roof, and cor- 
responds with the roof of the porch. 
The eaves are dfeet above the second floor; and 4 feet additional 

Digitized by 


No. 63.] 123 

rise in the roof, gives ample height for the upper rooms, which ma; 
be six in number, and allow sufficient space for closets. 

The dairy abould occupy the coolest part of the cellar, and be en- 
tirely separated from other parts by walls. The best and cheapest 
material for the floor, is a coating of two inches of watei Itme mortar. 

The size of this house will appear too large to many, but it is not 
larger than the houses of a large portion of our farmers, after piecing 
and patching; costs much less, and appears far better. It is much ea- 
uer to pass from one room to another on the same level, than to pass 
a flight of stairs; hence the aim has been to have as many of those in 
common use on the same floor. This also contributes to economy in 
erection — as calculation will readily show. A one story house, 10 
feet high and 40 feet square, will enclose 1600 feet of floor; a two 
Btory house, 28^ feet square and 20 feet high, will also enclose 1600 
feet; but the latter will require 650 feet more of siding, which will 
cost more, with painting, than the addition in shingling the former. 

A careful and liberal estimate, made from full bills of cost of seve- 
ral houses actually erected by the writer, places the cost of this build- 
ing, if made plain and of wood, at about $1^00, at the average price 
of materials, teaming, labor, &c., in central and western New- York. 
This cheapness is owing principally to the cottage form, compact ar- 
rangement, and the diminution of siding and paint under the veranda. 

Elsialioa oT iba Fumcrr— Fii- 4. 

Figure 4, is an elevation of the farmery, and fig. 6 is a plan of the 
farmery, house, and adjacent grounds. The farm buildings form near- 
ly a hollow square, the bam in the center of the further range. In 
fig. 5, the bam cellar only is shown, being on a level with the stables 
on each side. The further part is for roots, and is fill- 
ed through two windows with hopper-like troughs, in- 
to which the cart is dumped. The nearer part is for 
straw, to he used for cutting and for littering. From 
the intermediate space, passages 4 feet wide run in 
front of the stables on either side, for feeding. Fig- 6, 

shows the upper floor of the barn; A. unthreshed grain; R. com crib; 

y Google 

124 [Sbhatk 

C. granary, the bin for oata with an opening below for feeding horses ; 
this opening closed by a sliding board. A door opens from each 
of the last, to facilitate loading of wagons from them in the yard 





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Plu of FunwTTi HaiiM and Oniuida—FIi. •—Salt aboat « ftet to 1 iiuta. 

below; the bay for straw extends upwards as high as the top of 
the granary, over which a flpor is placed for holding unthreahed 
grain abore. The dotted lines show the wagon way for entering 

Digitized by 


No. 63.^ 126 

and passing from the barn Boot, This way should be wide enough 
on one side to place the horse power of a threshing machine. 
A band may extend from this horse power through a bole in the 
floor, and drive the straw-cutter, root-slicer, &c, below. The 
hay for horses and cows, is kept in the loft over the stables, from 
which it is conveniently thrown down into the passage in front of the 
animals. E. shed for sheep, with raclcs at right angles to the pas- 
sage R. from which they are filled with bay thrown down from abovej 
«, sheep yard; F. pinery;/, pig yard; G. room for boiling roots; I, 
poultry house; P. passage ^m manure yard o. to back part of farm. 
K. K. calf bouse; L. work shop; M. houee for plown, barrows, horse 
rakes, rollers, &c.; N. w^;on shed. H. house for keeping store 
wood during seasoning, wood seasoned two or three years being 
much better than for a shorter period; and a rough boarded out-build- 
ing, being also cheaper thut a well finished painted one in contact 
with the house. The manure yard o. should be about two feet be- 
low the sarrounding building, to which the cleanings of the stables 
are to be taken daily in a large boxed wbeel-barrow, and straw and 
marsh muck supplied as needed. The yard should he well supplied 
with water as convenience may dictate. Tentillators, made of square 
board tubes, should be placed over the stables and run up through 
the roof. 

This plan may be changed, without altering the general arrange- 
ment, so as to contain more or less grain, more or less hay, stable 
room, &c. according to drcumstances. The hollow square affords 
shelter to the yard from wind, an important consideration for our cli- 
mate. The extent and expense of the buildings, are not greater than 
are often seen, when convenience of arrangement is entirely set aside; 
and the labor of preparing food and feeding animals, double what it 
should be. The wings, sheds, poultry yard, garden, &c. may be re- 
versed, according to aspect and exposure to winds. 



First is the ground plan of all the buildings proposed, (Figure 
1.) Entering by the porch at the extreme left of the diagram, we 
find a ball lighted from the west, with a flight of stairs leading to 
three good sized chambers. A door at the right, opening upon asnug 

, Google 

126 [Sbrati 

library or parlor, or busioeBs room; immediately before the entrance 
we opeo upon the sitting room — the dining room — in short, the fa- 
mily room, the farmer's tine qua ?um. To the left, are passages to 



i I 

rq- -- 

^N r 

OiaBDd Plan of >11 th« BiiMinit.— Fit, 1- 

the library or parlor again, to closet and through back entry lo bed 
room. Before opens the way to kitchen. Passing out of the kitch- 
en to the left, we enter upon the porch, running the length of kitchen 
and dwelling; following on to the right, and turning to left, we enter 

Digitized by 


No. 63. J 127 

a spacious wood house. Through this we reach the door to kettle 
room, (the eye must follow the plan as well as expose,) and the pota- 
to cellar, with a little slide window. Ascendiug (steps are marked 
on chart,) to the farther end from thai on which we entered, we find 
ourselves on a rude veranda, formed by the projecting eaves of the 
poultry house and granary; along this, doors open upon hens, eggs, 
and grain; while on the other side, below you by three or four feet, 
are the pigs again. The cutting room claims attention next. It sure- 
ly is not far to carry fodder to horses z.r-d oxen on either side, and it is 
lighted by good sized window over top of sty, which, by the way, is 
a leanto attached to barn. Upon the barn floor is a trap-door, and 
above it a slight tackle; the trap-door opens upon a mammoth cel- 
lar for roots, and the tackle brings them to the mouths of hearty 
beeves. But on, by gang-way to extreme end of barn, we pass stalls 
on left, and bay to the right, under edge of which is an opening to 
the rack in the open cellar below, to throw fodder to the young stock. 
Passing down a step or two at end of gang-way and through large 
shed, we come upon another gang-way, (built to walk on,) on one 

Bars, oDI Bdildingi, and part oT DbItt 'mai Ihe HMt,— I^f ■ 3. 

side of which is a rack under an open shed, on the other a bay. 
Passing up a step or two at the end, is a door to shearing room; above 
it a lathed and plastered wool room, (and I should have remarked, that 
over the kettle room is a grand large workshop.) Out at the front 
of this temple of fleeces, and we are on the ground again, and with a 
glance at some well built sheds, whose outline is on the plan, for 
tools, carts and et cetera. Look at my picture of them, (fig. 2.) bam 
and all, from where you stand. 

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128 [SXSATK 

Passing along asmoolh gravelled way by dairy and kitchen, and all^ 
see again a view of the house in perspective, (fig. 3.) 

Vi«v of HoUM rrom Ihe (oathirul.— F<g. a. 

The laying out of the grounds is here, (fig. 4.) 

Plan of BiiUdiaiiKadOraiiDdi.— Fit.4. 

A worn as to specifications and estimates. The first, further than 
I have given by my outlines, I consider useless, as each one's need 
will suggest deviations from any rule laid down. All that is essen- 

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No. 63.] 129 

tial to the unit; of the plan is the preBervatioD of correct proportionE. 
The eye of taste will guide in this matter; the eye without taste^ will 
never see the lack of preciuon. Let those wishing fuller specifica- 
tions, first reaolve the dilemma. 

The estimate could be made, but how should it be madel For brick, 
stone^ wood, stuccoed, plain or ornamented! Shall it be made in view 
of the superinteodeDce of an intelligent proprietor, saving, by a thou- 
sand-means, what to the indifferent would swell the outlay by thou- 
sands) $2,500 would finish the buildings enumerated cheaply, — 
$3,500, well, — and $5,500, elegantly. Nearer than this, in view of 
contingencies, it is impossible to come. 

The style of building will admit of much more cheapness, con- 
ustent with beauty, than an ordinary farm-house; and it will admit of an 
omateness, in the hands of taste and wealth, to please the most lavish. 
The poor man may cover the chestnut of the frame, taken from his own 
grove, with plain boards, well battoned; within, he may lath and plaster, 
cheap as lime and sand. The wealthy may hang black oaken wain- 
ficotirga, wrought into the rich forms of Gothic wildne^s — arching his 
polished jambs — crowning his doors with vine leaves; without, he may 
have hewn stone labels, and elegantly cut tracery, and oriel windows 
of many colored glass, with all the et ceteraa that blend so glori- 
ously in the old abbeys (I have seen their portraits,) of olden time. 

The advantages of the plan laid down are, first, that the bouse and 
yard are effectually protected from cold winds by the out-buildings; 
and there is a most gracious shelter from northeasters about the kitch- 
en door. Secondly, every cool breeze of summer has full pby upon 
the east, west and south of dwelling. The effluvia and noise, and of- 
fensive sights of barnyard, are effectually shut off from the house, 
though near enough for every convenience. The maid may empty 
her pail of swill, (I like the Saxon,) without wetting a stray lock or 
a dainty slipper. The farmer, too, in sickness or in storm, may see 
tu the health and provisions of every animal, without encountering 
the weather. The woodhonse is in grateful contiguity with the kitch- 
en; the piggery, with potatoes and kettle; the shop overhead takes 
advantage of the chimney for a winter day's work. The poultry 
yard is near the piggery, the cattle yard, the granary, and (best of 
all) the cook; the granary is convenient to the pigs, the poultry, the 
horse and the cattle. 

[Senate No. 63.1 ^ 


130 [SXHATK 

A word in anticipating objection!. * The honse is too neaj the 
noiK and effluvia of the barnyard.' I plead guilty in a measare; but 
on reference to the plan, it will be seen that the woodhouse and shop, 
and lane, intervene, and prevent all unpleasant connection. Again, 
■ummer winds blow in general, (in this climate,] from the dwelling, 
carrying in opposite direction disagreeable effluvia. But after all, 
the farmer who is ashamed of his cattle yard, or its odorv, had best set 
his house from them, a goodly distsuce indeed! ' But (he bnildingi 
are too closely united, a fire would prove disastrous.' True, but get 
insured, and keep intured. Industry will pay for (he policy. 



Qkhtleken — I submit for your conuderation'the accompanying 
design of a genteel Farm House, of moderate pretensions and cost. 
It is gratifying that this subject is at last receiving that attention, in 
part at least, which ita importance demands. 

In past years, the idea of a farmer's dwelling with any pretensioni 
to taste, carried with it, to his mind, extravagance and rnin; and this 
false notion was often fostered by the mechanic, who while able to 
put bis work tt^etber in a substantial manner, yet never had an idea 

Digitized by 


No. 63.J 131 

of deugD other tban what his father and Other's father practiced is 
days of yore. 

Frlnalfal atoi—rif. 

The result of this has been, in very many cases, that our affluent 
and intelligent agriculturist inhabits one of those " shingle palaces" 
80 inconvenient in their internal arrangement and so absurd in their 
appearance — the just object of ridicule. Many, very many of our 
beautiful landscapes are marred and deformed by these tooodm toem 
on the foir face of nature. And these uncouth edifices were gene- 
rally erected at double the cost of a more beautiful and convenient 

Another prevalent absurdity is the choice of materialj for even in 
districts where good stone or brick are abundant, how often is the 
glaring wUte clapboard substituted therefor, than which nothing can 
be worse as regards taste or economy. A radical change la the ru- 
ral architecture of our country is "a consummation devoutly to be 

Chuibu floor— Flf. 

This design is for a house 28 by 30 leet; first story 81 feet high; 
chamber story 7t feet high, with a wii^. The principal floor of 
main building is about 3 feet above that of wing. The dairy rooms 
I would place in the basement of main bouse, occupying all the area 
■nder the parlor and sitting room. For butter making, this is alto- 

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I Sf.k«i e 

gelber preferable to having the dairy rooms above ground, being 
cooler and less liable to sudden changes in temperature. For this I 
have the judgment of some of our best Orange county butter ma- 
kers. A small private cellar nniler the library, and another under 
the vestibule is intended- The root cellar I would construct under 
the wing. The passage way in the wing may be used as an eating 
hall, except in very cold weather. The door A. (fig. 3,) opens upon 
the stair which descends into the dairy rooms and cellars adjoining. 
Door B. opens upon the landing, from which four or five steps con- 
duct to the main floor. Door C. opens upon stairs leading to sleep- 
ing apartments of the farm servants, and door D. to^tairs descend- 
to vegetable cellar. A door on the landing of principal str.irs will 
connect with attic of wing. If the small room marked offict^ is used 
for that purpose, it would be proper to have a door opening from it 
into passage way in wing. 

The roof of the main 
building, I would recom- 
mend to be of tin or zinc, 
for many reasons; shin- 
gles however maybe used, 
(except in the gutter at 
the eave,) where they are 
much cheaper or more 
abundant. The roof of this building it will be seen, projects pretty 
boldly about 2 feet over the line of the exterior w«ll. This not only 
secures a good, dry, and well sheltered house, but it gives the dwelling 
at once something of a superior air. 
This constraction of the roof will be 
easily understood by mechanics, as it is 
formed by employing rafters of sufii- 
cient length to project 20 or 22 inches 
over the face of the wall B. These 
may be ceiled on the under side, so as 
to show the slope of the rafter, (fig. 
4.) or the finish may be made to show 
a flat ceiling under the projection, as 
in fig. 5. In either case the appear- 
ance of support is increased by adding plain brackets (C.) about 1 
by 5 inches and nearly as deep as the projection of the roof. 

BKIlon of ViniuUh.-Fil. « 

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No. 63.J 133 

The roof of the vt'atg should project rather less, aod IS or 14 inch, 
es will be sufficient, and the brackets may he omitted here. The 
gutter, it will be perceived, is formed at the edge of the roof, and 
in this, tiD or zinc had better be used. To carry out this building 
properly, working plans, details, and a full specification might be 
necessary, which can be furnished upon application. The estimated 
cost of this building is $2,000 in Orange county, either of stone or 
brick, probably a little less of wood. In other places it would be 
more or less, according to the price of materials. 

BlsntlonofFkim BalMia|t-Fli. T, 




D i I 

. J . _ I . 

Gramd Ftan of FWin BniMlnci— ri(. 1. 
A. A. — Horse stable, with hay and oat loft above and wagon house 
in front. 

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B. — Open shed with fowl houu over it. 

C. — Shed for calves with small yard (D.) attached. 

E. E. — Ha; houses, with accommodatioD for cattle underneath. 

F.— Barn, 60 feet by 35 feet. 

O. — Piggery, with enclosure, (H.) with ^llery above opening 
from granary, by which the feed may be distnbuted. 

I. — ^Receptacle for farming implements, with granary and work shop 
above, also having accommodation for boiling hog feed. 


-L i---ln 







CULTIVATE ^^'. vi,. 
GBOUNDS. ^P: ' .-- 


/» »: 


PluaTBiiiUiniiwd emudB-nt.9. 

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No. 6S.] 136 

The number of windows in front of barn may seem strange to 
those who hare not reflected upon the subject, but I am persuaded 
that ventilation in buildings, containing large masses of grain in the 
straw and hay, is of the first importance. In all these windows I 
would have coarse fixed blinds. It also adds materially to the looks 
of the building. 

, Google 



Jahes S. Waimwostu, Esq. j 

Preaidmt of the JV. Y. 5. Agricultural Society : 

Sir— The Corresponding Secretary of the New-York State Agri- 
cultural Society, would respectfully report: 

That in pursuance of the directions of the Executiye Board, he has 
followed up a similar course of inquiry to that instituted by him the 
preceding year, for the purpose of collecting agricultural information 
of value to the farmers of our State. 

Communications have been addressed by him to agriculturists, emi- 
nent for experience and Bkillg in this and other countries, to collect 
such information; and in our own State particularly, a strenuous ef- 
fort has been made to obtain a detailed view of the systems of hus- 
bandry practiced in the different sections of its extended territory. 
To ascertain the defects and advantages of those systems, with the 
view of correcting the former by a more general diffusion of a know- 
ledge of the latter, and by other means, is one of the first objects of 
this Society. The first step to so desirable an end has been but mea- 
surably secured, owing to the failure of those addressed, to prepare 
the necessary answers. Amidst the cares and perplexities of a pencil 
of unexampled pecuniary disaster and agricultural depression, it is Dot 
perhaps singular that a want of leisure and a want of spirit should 
unite to interrupt the execution of such a task; but surely there is do 
' time when the husbandman is more imperiously called upon to make 
diligent efforts to cheapen and render more available every process of 
tillage — to add to the value of his products and animals — in a word^ 
to adopt correct, safe and econc.mical systems, than when the prices 
he receives for his products are lowest. And he, who, from his supe- 
rior experience, more extended observation, scientific acquirements, 
or skill in tracing effects to causes, is competent to point out the steps 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

No. 63.] 137 

to such trnproTements, sboald never refuse to impart the knowledge 
of them to those who are less fortunate or less sagacious. 

The undersigned cannot withhold the expression of his deep disap- 
pointment that the promised aid of many of our most skilful agricul- 
turists has not been received. From utizens of other states and cooD' 
tries, snch aid would be r^;arded as a generous expres»on of comity; 
but when the farmers of our own State are called upon by a Society 
whose gratuitous labors ere exclusiTely for their own benefit — not to 
unlock their purses, but simply to communicate the results of their 
observation and experience — they are not, in the judgment of the nn- 
' dersigned, at liberty to regard their compliance in the light of a fa- 
vor, which may be granted or withheld. Considerations of comity 
merely, are merged in those of philanthropy and duty. In addition 
to the bene&ts which now spring from those more or less complete 
Burvejrs of our i^cnltuie, there is little doubt that they will be re- 
ferred to in after times, by those wishing to trace the early history and 
the progress of our agriculture. And it is pleasant to believe that 
when the substitution of higher and improved systems of husbandry 
aliall enable our country to sustain the dense population which will 
one day inhabit it, our posterity will revert with gratitude to the la- 
bors end efforts of those who were the pioneers in those improve- 
ments. When the power of the official, the glitter and influence of 
mere talent, shall have long since been forgotten, he will be honora- 
bly remembered who has labored to confer substantial and tangible 
benefits on his fellow men. 

Reports have been received, and are hereunto annexed, in relation 
to the agriculture of Cayuga, Cbaatauque, Chemung, Cortland, Qene- 
see, Oneida, Onondaga, Queens, Richmond, Seneca, Washington and 
Westchester counties, all of which will be found valuable, and some 
of them models of what such reports should consist of. 

Communications have also been received from various other States, 
abounding in valuable facts and suggestions. Those deugned for 
publication will be found hereunto appended. 

During the past year, communications in answer to those of the 
undersigned, have been received from England, Ireland, Scotland, 
France and South America, expressing that interest in our efforts 
which animates the leading and philanthropic agriculturists of all na- 
tions, in every effort to elevate their common calling. These com- 
mtmicaUons, tboogb not deugned for publication, have in several in. 

[Senate No. 630 ^ Digitized byGoOglC 

138 [Sbhatk 

stuicei contained prombes of subtequent cODtribulions on importftat 
agricultural topics. Among these, a p^iper on the agricnltore of 
France, from a highly distinguished source, has been one of the most 
anxiously looked for. The undersigned has delayed his annual re- 
port to the latest proper moment, in the hope of being able to for- 
ward with it, documents of so much value. In this, howeverj he bat 
been unfortunately disi^ipointed. 

The undersigned has also made an effort tbrot^h the American 
Minister to Sp^n^ to obtain some knowledge of the agriculture of 
that unfortunate country, as well as of the sister kingdom, Portugal. 
Desolated by war and ravaged by intestine commoUon, as they bare 
been for the last half a centnry, little is perhaps to be learned from 
them in relation to improved processes of cultivation; but in one im- 
portant department of husbandry, and one of essential importance to 
our own country, i. e. wool growing, both have been for ages con- 
ipi^uous. It is a question of importance to some sections of our 
country whether the hardy fine wooled sheep of Spain are yet to be 
found in their purity, and can be obtained for importation in thor 
native country. The time should, and it is to be hoped will soon 
come, when the boundless prairies of our western States, instead of 
affording subsistence alone to their present wild denizens, will sustain 
myriads of these useful animals; supplying our own markets and those 
of the world with their valuable product. The adoption of the shep- 
betd system will render this perfectly feasibte. The Spanish shep- 
herd, feeding and protecting bis chaise on the bleak h^hts, and amid 
the wild fastnesses of the Pyrenees, the Cantabrians, the Sierra Mo- 
rena, and the Sierra Nevada, shows that this department of hosbandry 
can be profitably conducted under far more disadvantageous circunt- 

The undersigned regrets to say, that owing to the diffically expe- 
rienced in obtaining the address of the eminent Gennan agriculta- 
rists whose fame has reached this country, communications could not 
be addressed to them in time to obtain answers prior to bis presmt 
report. It was therefore left for the corresponding officer of the en- 
suing year. Many portions of Oermany, and particularly Belgium, 
afford fields of agricultural exploration, second in interest only to that 
of England, oar mother country, and while the systems and practi- 
ces of the latter are daily placed before us in agricultural publica- 
tionSf those of tbe former are comparatively unheard of and unknown. 

Digitized by 


No. 63.] 139 

As has already been stated to the Societj, the ondersigiied has ad- 
dressed commanicatioDS to sources supposed to be the proper ones, in 
South America and the West India Islands in lelatioo to the cultiva- 
tion and acclimation of certain plants, the successful culture of which 
would be a great deuderatum to this and other States. His inquiries 
hare sot reached their destinatioD, or have failed, except in asolitar; 
instance, to secure the attention of those to whom they were directed; 
as, with the exception stated, no replies have been received to them* 
Respectfully submitted. 

Cor. Stc>j/ of t/u A*, r. S. Ag. Society. 



Ix answer to yout first interrogatory, the condition of agriculture 
in Cayuga county, I would say, that it is improving in the northern 

section of the county, by amore careful system of plowing and fitting 
the ground for crops, also by laying under drains and otherwise re- 
claiming the low swails. Wheat is our staple crop, although much 

corn, oats and potatoes are raised. In fallowing' our ground, three 
plowioga are had, with dragging between plowiogs. We marlcet our 
produce on the canal at Jordan and Weedsport. Our horses and 
cattle are not much improved. We have some good Devonshire bulls. 
This breed have proved good, as their stock is hardy, though rather 
small. We have lately got a bull from the Fatroon's stock, bred by 
Mr. Prentice of Albany; and his calves are very good. How they 
will hold out is yet to be determined. We use the Cayuga county 

flow, improved by David Rockwell, which I think the best one in use. 
have tried nearly all the plows in use between Albany and Rochester. 
I use a harrow made in Rochester by a Mr. Huntly, which is a very good 
article. It is a double drag rather than a harrow. The drags generally 
are the doable square ones, which are very common every where. 
Land is worth from (30 to $30 per acre in this county. Our timber 
is beech, maple, bass-wood, white-wood, elm, and such other timber 
as usually grows up with these. To make our agriculture profitable, 
a smaller nimiber of acres ought to be occupied oy each farmer, and 
better manured, plowed deeper, and a great deal more draining done. 
The soil is a loam, based generally on a claj^ey bottom and hardpan; 
the soil about 12 inches above the sub-soil, and the clay or hardpan 
aboat 3 or 4 feet below the surface. It is a fine soil for either wheat, 
com, grass, oats, or any of the ordinary crops raised in this part of 
the country. 
I cannot say which is the best breed of cattle, nor what is the best 

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140 [SB5ATS 

method of rai»ng them. I have raised a great many cattle on mj 
farm, but not with that care and attention that others have, having 
turned my attention principally to raising grain for 38 years in the 
town where I now live. I have generally summer fallowed my 
ground, but have raised some wheat after barley, and that is the case 
with most of our farmers in the north part of the county. The south 
part used formerly to raise large quantities of wheat, but havenot of late 
raised as much. For information in relation to the south part of the 
county, I would refer you to Humphrey Howland, Esq. near Aurora. 
In feeding hogs, I have used potftoes boiled with barley and apples 
to good advantage; and in fatening cattle I have used com ground in the 
cob. Our principal grasses are clover and timothy. Our rotation 
of crops is wheat from sward ground, corn after wheat, then sowed 
to barley or oats, then the land suffered to lay one year, and then sow 
to wheat and seed down. I have raised wheat every other year on two 
pieces of land on my farm for 24 years. I sow clover and timothy seed 
each spring after my wheat is sown, about 8 lbs. to the acre, and put 
on some stable manure. On one piece of 60 acres I have grown wheat 
as stated above, and used no stable manure. I use some lime, ashes 
and plaster on com ground. Equal parts put in the hill when plant- 
ing, about a gill in each hill, and the second hoeing put on about the 
same quantity. I have sowed lime on my meadows, but not enough 
to test the utility of it. I have also sowed it on my wheat in ue 
spring. Our principal manure is from our straw and bara-yard ma- 
nure, which in my opinion is best. Our most profitable roots are 
potatoes. The worm or fly talces our mta baga and beets. They 
have destroyed 21 acres of roots for me this season, which I had to 

ftut to bucli-wheat, which I call a sorry crop on our valuable wheat 
ands. I will give my opinion as to the quantity of the wheat crop, 
in our part of the county this season: it is about i short of whnt we 
expected. On the Ist of July it appeared considerably shrunk; corn 
backward and rather thin; perhaps not more than 1 of a crop. Oats 
are fine, barley pretty good, potatoes excellent, and grass an ordinary 
crop. Our farmers are seeding this fall about their usual quantity of 
ground, but it is badly prepared, on account of the wet season. Not 
more than one-half is now sown, and the ground is uncommonly wet. 
As to wintering cattle, I would say that I Lave found it decidedly 
best to stable them. For some years I have stabled all my cattle, 
from 35 to 50 head, by tying them up at night, giving them hay, and 
putting them in the yard to straw stacks in the day time. I think I 
save a vast deal of fodder, and my cattle winter well. My sheep I 
put in a large yard, with good shelter, made for them by putting up 
posts and long poles on them, and rails for a roof, and covering them 
with straw. I have troughs made with boards nailed together, to feed 
oats, potatoes, or other roots in, and I let them go to water when they 
wish. I like the Merino, crossed with South Downs, belter than any 
I have seen. But little butter and cheese are made for market in 
the north part of this county. 

Our swine are the Berkshire mixed with the Leicestershire; and 
those we have in our vicunity area good breed of hogs. 

Digitized by 


No. 63.] 



Chautauque couDty lies OD the SOU tfaero shore of Lake Erie, bound* 
iog on the lake about forty miles; it is bounded on the east by the 
county of Cattaraugus, extending from the lake to the State of Penn- 
sylvania, a distance of near forty miles. 

The whole county was, when in a state of nature, covered with 
a heavy and dense growth of timber. That part of the land bor- 
dering on the lake was first settled, it being oetter adapted to the 
culture of grain than the southern portion. There is a ridge passing 
through this county, nearly parallel with the shore of the lake, at 
an average distance of some five miles from the water, and at an ele- 
Tation of from five to eight hundred feet above the surface of the 
lake. The great leading road from the eastern to the western States, 
passes through this section of our county, at about equal distance 
from the foot of the ridge and the lake shore. Along this main road, 
the land is good, and well adapted to the raising of wheat, corn, 
oats and flax; and it being the first settled part of the county, con- 
siderable attention has recently been manifested by the farmers In the 
improvement of the advantages so bountifully bestowed upon them 
by nature. Yet even in this section, it must be admitted that our 
fanners are much behind some other portions of the State, where the 
natural advantages, quality of soil and climate are far inferior. 

The timber in thU section was originally chestnut, oak, maple, 
beech, hemlock, and almost every variety, with the exception of pine. 
Black walnut and butternut were to be found on all the streams and 
valleys. The soil is generally a gravel and loam, extremely easy to 
till, and produces abundant crops of grain, particularly corn. Wheat 
does well, and perhaps may continue to, unless over cropping shall 
be pushed too far. This soil is well adapted to the culture of clover; 
and I have no doubt but the introduction of the system of rotation 
of crops, and the use of clover as a manure, will be attended with 
the best results here. Those who have tried it, are entirely satisfied 
to continue the process, and consider it a great Improvement. 

The high lands of this county are different from those described 
above. The timber on them is generally beech and maple; the cli- 
mate more frosty, and in the winter generally more subject to snow. 
The soil is rich, but rather wet, consequently well adapted to grass 
and the growth of stock, butter and cheese, &c. 

The southern tier of towns in this county, bordering on Pennsyl- 
vania, are timbered with pine to some extent, and the soil mote loamy 
than the middle section. 

The products generally of Chautanque county, and on which the 
agriculturist depends for profit, are cattle, horses, sheep, wool, but- 
ter and cheese, and in the north part in some measure, pork, grain 
and fruit. There is, perhaps, no portion of the State, or even of 
the United States, vh«re cattle, horses and sheep, are more healthy 

, Google 

143 fSEMATB 

and do better, than In this county. Although much remains to be 
done to improve the breeds, yet many of our best herdsmen ure al- 
ready doing much towards an object so much called for. The Dur- 
ham cattle for beef, and the Derons for work, are the most approved 
here, and a cross of those breeds with nur native cows, has been 
found to produce the best of stock. The stock of sheep has been 
much improved within the last few years, by the introduction of the 
South Downs; a cross of that breed with our native ews produces the 
best and most profitable kind of sheep for our climate. In relation 
to horscii, there is no kind of stock so much neglected, or in which 
improvement is more called for in this county. I hope the time may 
he not far distant, when this subject shall receive that attention its 
merits demand. 

In relation to the feeding and fattening of cattle, the usual practice 
is to let them run in the common pastures in summer, and ailer the 
winter commences, stable them and feed on roots and com ground 
with the cob, which is, in my opinion, the most pio&table way of 
feeding com to all kinds of stock, except swine. 

The high lands of this county (or the beech and maple land,) are 
Tery natural to grass; and white clover will appear in all places as 
soon as the land is cleared. The land is rich, and I believe would 
produce good crops of winter wheat, if the farmer could pursue 
some course of cultivation that would prevent the destruction of the 
wheat by the frost of winter. This seems to be the only obstacle in 
the way; the first crop after the land is cleared, is generally abundant, 
but after the land has been plowed, the crop of winter wheat is ex- 
tremely hazardous. 

Fruit trees are generally good and productive in this county, par- 
ticularly in the north part. Near the take the peach may be found 
in abundance, but not on the high lends of the southern section. 
There is not much attention bestowed on the cultivation of fruit as a 
source of profit. The blight in pear trees is becoming general, and 
in all probability will continue. 



The county of Chaatauque consists mostly of high land, except the 
tier of towns bordering on Lake Erie, which consist of a rather dry, 
gravelly soil — very productive of most kinds of grain — parlicularlr 
wheat, ccrn, oats, &c. But I think the wheat crop begms to fail; 
I should judge, from over cropping; but residing myself on the high 
land, others are better acquainted than I am with the facta. The 
greater part of the county is high land, say from six hundred to one 
thousand feet above the level of Lake Erie; and the soil is a rich^ 
moist loam, rather wet than otherwise, very natural to grass, and par- 

y Google 

No. 63.] 143 

ticularly w to white clover. A small patch cleared any where in 
the woods, within the course of two or three years, will exhibit a 
complete bed of white clover, without any culture or seed. I c<»i- 
sider Chautauque a first rate grazing county, well adapted to dairy- 
ing and the raising of cattle, ^eep, Sec. It is not adapted to the cul- 
ture of winter wheat, as winter grains are apt to be thrown out in the 
firing by the frost, and there appears to be a lack of the necessary 
proportion of lime in the soil. Spring wheat succeeds much better, 
producing, say on an average, ten to twenty bushels per acre. Cora 
generally succeeds well, particularly the earlier kinds. Potatoes, 
oats, and barley do well. Flax is a very profitable crop with us. 
You will seldom see a poor crop of flax, either in growth, seed or 
ooat The seed itself,! consider equal in value to a fair crop of spring 
vheat. Rye and buckwheat do not succeed well. Our soil on the 
high land, after going down from eight to sixteen inches, consists 
mostly of a hard subsoil, though not impervious to ^e plow, and I 
should judge contains a portion of lime. I have no doubt but the 
use of the subsoil plow would make an important improvement in 
our crops, although I have not known it tried. Sheep and cattle do 
well and are very healthy. I have never known a distemper among 
^eep except in one instance, where I bought a flock that had been 
kept in a poor johnswort pasture. They were attacked with swell- 
ed lips and sore mouth, and 1 lost near one hundredj but an applica- 
tion of tar to the mouth and lips checked the disease and cured the 
•ick. Our produce consists chiefly of cattle, horses, butter, cheese, 
pork, wool, Blc. Our wool is generally of a middle grade. 

The finest Saxon sheep do not do as well as a coarser grade. A 
cross of the South Down with the Merino, or our finest native sheep, 
do best for our climate. They make a hardy race end are good 
breeders. The South Down take fat so easily that I think they will 
become valuable for the oletn and stearine factories, especially while 
oar meat ntatket is so poor. 



HsitaT S. Randall, Eb^. — Haying had the honor of receiving 
your prmted circular, and living in different towns, we unite in the 
following answer in relation to Chemung county. 

There is much of interest connected with the early settlement of 
the luxurious valley of the Chemung. While western N. Y. was yet 
in possession of the barbarous sons of the forest, (jren Sullivan, and 
those under his command, when on their expedition against the con- 
centrated remnant of the Six Nations, in 1779, were highly pleased 
with the picturesque and fertile valley of the Chemimg, or " Big 
Horn," the Indian name of this beautiful livetj and on their retain 

y Google 

144 fSsiTATE 

from destroying the oichards and cornfields of these \var!ilce tribes, 
pictured this valley in such glowing colors, that it attracted ihe at- 
tention of the older settlements, and soon emigrants from the eastern 
counties in this State and from the lower counties in Pennsylvania, 
took up their abode in the heautiful but wilderness valley of the 
Chemung ; and now the sturdy settler's axe echoed from hill to 
hill, where previous to Gen. Sullivan's expedition, nought was heard 
save the savage war whoop, or the panther's fearful cry. 

These early settlers endured great privations and encountered 
many difficulties, during their first few years residence in this then 
vast wilderness. Among the most prominent was the want of mills; 
these hardy pioneers -had not only to hew, or split from trees, the 
floors and coverings of their log cabins, but were compelled to have 
recourse to the pounding block, to prepare the first corn raised for 
food. The nearest mill at this period was at Wyoming, a name 
and place immortalized in the early history of our country, by the 
bloody massacre of its Inbabitants. 

The livers afforded the only highways through this almost unbro- 
ken wilderness, and the only means of access to this mill, was by 
the slow and tedious navigation of canoes, which were pushed by 
the men more than one huqdred miles against a strong current, to 
bring a scanty supply of the staff of life to their famishing families. 

To obviate these difficulties, Maj. Wynkoop, one of the earliest 
settlers of the town of Chemung, which is the most eastwardly in 
the county, in the second year of his residence here, from the moun- 
tain rock roughly broke out millstones, and erected a flouring, or as 
it was more familiarly called a "grist-mill." This was a source of 
much joy and comfort to the people, and greatly facilitated the set- 
tlement of the country. 

The pioneers, following the route of Sullivan's array, commenced 
the settlement here, which soon extended up the river; the alluvial 
lands, which were very productive, were of course first selected, and 
consequently the settlement was confined to the valley, which opens 
from one to two miles wide. 

The alluvial lands are under a tolerably good and improving state 
of cultivation; the hills adjoining the river are high, and upon their 
face somewhat barren, but gradually recede and are mostly suscepti- 
ble of cultivation; the back lands are high and rather broken, pro- 
ducing fine wheat and grass, and admirably adapted to grazing. A con- 
siderable portion of this town has but recently been settled, and 
there are lands yet in market, which offer inducements to settlers of 

The buildings of the original settlers, along the river, are chiefly 
replaced by tasteful farm houses, denoting prosperity. 

It was in this town that Gen. Sullivan first commenced hostilities 
with the Indians, and burned a small village from which the Indians 
had fled; they were pursued by the division under the command of 
Gen. Hand, and brought to an engagement at a narrow ridge called 
Hogback hill, from which ambuscade they were soon driven, and 
the division returned to Fort SuUivaji. It is not strange that the 

,j lized by 


No. 63.] 14f> 

original occupantg of tbiB fertile valtej, where com grev almost 
spontaneously, and game and fish were abundant, should have left it 
with great reluctance. 

7%e town of Elmira lies west of, and adjoining Chemung, being 
separated by Butler's (now Baldwin's) creelc, at the mouth of 
which stream, on one of the largest alluvial fiats along the river, the 
celebrated battle of " Newtown," between the forces under Gen. 
Sullivan, and the Indians commanded by Brant, took placej they 
gallantly defended their fair inheritance, and for a brief period check- 
ed SuUivan in his onward march, but were defeated and dispersed 
with considerable loss. On this battle ground, one of the earliest 
and most prominent settlements was made, and at this day, when 
overlooking the splendid fields and luxuriant crops that are usually 
to be seen on this battle field, we cease to wonder that those who 
had perhaps for ages, in peace and quiet here raised and gathered 
their corn, should have fought with a bravery not common in savage 
warfare, in its defence. 

The next prominent settlement was Newtown, now "Elmira," 
(the county town of Chemung.) 

In 1794, lots were laid out and the village commenced by Guy 
Mazrwell and Samuel Hepburn, on the north bank of the Cbemune 
river, which is here intersected by the Chemung canal. Elmira is 
beautifully situated upon a fine gravelly plain, and is now a highly 
promising village, containmg about three thousand inhabitants, and 
Jrom its fine, healthful and advantageous situation, being surrounded 
By a rich and highly coldvated country, bids fair to become an im- 
portant inland city. It is the chief market, not only for this, but for 
the adjoining counties, both in this State and Pennsylvania. 

The facilities of water communication secure to this town the salt 
and plaster trade of northern Pennsylvania; lai^ quantities of these 
indispensable articles are annually sent to the latter market, down the 
Chemung and Susquehannah rivers, in arks cheaply constructed for 
that purpose. When the Elmira and Williamsport Rail-Road shall 
be constructed, this will become a great mart of exchange; Pennsyl- 
vania furnishing iron and coal, and receiving therefor salt and plas- 

Elmira, lying on the north side of the Chemung, has not as much 
alluvial land as most of the towns through which the river runs. 
The plain upon which the village stands, extending to the north line 
of the town, is highly productive and under good cultivation; this 
land was covered originally, chiefly with pitch oi yellow pine, and in 
the early settlement of the country was considered worthless; but 
since the discovery of gypsum in the lake country, which is general- 
ly used upon lands of this description, being a loam with gravel in- 
terspersed, these have proved to be the most valuable lands in the 
country, and are preferred by many experienced agriculturists to the 
alluvial lands. With the aid of one bushel of plaster to the acre, a 
fine burthen of clover is obtained, which soon makes them highly pro- 
ductive; the wheat and hay grown upon these plains, as also upon 
[Senate No. 63.J T 


146 [SSMATK 

the bill lan<ls, is usuallj of a better quality than that raised on allu- 
vial lands. 

The eastern part of Elmira is hilly, but generally productive, and 
rapidly improving. Nev^ Town creek, or as it was called by the In- 
dians, " Kauga," the river, and smaller streams running through this 
town, afford an abundance of water power; indeed there is no want 
of water power in this county, and Yankee enterprize and capital will 
find here abundant and profitable employment. 

The Chemung canal, running through this town and county from 
north to southj the navigable feeder, extending from itsjunction at 
Horseheads, (now by a misguided taste called Fairport. This place is 
made memorable by the circumstance of Sullivan's causing his pack 
horses to be killed here on his return from the pursuit of the Indians, 
in the expedition above spoken of. This name, connected as it is with 
the early history of the country, should not have been changed,] through 
part of Elmira and Big Flats, to the rapidly growing and important 
village of Corning, in Steuben county, at its western termination, af- 
fords great facilities for marketing all the products of this luxurious 
soil; indeed, the immense coal trade, the rapid and healthful growth 
of the latter town, connected as it is by the Blossburg Kail-Road, 
with the vast and inexhaustable coal fields of Pennsylvania, would 
justify the conclusion that Corning will of itself, at no distaiit day, 
furnish a market for much of the surplus products of this region of 

Big Fiats. The name of this town, situate in the southwest cor- 
ner of the county, is sufficiently descriptive of that portion lying im- 
mediately adjoining the river; the alluvial and table lands being ex- 
tensive and very fertile, and generally under a good state of improve- 
' ment. The hills immediately adjoining the rivei are high and rug- 
ged, but nevertheless are chiefly susceptible of cultivation, at least 
for grazing purposes. As you depart from the river, the country, 
although broken and hilly, produces fiae wheat and grass, is well wa- 
tered, very healthful, and is rapidly settling; the navigable feeder of 
the Chemung canal and the Chemung river passing through it, af- 
ford great facilities for marketing its surplus products. 

Southport. Tbis town lies on the south side of the river, opposite 
Elmira, and contains probably some of the most choice lands in the 
State; the alluvial and table lands are from two to five miles in 
width, highly improved, and chiefly devoted to the growing of grain, 
which yields abountiful harvest, particularly corn, oats and potatoes; 
the back lands partake largely of the qualities above described. 

Veteran is adjoining Elmira on the north, and directly upon the ca- 
nal; the soil has more clay in its composition, (as have all the north- 
ern towns;) produces fine wheat and grass, and fruit in greater abun- 
dance than the river towns; it is rolling, and chiefly imder a good 
and improving state of cultivation. The canal and Catharine creek 
running through this town, afford an extensive water power, on which 
there is in operation many lumbering and manufacturing establish- 
ments; and the flourishing village of Millport has sprung up ance 
the completion of the canal, where a few years since it was a dreary 

, Google 

No. 63.J 147 

wilderness; active eoterprise and prosperity are the leading charac- 
teristics of this town. 

Catlin lies directly west of Veteran, and contiguous to the Che- 
mung canal; the settlements are generally new, but rapitlly progress- 
ing; the land produces well and is advantageously situated, markets 
being easy of access. This town is broken and Mlly, but generally 
well adapted to the growing of wool and stock; lands are cheap and 
plenty yet in market. 

Dix is north of Catlin and west of the canal, extending to the head 
of the Seneca lake, and adjoining Steuben county; is high and roll- 
ine; part of this town is under good cultivation, and is productive; 
it IS favorably situated with regard tomarkets. The growing village 
of Jefferson is in the northeast corner of this towoj from which 
steamboats depart daily for Geneva. 

Catharine is situated east of Dix and north of Veteran, and is in 
form of a basin, embosoming the little romantic Lake of Caynta. 
Johnson settlement, the first of importance, was commenced in 1795, 
chiefly by emigrants from Fairfield connty, Connecticut, who brought 
with them the industrious habits and intelligence characteristic of their 
native State. The buildings and other improvements are of a neat 
and permanent character, and denote the prosperity that every where 
follow the industrious and economical habits of the New-Englanders. 

This town is well adapted to the growing of wneat and grazing. 
The flourishing village of Havana is located nearly upon the ground 
where stood the Indian village of Catharine, the former residence of 
the Indian Queen Catharine Montour, from whom the town of Cath- 
arine derived its name. This Indian village, at the time of Sullivan's 
expedition, contained thirty houses; the Indians were much attached 
to these their favorite hunting grounds. Deer and other game were 
abundant, and the fine salmon trout taken in profusion from the inlet, 
had strong attractions for a people whose chief object in life was the 
enjoyment these luxuries afforded. 

The scenery, newed from the high lands in Catharine and I^, 
looking down upon the villages of Havana end JeSerson, (both of 
which are flonrishing towns, the former being the chief market town 
of the northern part of Chemung and the adjoining tovms in Tomp- 
kins connty — and from the latter is shipped much of the produce from 
parts of this and Steuben counties,) and the chrystal and never frozen 
waters of the far-famed Seneca, bordered on either side by sloping 
fields as far as the eye can reach, forming together a landscape of 
surpassing beauty, which can only be appreciated by being seen. 
The reasons why the waters of the Seneca are never frozen, is wor- 
thy of scientific investigation. It is generally supposed that this 
beautiful lake, which is navigable the whole winter, is supplied by 
subterranean springs, thus keeping the water too warm to freeze. 
Refiection has convinced me that this cannot be the cause; but the 
fact that the depth is so great that the bottom, in places, has never 
yet been sounded, satisfactorily accounts for this phenomenon. It is 
known that cold condenses water, and that it consequently sinks, giv- 
ing place to that below; and our winters or cold weather, not conti- 

, Google 

148 [SSSATZ 

Duing loDg enough to chill the great depth of vater, it does not 

Gayuta and Erin, situated in the east part of the county, are new 
but rapidly settling, and there is much valuable land yet in marlcet, 
offering great inducements to settlers, which, with proper culture, 
would soon become valuable either for grazing or grainj these towns 
are somewhat hilly, but generally susceptible of cultivation; lai^e 
quantities of maple sugar are manufactured here annually. 

The condition of agriculture in this county is improving as rapidly 
perhaps as other parts of the State, and in some portions of the coun- 
ty may be termed good. 

In the early settlement of the country farming was connected more 
or less with lumbering, and consequently neglected, and in many in- 
stances made a secondary object; as pine timber has disappeared, 
more attention has been given to fanmng, the land has been better 
tilled, more system practiced, improved implements are used, and 
la^er crops are harvested. 

Horse teams are generally used, except on new farms, and the 
small or common size, hardy, well formed horse is preferred. 

The produce is chiefly marketed via canal, as is also a portion of 
the lumber, but the principal pait is sent down the Susquehanna to 
Philadelphia and Baltimore markets. 

Sheep and cattle are usually driven to eastern markets in the sum- 
mer and fall, and are fed chiefly on grass; a few, however, are stall 
fed; no sheep are grain fed, except for home consumption. 

There seems to be a diversity of opinion with regard to cattle; 
some prefer the Durham, other a cross of the Devonshire with our 
native breed but some of the most experienced breeders and feeders 
prefer the native stock, e^ecially on bleak situations. 

Sheep, a cross of the Merino with our common breed, is generally 
preferred, they are more hardy, larger carcass, and yield more wool 
than the Saxon; flocks of the latter have been introduced, but not 
generally approved. 

The Berkshire are the favorite breed of swine, which are fattened 
on steamed potatoes, pumpkins, meal and com. 

As to what changes are necessary to advance the prosperity of the 
county, we would remark that agriculturists should have a thorough 
and practical knowledge of their Duainess, and should feel its impor- 
tance to the community, and apply themselves strictiy to its pursuits; 
should produce and manufacture more and buy less, always keeping 
the debtor side of the account in their favor, or adopt the ready pay 

The completition of the New- York and Erie R^lroad, ^ving the 
farmer a ready market at all seasons of the year, would doubtless ad- 
vance the agncultural interests of this county. 

There is almost every variety of timber in this county; in some 
portions of it extensive groves of valuable pine yet remain. 

The IdoQ and Livingston county plows are in general use; harrows 
of all kinds are used; tne old fashioned three square are most nume- 

, Google 

No. 57.] 149 

rous. The cultiTttor, bone nkc, and barrow-drili are used by a fev 
of Uie best farmen. 




SurcE writing the above, I have been reflecting upon the impor- 
tance of agricultoral information, or rather agricultural education, 
being more generally disseminated; and would respectfully suggest 
for the consideration of the N. Y. State Agricultural Society, the 
propriety of recommending the establishment of an agricultural 
school in each county, connected with the societies already formed. 

The prosperity of our State and the perpetuity of our form of go- 
remment so essentially depend upon the proper, thorough and prac- 
tical education of the great mass of the people, that it does seem 
to me that erery philanthropist and Well wisher of the human fami- 
ly should feel an interest in this important subject. Much has been 
done within the last year to ameliorate the condition of the unfortu- 
nate slaves of appetite, in the temperance reformation; and if a few 
will work with the same zeal, to awaken the public mind with re- 

'd to the importance of a thorough agricultural education, doubl- 
fess it may be accomplished. 

There is a radical defect in the academical and collegiate institu- 
tions of our country in this particular, that while attending to the 
cullivation of the mind, the exercise, indispensable to the formation 
of a healthy and robust constitution, is essentially neglected. 

The establishment of county agricultural schools will remedy this 
important defect, giving to the pupil exercise in the open air, which 
is indispensably necessary to the formation of a healthful constitu- 
tion, while acquiring an essential part of an education, a knowledge 
of the best method of cultivating the soil. There is another and 
perhaps not less important error, too common in the high schools in 
ourcountry, viz: boys, both from inclination and the foolish fashions 
of the day, early learn, what they are never willing to forget, that 
it is UDgentlemanly and beneath the character of a freshman or so- 
phomore, to perform any manual labor, and if the parent or guar- 
dian has wealth, they, as a general thing, help instil into the minds 
of the youth under their direction this idea, alike destructive to fu- 
ture usefulnera and happiness, by furnishing the means necessary 
to enable them to live while at school without labor. The idea that 
it is dishonorable to labor, is at war with the best interests of the 
individual and the spirit of our free institutions, and should be the 
very last instilled into the minds of those destined soon to exercise 
the responsibility of a free and independent citizen of this glorious 

There are many other errors, which the limits of this communi- 
cation will not permit pointing out. 

, Google 

160 [Seratk 

The remedy for these erils, is the establidunent of agricultural 
schools throughout our State, where, while pursuing all the varied 
branches of science, the important art of agriculture will be ac- 
quired, the health of the pupil preserved, and a constitution formed 
that will fit them for future usefulness in their various pursuits in 

There are many other important recommendations to this plan of 
education, which ought to have weight with those who have the 
care of youth: for the present, let the following suffice. 

1st. The school being located in the country, the pupil would be 
removed from temptations which in towns and cities ruin thousands. 

2d. While taking the exercise necessary to health, they could 
nearly earn their support, which in these times of pecuniary embar- 
rassment, is worthy of consideration. 

Suffice it for the present, to presume that the above reasons are 
sufficient to warrant the experiment, if it is at all probable that thas 
much can be accomplished. The inquiry is, how can this be done 1 

1st, Let the N. Y. State Agricultural Society recommend to the 
several county societies to apply to the Legislature for the passage 
of a law, authorizing a loan to the several county societies, from 
the common school fund, of a sum sufficient to purchase a farm of 
50 or 100 acres of good land, on condition that the society raise an 
equal amount and pay the interest upon the loan annually. This 
will secure a farm and erect the necessary buildings. 

2d. Let the general constitution and by-laws for these assouations 
be sanctioned by legal enactments, fixing the terms of admis^on to 
membership, the annual tax for each pupil attending the school, &c 

Sufficient should be raised in this way to pay teachers, and the ne- 
cessary labor, over and above that performed by pupils in carrying 
on the farm. The pupils should be required to labor, or in other 
words, study agriculture a certain number of hours each day, under 
the direction of a scientific and practical farmer; the proceeds of the 
farm to be used in boarding and defraying expenses. The pupils 
would not only be benefited, out these would be emphatically schools 
for the instruction of all the farmers in the State. 

These hasty and undigested thoughts are not submitted with the 
expectation that they will be adopted, but with the hope that some 
able and experienced pen may be employed in maturing a plan that 
will eventually establish schools, wherein the sons of the farmers 
throughout the Empire State, may obtain an education which will 
fit them in every sense for the faithful discbarge of the high and re- 
sponsible duties of American citizens. 

, Google 

So. 63.} 



Cortland county occupies a central position in the State of New- 
York. It is in tbe form of a parellogram, 20 by 25 mites io extent^ 
and is divided into eleven towns. It has a population of 524,606 in- 
habitants, 6,028 of whom are engaged in agriculture, 1,248 in manu- 
factures^d trades, 51 in commerce, and 106 in the learned profes- 

Expect of the County. — Two small rivers traverse the county; one 
of them, the Tioughnioga, through its entire extent from north to 
sooth; the other, the Otselic, passing through two townships in the 
southeastern portion of it. These streams andtheir numerous tribu- 
taries run through valleys of considerable extent That of the west 
branch of the TToughnioga, extending from Onondaga county, to the 
junction of that stream with the east branch, a distance of twelve 
miles, is from two to five miles in width, and from this point it 
sweeps off to the southwest to the line of Tompkins. From the 
point of junction of these two streams, radiate other valleys in va- 
rious directions, making access to this central point, which is occu- 
Eied by the shire town, easy of access to all portions of the county. 
letween these valleys the land rises into gently sloping hills, usually 
of no great elevation, and arable in almost every ioslance to their 
very summits. The water of the streams is clear and pure, and in 
the wells essentially purer and more palatable than that of contigu- 
ous counties lying north and west. There is no stagnant water and 
no swamps, or other " waste lands" of any considerable extent in the 

SoUj Geological ^ppearancesj ^c. — Cortland occupies the slaty 
region, which is superincumbent on the limestone of Onondaga, and 
which with a dip to the south-west, passes under the coal beds of 
Pennsylvania. The soil is formed by the disintegration of siliuious 
or quartzose and aluminous slate; the aluminous forming the higher, 
and the ulicious the lower lands. The only primary rocks are boul- 
ders of granite, which are found in some abundance on our hills. 
Cortland is not rich in minerals. No metallic ores are found in it. 
Thin and detached veins, or rather pieces of coal or lygnite (sup- 
posed by their discoverers to be the former,) have been found in some 
of the hills in the northern portion of the county. 

The most singular geolo^cal feature in the county is the " marl 
ponds," in CortTandvilte. There are several of them which are from 
25 to 60 acres in extent. The " marl lime" obtained from them, on 
bnming the marl, is white, and sufficiently pure to form durable plas- 
ter. It has been analyzed and found to contain 65 per cent of pure 
lime, the residue earthy and vegetable matter. There is little doubt 
that this marl would form a valuable fertilizer, particularly on a soil 
which, like ours, is deficient in lime. The marl in these pits seems to 
be inexhaustible in quantity, and that which mingles with the soil 

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153 [Senate 

OD the mai^ of the ponds, toight be obtained at little e^eose to be 
applied to oar soils. I Tenture to predict tbat it will at some fntore 
day, be extensively used for that purpose. 

The soil in the valleys of the east and west branch of the Tiough- 
nioga, and on the main stream below their junction, is esteemed best 
in the county. That on the west branch, forming the towns of Cort- 
landville. Homer and Preble, ranks first. In much of it hardpan is 
not found, or only at great depths. It is thicldy scattered over, and 
literally " filled" with slaty pebbles, or " cobble-stones," roupded by 
attrition, and which on fracture, exhibit numberless petnfactions. In 
mucky " bottoms" where these stones are not found, or are less fre- 
quent, the soil is less favorable for grain crops. On the hills hardpan 
is more common, and is much nearer the surface, rendering some of 
tfaem wet, and of little value except for grazing. 

The price of land in the river valleys and the low hills adjoining 
them, is from $30 lo $60 per acre; remote from these valleys, it is 
from |10 to $30. 

Timber. — The dry lands of the county were originally principally 
occupied by maple and beech. Elm, hemlock, bass-wood, asb, (diest- 
Qut, 8k. are also abundant. Chestnut, elm and ash, are used exten- 
sively for rails, though the supply, if the same improvidence conti- 
nues to be manifested, will soon begin to fail. Red beech and hem- 
lock are often used for posts. There was originally some pine in 
the southern section of the county, but it has nearly disappeared. 
Boards for the construction of barns, fences, &c., are sawed from 
hemlock. This timber, when it grows on high, dry soils, is a white 
solid wood, and as valuable for such purposes as pine. There is 
much of it of this quality in the county, and shingles of a good qua- 
lity are sawed from it. It is somewhat remarkable that the white oak, 
ash and chestnut of this country, lacks the strength and durability of 
the same varieties in New-England. Elm is preferred to oak here, 
for all purposes where strength is required. The cultivation of the 
locust has been undertaken by numerous individuals, but the " borer" 
is rapidly putting an end to all of these efibrts. 

Pretent condition of its Agriculture. — The present condition of ag- 
riculture in Cortland, is exceedingly various in various parts of the 
county. In the better portions of it, the husbandry will compare fa- 
vorably with tbat of any portion of the State in which the writer of 
this has chanced to travel; and stands in marked and honorable con- 
trast with that of many sections naturally possessing far superior ad- 
vantages. There are few improvements in agriculture which have 
not here found followers — few improved breeds of stock which are 
here reared — few improved agricultural implements which are not 
here in use. These remarks, unfortunately, however, will not apply 
to the whole of our territory, or to the whole of our population, even 
in the most favored sections of it. And it cannot be denied that we 
have, if not an unusual, at least a very undesirable proportion of poor 
lands, and of unskilful and improvident farmers. 

Among the changes which have taken place within the last few 
years, which have tended to increase the agricultural prosperity of 

Digitized by 


No. 63.] 163 

the county, one of the most pronuDent is a more oatunl and judicious 
" diviBion of labor." Instead of the attempt by each fanner, to raise 
every animal and product necessary for his consumption, he has found 
it better to turn his attention to those to which bis soils are adapted, 
and exchange bis surplus with those who can profitable raise the oth- 
ers. By this course, high and thin soils have been devoted to sheep, 
for the parpoies of wool-growing; soils of a medium quality, but 
which owing to inequalities of surface, wetness or stoniness, are less 
arable, have been devoted to dairying or grazing; and our richer val- 
ley lands have produced that surplus of grain required for the con- 
sumption of the others. 

A decided improvement has also taken place in the rotation of 
crops, and in the method of seeding. 

Summer fallowing, a practice which the average product of the 
wheat sown after it will not justify in this county, has given place 
to fallow crops. 

Manures are more carefully increased, and more judiciously ap- 

Improved breeds or selectioax of animals have, to a considerable 
extent, taken the place of unimproved and unselected varietia and 

Agricultural Produce. — Cortland is a grazing county, though in 
the principal valleys winter wheat, maize, and other grain and root 
crops are successfully cultivated; and on the hills, sprmg wheat, the 
coarse grains, flax, roots, &c. It must be confessed, however, that for 
the last few years rust has rendered both spring and winter wheat 
to a certain extent, a precarious crop. In 1839 the produce of the 
various crops was as follows: — 

100,766 busleb of vbeat. 

29,936 do 


!77,381 do 


2,730 do 


18,015 do 


86,344 do 

Indian com. 

Othtr Pnducli. 

182,408 ponads 

of wool. 

181 ■' 


699 " 


676,406 bushels 


69,662 tons 


13 '■ 


429,690 lbs. 


silk cocoons. 

6 « 

10,917 cords 


Artielei enumenUei hy their Value. 

Product of the dairy, $137,367 

" orchards, 6,308 

[Senate No. 63.J U . riz9.6 by CiOOgle 

Home made goods, $S7,945 

Poultry, 12,798 

Live Stock. 
6,734 horses. 

33.759 neat cattle. 

98.760 sheep. 
19,043 svioe. 

.Snimab. — Of neat cattle, the native stock forms the principal 
number. Notwitiistanding the superior properties claimed by foreign 
breeds over this variety, and notwithstanding our native stock is 
evidently susceptible of, and lequires, vast improvement, it has be- 
come quite too fashionable among the class of breeders, to speak of 
it in terms far more contemptuous than the facts will warrant. The 
best OK slaughtered in this Stale for years, was a native ox. The 
fact that this animal was brown in color, with a white face, has led 
those who attribute every thing to " blood," to claim for him a 
Hereford descent. This is a misfortune which our native breed ever 
labors under. Had Mr. Rust's ox been red, the same class of ob- 
servers would have discovered indubitable evidences of Devon paren- 
t^e; had he been spotted with white, the Durhams would have re- 
ceived all the honors of his paternity. I have investigated the subject 
of this ox's pedigree; he was reared in Madison county, and not a 
particle of proof or rational probability exists to show that he had a 
drop of Hereford, or any foreign blood in his veins, other than that 
introduced by the early settlers of our country. 

Excellent dairy cows of the native breed may be fomid in our 
county, probably excelling in this respect any other variety, except the 
different families of the Short Horns. Such being the facts, though 
the American farmer should not give up the attempt to improve both 
by crossing and selection, be may be excused if he expresses a little 
contempt for the ignorance or impertinence of the assertion, that our 
native breed neither do nor can be made to possess any of the points 
of an improved variety. 

The Durhams were introduced into this county nearly twenty 
years since by means of a half bred bull. The animal failed to at- 
tract notice; and prejudice against his color prevented him from 
being extensively used. He was soon disposed of; but his introduc- 
tion had this valuable effect, that the few animals sired by him, by 
their undeniable superiority both at the pail and in the shambles, 
prepared the way for a more cordial reception of this breed in after 

The Yorkshires, or " pumpkin rumps," were next introduced, call- 
ed Durhams, or Teeswaters, by itllerx. Though to an unpracticed 
eye a showy breed, a more worthless one has never obtained entrance 
into the yard of the farmer. Bad proverB,bad milkers, with blue and 
tasteless flesh, and from their conformation producing their young with 
difficulty and danger; there is scarcely a point about them which 
should characterize a profitable variety. 

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Ho. 69.] 166 

Bbldtmett, oi unimproved Short Horns, were brought into the 
county about ten years since. The coarseness of the old Short Horns 
had been modified i^ the bulls introduced, by an admixture of other 
blood. One was crossed with our native stock, one with the Hol- 
steins, imported by Consul Jarvis, and one with some Ayrsttires in- 
troduced into Connecdcut, by Henry Hills. All of the bulls were 
good stock getters with our native cows, and particularly the last. 
Their produce were uniformly superior to their dams, and character- 
izeil almost invariably by good miUdng properties. 

Devom have been introduced into the county by importation and 
otherwise. On our thin hill lands they mieht have succeeded; but 
no one has been found to test their qualities in such a situation. On 
OUT valleys their size has been objected to, and it has been thought 
that our rich valley lands would sustain a larger, and in other res- 
pects, a more profitable breed. There are those, however, and the 
writer of this among the number, who are partial to a " dash" of 
Devon blood in the larger varietira. . It gives symmetry and com- 
pactness — hardiness — a depth of coloring which will not disappear 
even in the most remote crosses, and usually ensures a good gait, and 
a well' raised head. 

Leicettert — From the stock of the late Daniel Adcok of Otsego, 
have obtuned an extensive footing; but they have been in all m- 
stances crossed with the improved Short Horn. They are some- 
what smaller than the Short Horn, beautiful handlers, good milkers, 
and usually delicate and " fashionable*' in the forend. The cross 
between the Durham and Leicester is either an unusually good one, 
or it resulted most fortunately in those few animals of this cross, by 
means of which this sub-variety have been introduced into Cortland. 
There are not wanting those who in the Leicester deeply crossed into 
the Durham, (say one-sixteenth Leicester to fifteen-sixteenths Dur- 
ham,) fancy they discover a mellowness in the handling, a softness 
and '* silkineSB^' in the coat, a delicacy and " style" m the head* 
and in the manner of carrying it, which are rarely found in the 
thorough bred Durham. Bulls of this family have received most of 
the prizes at our county fairs. 

Improved Short Honu — Have been introduced from the yards of 
Messrs. Rotch, Van Bensselaer, Powell, &c. Here, as elsewhere, 
when on good moUs, their career has been one of uninterrupted suc- 
cess. There are in the county a few full-bloods and several hun- 
dred head of grades, (betweed the Durham and the natives,} and the 
latter command prices which demonstrate beyond the possibility of 
denial, the value of such a cross. Those possessing only half of 
the Durham blood, sometimes present a combination of valuable 

Eoints which would almost entitle them to compete with the thorough 
red animals, and every succeeding cross towards the Short Homty 
if judiciously conducted, increases their value. The grade cows are 
almost uniformly plenti^l and steady milkers, and on the average, 
i. e. taking an equal number of tmtrted animals from them and ue 

* Fmielt Boieb, E>q. pbtIuih tlia nan diMinpilihed iodic of fine Uoek in tin BtmMi whm 
lodciDC at one of UWM UDued^nd cows, daoUiad to lb* writst of lU*, tkat lb* "mu lb* 
ftwtt anlioal fomid" b* htd »<t mcd- 

y Google 



mtire flock, tha gndei will alwiyi excel the natives in tins mm 
tU) property. It u imaniig to ke«r theorist! object to croaBng di»- 
tinct breeds, on the gronnd that it is a Ttolation of certain (it would 
be difficalt to say how established) canons of breeding, where unde- 
niable fects and the sore test of experience prove so conclusiTelj the 
propriety and the advantages of nch a conrse.- So long as the far- 
mer can improve his stock by croasbg with the Dorbam, and so 
loi^ as each additional cross increases the value of the produce, hit 
coarse is a plain one, de^te theories. And I am willing to go a 
step further. I have not a doubt that a nficimt numitr of Jttdici- 
ou$ cmttf with properly Melecied nofioer, will produce a variety in 
all respects, certainly for all practical purposes, equaling the pore 
Short Horns, and in every essential property excellingmany of those 
laying claim to the longest pedigree. The very fact that every breed 
which now exists has Meajormed, (because all descended from oiu 
parent stock,) proves that the thing can ^ain be done. And the 
most valuable variety of all, the Short Horns, has been formed 
within, comparatively speaking, a few years; and one of its most 
distingnished, most saleable, aud most highly prised families, (a 
family which nearly all the best Short Horns of this State are de- 
scended from,) is the produce of a iati cross with tbe GaUoways! 
The " bump of Teneratton" must be higher on the heads of most 
Americans, than it now is, to enable them to credit tbe assertito, 
that no other cow can be found, and that one cannot be found ena 
among our native breed, who can mingle blood with, without irre- 
vocably degenerating, the aristocratic Durham, or that no other man 
but Charles Colling will ever be found capable of making the pro- 
per selection for such a cross. 

Horta. — Tbe horses of Cortland are usually of no distinctive breed, 
and as a general thing of inferior value. The priceof service, more than 
the quality of the stallion, has been generally consulted. For the list 
three or four years rather more attention has been given to this va- 
luable kind of stock; but there seems to be a grent deficiency tiirough 
this county, as well as most other portions of the State, of those ac- 
tive, strong, but clean boned stallions which are large and strong 
enough for heavy labor, and active enough for the road. 

Sheep. — The breeds of sheep in the county are the native crossed 
with the fine wooled; the English long and middle wooled varieties, 
and tbe Merino and Saxon. The first named are a strong hardy sheep, 
affording a good wool for domestic purposes — and they constitnte a 
variety well suited to the exigencies of the situation m which they 
are generally found. The English long wools, under the various 
names of Leicesters, Cotswolds, BakeweTis, &c. are too remote from 
markets where their mutton can bedisposed of, to form the most pro- 
fitable variety here. , 

Some fine animals of the long wooled varieties have been import- 
ed from England into our county, but have failed to meet the expec- 
tations of their purchasers. T^ie middle wools, the South Downs, 
are preferred to the last named, but in their ptfre state do not, parti- 
cularly when they have reached four or five years of age, pro- 
Digitized by 


»o. eS-J 157 

duc« a quantity and quality of wool wbich render tbem the most pro- 
fitable for the purposes of the wool grower. The writer of this has 
set on foot the following experiment. He has taken one cross of 
South Down OD the Merino, and then brtd back tofoards the latter. 
His object has been to attempt to engraft something of the South 
Down form, feeding and nursing properties and hardiness, on the Me- 
rino stock, without sacrificing the weight and fineness of wool of the 
latter. He does not pledge himself that the experiment will succeed, 
fie will only say that thus far his expectations have been realized. 
Time will develop the rest. 

The Saxons, on the introduction of that variety, were early en- 
grafted on the Merino fiocks which bad previously been introduced 
into the countyj and I know of no instance where those who took 
that step do not now deeply deplore it. The increased fineness of 
the wool does not oSset against the diminntion in its quantity, and 
the impaired constitution or hardiness of the animal. 

There are few of the old stock of pure Merinos left in the county. 
At the present moment they are undoubtedly the favorite breed, and 

the wish' seems to be universal among our £ock holders, to go back 

to this variety. 

Swine. — Berkshires, China or Grass breed, some lai^e English hogs 

called Hampshires, a good variety not claiming any distinctive appel- 
lation, (being the improved native bog,) and finally the "Landpike,*' 
«re all found in our county. The Berkshires are preferred by many, 
.and by the writer of this among the number; but a majority object 

to them on account of their small size. Berkshires crossed with 

large native sows, are a popular sub-variety. 

I regret to state that the fine imported Neapolitan sow, presented 

to the State Agricultural Society by James G. King, Elsq. and which 

by a vote of the Board, was placed in my hands to test the compa- 
rative value of the breed, perished before reaching my residence, in 

consequence, probably, of injuries received on ship board. 

Ctdtivatum. — In the valleys, a hoed crop is usually the first in the 

rotation. With some, this is succeeded with barley, and then winter 

wheat with grass seeds. Others substitute spring wheat, peas, or oats 

for bailey for the second crop in the rotation. There are not want- 
ing those who take crop after crop of the same kind from the land, 

as oats for example, without paying the least regard to rotation. 
On our hills, potatoes, spring wheat, oats and buckwheat are the 

principal crops ; on the colder and thinner soils, the two last named 

are the staple commodities. On the bill lands of Scott, which are 

of medium quality, the culture of flax has recently been introduced 

with decided success, and has fonned a profitable source of invest- 
ment to those engaged in it. Probably one thousand acres of it was 

cultivated during the past season. 

Roots are cultivated for the winter food of neat stock, horses, sheep, 

&C., more than formerly. Meat stock, and sheep especially, are kept 

in much finer and healthier condition by receiving a portion of roots 

for their food, than when confined to hay alone, and it is thought 

with no increase of expense. Roots are peculiarly conducive to 

lized by Google 

158 [SXHATK 

the growth of young animals. Potatoes and ruta bagas are the prin- 
cipal varieties cultiTated, to the growth of both uf which our soil 
seems to be well adapted. I raised 1,040 bushels of the latter, ia 
the summer of 1840, on a single acre of land. The past summer I 
adopted the method of covering, principally cultivating and harvest- 
ing my potatoes with the plow, subsequently confining the store bogs 
in the field to dig those left by the plow. To those who cultivate 
the potatoe largely, as a feeding crop, I would strongly recommend 
this practice. 

Meadow and pasture lands are not generally suffered to lie as long 
as formerly without plowing. It was noticed during a drouth, which 
was felt severely by our grass lands during the past season, that 
newly seeded lands suffered far less than old meadow and pasture. 
Gypsum is used extensively as a top dressing. It is principally ob- 
tained from Jamesville, in Onondaga county. 

Summer fallowing, as has been remarked in a former part of this 
article, has given place pretty generally to fallow crops. 

In do not know that plowing is more imperfectly performed here 
than in neighboring counties; but I am satisfied that it is not usually 
carried deep enough, and in other respects, well enough performed 
for the profit of the farmer. The surface is merely " skinned," and 
much of the riches even of that thin surface is left locked up in the 
lumps and clods which have escaped disintegration. Four inches is 
probably the maximum depth of plowing in this county, and at that 
depth an artificial pan is formed in our old fields, impermeable to a 
great extent to the roots of vegetation. If, instead of inquiring so 
assid'uously for " wide cutting plows," our farmers would select those 
which " cut deep," they would be the gainers by it. 

The principal grass sown is timothy. White clover springs up 
spontaneously in great abundance on all our lands, even after sum- 
mer fallowing. Small quantities of red clover are sown by some, 
mixed with timothy seeds; and a few are beginning to sow fields ex- 
clusively of red clover. The crops of grass on the meadows of our 
best cultivated farms, frequently equal from two to three tons to the 
acre. The average product, however, even in the valley of tbe 
Tioughnioga will not probably exceed one and one half tons; and on 
the remote hills not to exceed one ton. 

Weeds, fortunately, in our grazing county, are not spreading with 
the fearful rapidity with which they are overriining the wheat grow- 
ing regions. Canada thistles, jolmswort, and oxeye-daisy ate the 
principal ones. The latter does not prevail to any considerable ex- 
tent, and the two former are combatted with energy by our better 
class of farmers. But so long as one neglected farm may continue to 
stock a whole town with Canada thistles, I see no way to eradicate 
them until the man is made punishable by law who allows them to 
go to seed on his farm, and that law is rigidly enforced. 

The manures used by our farmers are principally those of the 
stable, gypsum, and some leached ashes. There are many who suffer 
their stable manures to lose much of their fertilizing properties before 
they are applied to the land; but the practice is gaining ground 


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Ko. 63.] 1S9 

among our more intelligent tannen, of applying them in an unfer- 
tnented state to the land and plowing them luidei. Those who adhere 
to the " old meadow" syxtem, usually suffer their manures to decom- 
pose, and apply it as a top dressing to Buch old meadows. The 
wastefulness of such a course need not be urged. The same manure 
plowed under in its unfermented state, would have nourished a hoed 
-crop-— then the succeeding soiall grain crop — and then benefited a 
grass crop, nearly as much as if first applied to it as a top dressing, 
with its gases escaped, and its juices leached out by long exposure. 

On the whole, notwithstanding their many palpable defects, I am 
«f opinion that the existing methods of cultivation in the better por- 
tiiHia of Cortland are such that the fertility of its soils is gradually 
and steadily improving. 

Marktit. — The grains raised in the county are principally con- 
sumed within it. Some oats and barley are carried to villages on the 
Erie canal. The principal exports of the county are wool, butter, 
cheese, neat stock, pork and fiax. These are sold to purchasers 
from eastern markets. Fork, potatoes, stoneware, &.c,, are annually 
sent in considerable quantities into Pennsylvania by the Tioughnioga 
in " arks," or fiat boats. 

^griadtwral Implemmts. — The plows mostly in use are Weird's 
Ko. 6, Eiden's, " Livingston County," Livingston County Improved, 
(oT Delano's Premium Flow,) with some of Ruggles, Nourse & 
Mason's Eagle Plows, also Avery's, Clute's, and Wood's. 

The Livingston County Plow was rapidly obtaining precedence as 
a green-sward plow, until the appearance of Delano's " Improved 
Livingston County," or Premium Flow, which received the first pre- 
mium of the State Agricultural Society. This is now rapidly and 
most manifestly becoming the favorite. The principal defect of the 
LiviDgslon County Flow, (too gr«at narrowness at the heel,) has been 
corrected in it without sensibly increasing the draft; and it also com- 
bines other minor improvements. I consider it a very perfect 
implement, and on green-sward decidedly superior to any I have used, 
when the quality of the work performed by it, and the ligfUneuof 
«f«dra/lF, are connectedly taken into consideration. I never have used 
the celebrated plows of Messrs. Rubles, Nourse & Mason, but jus- 
tice compels me to say, that in one or two instances, where these 
plows have been tried in our county, the ultimate preference has been 
awarded to Delano's. I give the results of these experiments for 
all they are worth, not claiming by any means that they shall be re- 
garded as decisive. The interests of manufacturers, as well as the 
progressive improvement of the most important process in husband- 
ry, should not be jeoparded bv rash declarations, or the publication of 
tbe doubtful results of imperfectly conducted experiments. 

The harrow principally in use among our best farmers, is the dou- 
ble or hinged 32 toothed harrow. Square and old fashioned triangu- 
lar barrows, are sometimes found. The Winged Harrow, (Wilber's 
latent,) has been Introduced, and is highly spoken of by those who 
ive used it. 

The roller is coming into use; and the double roller, with an iron 


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160 [Sbxatv 

uclcf is b; far the best, and will aMna/Zy neulj repsj its firat ooct. 
When the rollen are " turned" and properij mounted, it« cost is not 
far from $20. 

The rmolnHg horit rale* is in general nse on oar more level lands, 
and is justlj r^^rded as a labor saving nadiine of the fint impu- 

The threihiiigmackiHej{\{iiua is to be incladed amcmg farm imple- 
ments,) is leas in favor thsa formerly. Where grain is prinofwly 
raised for home coasamption, as with us— where the cr<^ of each far- 
mer is not lai^, and where there is no necessity for haste in getting 
it ready for market, — there is GertBinly far less advantage in the em- 
ployment of these macbiiKS. In the judgment of most of our far- 
mers, they do not diminish the expense of threshing, and they lead to 
a great waste of straw. The straw of oats and barley especially, is 
eaten readily by cattle if fed when neuly thrakid. If these cr<^ 
are cut and cared, as they always shoald be, when the the straw is 
somewhat green, and the straw is daily led out, *' fresh and bri^t," 
cattle will thrive on it about as well as on hay. The writer's cattle 
have been fed bay but once a day during thepresent winter. Stnw, 
and to breeding stocic a small daily allowance of roots, has consti- 
tuted their remaining food- This is cheaper than feeding hay excln- 
nvely, and the cattle do equally well. Other farmers in the county 
have fed straw exclusively, with a small allowance of roots, with the 
same results. This could not, in my opinion, be done successfully if 
the straw was al. threshed out at once, thou|^ stacked with the great- 
est care. 

The chaff-cvtter is a moat valuahV implement. Gilson's u the fa- 
vorite one in this county. On this point I shall have more to remark 
under a subsequent head. 

Although the hay-fork does not rank in the first class of affriculta- 
n\ implements, I cannot here omit to say, tiiat probably the bestarti- 
cle of this kind manufactured in the United States, is made in Cort' 
land county, and " by hand," by an aged mechanic named Lewis 
Sanford. They were exhibited, tuk) received a flattering discretitm- 
ary premium at the first State Fair, and were acknowledged uncqaal- 
ed for material, temper and finish, by all who saw them. 

What agrieuttvral changa are reouifife. -The principal changes 
necessary to advance the agricultural prosperity of the county are, 
1st. The further continuation and more general di&stoc of Uiose 
improvements, which, under another head, have been stated as al- 
ready having been commenced in some of our most important agri- 
cultural processes, viz : in a division of agricultural lurar, — in the 
rotation of crops, — in the method of seeding, — in the abandonm^t 
of summer fallowing, — in the increase and judicious application of 
manures, — in the abandonment of the old meadow and pasture sys- 
tem on arable lands, — in the improvemoit, by selection and cross- 
ing, of our breeds of domestic animals, &c. These several pmnts 
are so much and so ably discussed in our agricultural periodicals, 
that it will be unnecessary to take them up at length on this occa- 
sion. Tbere is, howeTer, one point to which I wish to call atten- 

■,j lized by 


No. 63.J 161 

tion. Our fanns ate usually lightly stocked, in proportioo to their 
number of acres of cultivated land. " Keep little and keep it well,** 
may be a good maxim, but " keep muc^L and keep it well/' is a bet- 
ter one. The more heavily land is stocked, the more manure is 
made, and consequently the greater its subsequent capacity to sus- 
tain heavy stocking. The common practice of wintering stock ex- 
clusively on hay, and converting straw directly into manure, re- 
quires a large poition of each farm to be kept constantly in meadow, 
and a great outlay of labor to cut and secure the hay. If straw can 
be made to answer the purposes of hay, the land devoted to meadow 
is saved for grazing and tillage, and the extra labor of cutting and 
securing hay is also saved. The straw of the coarse grains, cut 
gr€enish, can be made to answer the purposes of bay, with a small 
addition of roots or grain. The amount of grain is scarcely percep- 
tibly diminished by its being cut a few days earlier than usual. 

The amount of such straw which an ammal will consume, (which 
will not exceed the amount of hay which the same animal would 
consume,) with the addition of two quarts of oat, barley, or " cob" 
meal, or a half a bushel of roots per day, will keep the animal as 
well as hay. Nothing is lost from the straw, for it is converted into 
manure, which has gained in strength as much as it has lost in bulk; 
and the cutting and curing of the hay is entirly saved, for the straw 
would have to be cut and secured at all events. It may be safely 
assumed that on the average, it will require twelve acres of meadow 
to winter twelve head of grown cattle. Six acres of meadow and 
six acres of coarse grains or roots, will winter the same number and 
leave a considerable surplus of grain or roots, over and above all the 
extra expense of cultivation. If 50 acres of meadow would winter 

50 head of cattle, probably 25 acres of meadow and ten acies of 
oats, com, barley, or roots, would winter them equally well, leav- 
ing 16 acres, which in the same ratio, would winter a fraction over 

51 bead: and thus 50 acres would be made to winter €1, instead of 
60 head of cattle. 

By the construction of the main feeding barns on the side of a 
slope or bill, the grain and hay might be deposited in the upper por- 
tion, while the lower part might be reserved for stables. A single 
horse power placed on the upper floor, with the necessary machinery, 
would thrash the grain, cut the straw, and, if thought advisable, the 
hay, and cut up roots ; and these might be conveniently conducted 
'without any hand carriage, to the stables below. Chaff cutters, rootsli- 
cers,&c., should be so constructed as to be propelled by horse power ; 
at all events, in large establishments. If they are not, the outlay for 
labor goes far to swallow up the profits arising from the use of these 
machines. With a little ingenuity, these might each have their places 
on an upper floor, and by changing the band of the horse power, 
might each be put in motion, and deposit the roots, chaff, &c., through 
trap doors into receptacles below, contiguous to the feeding stalls. 
By a " swing beam,'' as it is called, an ample floor can always be had 
without the sacrifice of much room in the barn. 

By such methods, more stock can be reared on the farm, more ma- 

[SenateNo. 63.1 ^ 


163 [Sehate 

nnre made, and consequently profits increased, while the fertility of 
the land is increased. 

There are other imprOTemeiitB requidte to advance the agricultu- 
ral prosperity of our county, but perhaps there are none of sufficient 
importance to demand notice in this already extended article, which 
are not obvious to all. 

Cortland VUlage, Feb. 13th, 1843. 



Since the census of 1840, the county has been divided, and it la 

Eossible that in collecting &cts I may be erroneous in some figures, 
ut in the aggregate, they will be found sufficiently correct for all 
practical purposes. 

The county of Genesee is divided into thirteen towns and contains 
about 306,000 acres of land, of which about two-fifths, or 132,000 
acres are under cultivation. Nearly all is cleared that will be, ex- 
cept by the gradual use of the standing timber for fuel or other do- 
mestic purposes. Excepting that part of the Indian Reservation 
which has not yet been brought into market, there is very little 
woodland that is not enclosed, and used more or less Ifor pasturage. 
The policy of so doing is a doubtful one at least, wben it is an ob- 
ject to keep up a constant supply of fnel and timber, as pasturing 
prevents the growth of undetbrush to replace the laiger trees when 
cut djown. There are 33,000 inhabitants, of whom more than nine- 
tenths are engaged in agriculture. The county has been settled 
within the last 35 years. 

1st. Prtteni condiiian of agriculture. — ^The present condition of 
agriculture is comparatively good. Still there is room for much im- 
provment, as the laad upon an average does not yield more than one- 
half of what it is capable of doing, as has been practically demon- 
strated by farmers in the county. As capital accumulates among the 
farmers, more attention will be paid to farming. It will be but a 
few years before the land will be in as high a state of cultivation as 
any other inland county in the State. As a body, the farmers are B 
very intelligent, industrious, and prudent class, and I venture to say 
second to none in the Union. Every year gives increased evidence 
that they begin to take an interest in agricultural improvement. In 
1840, before the countv was divided, and contained upwards of 
60,000 inhabitants, a call was made to form an agricultural society. 
Seven individuals only answered to thecall. They, however, formed 
their society and put forth a list of premiums, although they had no 
funds except what were to come from their own pockets. The ex- 
hibition was ^rly attended, and money enough raised to pay all 
premiums and leave a balance in the treasury. The society held its 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

No. 63.] 163 

third anniTerBBry meeting thii fall. There were more people in at- 
tendabce, more spirit and intereEt manifested than at any previoos 
meeting, allbougb there is but about balf the number of inhabitants. 
The great changes which have taken place, are the clearing up of 
the country; the log house and barn of the early settler has almost 
entirely been displaced by good substantial dwellings, and convenient 
barns and out buildings; and improving the land and facilitating in- 
tercoarse by means of roads, few of which are as good or permanent 
as they should be. 

2d. Jhpect of the totmty. — The aspect of the county is gently 
undulating, with a gradual slope to the north. It is drained by two 
principal streams. The Tonawanda on the west, and runs north and 
northwest to the Niagara river, draining the western portion of the 
county; and Allen's creek on the east, which empties its waters into 
the Genesee river. The county is generally well watered by springs 
and streams. The water is pure and wholesome, though uniiormfy 
hard in springs and wells. There is but a very small portion which 
is not susceptiole of the highest state of cultivation. The northern 
portion of the county abounds in limestone, and some very good beds 
of gypsum have been discovered, and are eitensively worked. 

The Tonawanda and the Attica and Buffalo Rail-Roads, nin through 
the county. 

3d. 8<»i. — The predominating character of the soil is calcareons, 
of a gravelly, slaty and clayey loam — ^very fertile, and in general 
easily cultivated; is well adopted to all kinds of grain and the roots. 
The northern portion of the county has not been coDsidered as good 
grazing as the southern. The difficulty has aiisen as much from a 
defective mode of cultivation, as from a naturally warm and dry soil. 
When clover is made to alternate with wheat, little ditficulty seed 
be apprehended on the score of summer feed. A greater attention 
to root husbandry will enable the farmers to carry through large 
stocks of cattle or sheep with their straw fodder, and thus materially 
increase their profits. All good wheat land will produce good roots, 
especially turneps. The more roots, the more stock; an increased 
quantity of manure, and hence greater productivenens in land. 

4th. ProdacHoM. — Winter wheat is ttie staple product of the 
county. It is eminently a grain county. Every kind of grain the 
farmer finds it an object to raise, yields a remunerating crop. 

The soil is naturslfor grass, and the white clover springs np spon- 
taneously where the land ia laid down for meadow or pasture, liiere 
is no difficulty in making the meadows yield from two to three tons 
of good hay to the acre. 

■ftie average of wheat is about twenty-five bushels per acre. Oats, 
thirty-five; barley, thirty; com, forty. There is also raised a large 
quantity of potatoes and peas. 

The principal products of 1839, as appears by the United States 
censas of 1S40, were 

629,646 bushels of wheat. 
7,007 do barley. 



164 [SUIATR 

344 ,452 bushels of oats. 

7,420 do buckwheat. 

157,530 do ' com. 
305,978 do potatoes. 

168,200 pounds of wool. 
321 ,233 do maple sugar. 

26,906 tons of hay. 
Dairy products valued at $101,816. 
Silk is made to some extent, and the cultivation increasiag. 

5th. Markets. — The wheat ismarketed at points upon the Tonawan- 

l' / ^a railroad, or the Etie or Genesee Valley canals, and among the mil- 

^'S."< 'Uers in the county. BarleyisgenerallydrawntoBuffaloandsold. There 

N,.^*;,/ -T IB no particular market for oats, and I beUeve they are consumed 

.",Y^' within the county; the same with corn, buckwheat and potatoes. 

^..j* Catile are driven east and south, though a considerable number are 

S slaughtered ia Buffalo. That city also consumes a large portion of 

our surplus sheep and lambs. A large porUon of the pork made in 

the county has also been sold there. 

6th. Ctiitivaiion. — The systemof cultivation has changed some with- 
in a few years. If there is any regular system it is to be found more 
or less in a rotation of crops, though not to the extent and regularity 
that is desirable or would be profitable for the farmer. There is very 
little old meadow or pasture, as experience has fully convinced the 
formers that nothing is gained by leaving a field down to grass for 
any number of years. 

Wheat is raised after summer fallow, peas, and in some instances 
barley and corn. Corn generally comes off too late to ensure a cer- 
tain crop of wheat after it. For a few years past wheat hag done the 
best which has been sown early in September. It is not uncommon 
to take two or three crops of wheat from the same field with only a 
fallow intervening. Then seed down with clover, and mow or pas- 
ture for two or three years, turn under the clover, and again sow on 
wheat. The most approved method by judicious farmers is to turn 
over the grown sward in the fall or spring, for peas or a hoed crop, 
as com or potatoes. Wheat succeeds the peas in the fall, and barley 
or peas succeed the com, when wheat follows. A fallow intervenes, 
wheat again follows, and the land is seeded, and left to meadow or 
pasture for two or three years, when it is again put under the plow. 
Gypsum is used upon the wheat and clover. This course has been 
found to increase the fertility of the land, without any outlay for ma- 
nure. The manure made in the winter is usually applied to hoed 
crops in the spring. Manure b^ins to be considered an important 
article, but no attention is yet paid to manufacturing it by artificial 
means; the compost heap is seldom seen. 

Draining has been carried on in some towns to a considerable 
extent, and has been found very advantageous. There are but 
few farms that cannot be benefited by underdraining, or by open 

, Google 

No. 63.] 166 

Subaoiling would be generally useful, and a strong, but at the same 
time a light subsoil plow, that could be worked by the ordinary team 
of the farm, would be an invaluable acquisition to the farmer. 

la seeding down land clover is used alone where it is intended for 
pasture, at the rate of 13 to 16 lbs. per acre; when intended for 
meadow, it is used with timothy seed at the rate of 1 lb. of the latter 
to 2 lbs. of the former, and from 10 to 16 lbs. sown to the sere. 
Red-top is sown upon moist land. Orchard grass is coming into use 

Fruit IB abundant, and most of the orchards grafted to valuable 
kinds. Very little cider is ibade, the greater portion of the apples 
being consumed by the stock, principaUy swine. 

Of the implements in use there are a variety of kinds. The cast 
iron plow is universal, but there are several kinds, and each has its 
friends. I consider them all defective in one particular. They cut 
too wide a furrow for the depth. 

The average depth cf plowing is about four inches, and the width 
of furrow slice not far from fourteen inches. lam satisfied that a 
plow, cutting but an eight inch furrow, would be much the most pro- 
&table, because it would enable the farmer to cut a much deeper fur- 
row with the same team; and deep plowing is of the very first impor- 
tance for successful tillage. True, it would take more time for the 
first plowing, but the labor of after cultivation would be much abridged 
by the soil being so much easier pulverized. The cultivator, double 
oblong and triangle harrows are in general use. The double oblong 
harrow is preferred. The roller is used considerably, and its use con- 
stantly increasing. The revolving horse rake is universal. Drills 
and sowing machines are coming into use some. Grain is threshed 
by threshing machines of various patents, which are usually carried 
about from farm to farm; very few being stationary. Straw cutters 
are not much used. 

7th. Animals. — ^There are some imported and thorough bred im- 
proved Short Homed Durham and Devonsbires. The two breeds 
have each their friends, and gmde animals of one or the other breed 
are found in nearly every town in the county. The merits of the 
Short Horns are not yet properly appreciated. There is a linger- 
ing prejudice as to color, which makes against tbem. But they are 
gradually becoming more popular. The grade Devonsbires' make 
beautiful oxen. The cattle are good through the county. 

The horses are good, but there is no prevailing breed. If there be 
any fault, it is in their being too light for all the purposes of the 

The swine as a breed are excellent. There is a variety of breeds. 
The Berkshire, Essex, and the Leicestershire, are found in every de- 

free of admixture, from the pure bloods to the remotest cross. The 
ierkshires are at this time rather the favorite. These are probably, 
under all circumstances, the most profitable hog the iarmer can raise. 
In sheep, we have as great a variety as in swine. There are Me- 
rinos and Saxons, South Downs, and the long wooled sheep under a 
variety of names, as Bakewell, Leicester and Cotswold. The small 

y Google 

166 [Seicatk 

farmer vho raises sheep for the butcher, and with whom wool is only 
a secondary object, will find the moat profit in the coarse wooled 
sheep. But for the large farmer, fine wooled she«p are decidedly the 
most profitable. The merino is considered the most hardy, and there- 
fore the most desirable for a fine wooled flock. 

Sheep are generally sheltered and allowed a plenty of litter. It is 
the practice of many large farmers, to winter them at stacks. If fur- 
nished with good shelters, they have been found to do as well, and 
generally .better, than when confined to yards. In that way, the 
flocks are easily divided, and but about one hundred are allowed to- 

f ether. The lambs are usually kept at the barn, where they can 
ave more attention, and if necessary, better keep. The ewes gene- 
rally drop their lambs early in May. On a wheat farm, sheep are 
considered the most profitable stock that the farmer can raise. A 
greater attention to root culture would add materially to the fanoeHs 
profits in keeping sheep. In general, the sheep are very healthy; I 
do not know that the foot rot has ever occurred in the county. 

There are but very few mules raised in the county. The census of 
1840 shows of animals, as follows: 

Horses and mules, 8,718 

Neat cattle, 22,203 

Sheep, 88,810 

Swine, 28,150 

8th. Value of land and tize of Fonas. — Farms are sold from $1S 
to $80 and $100 per acre. The general average at this time of the 
selling price for farms, would falfbelow $40. At the present value 
of farms, they probably pay a better interest on the investment than 
almost any other county in the State. 

The average size of farms would be not far from 160 acres. Very 
few have over 300 acres, or under 50 acres. 

9tb. Timber. — The prevailing timber is sugar maple- In the 
northern towns, it is mixed with oak, chestnut, beech, and some hem- 
lock, elm and bass wood. The southern portion has less oak than 
the north. Black and white ash, wbitewood and sycamore are found 
in various parts. Various kinds of the walnut are also found in the 
county. The woodland is well timbered; and most farms possess 
Bofficieotgood rail limber to keep their fences good for a century, if pro- 
perly husbanded, and a more improved method of fencing is adopted. 

10th. Fattening stock for market. — Excepting swine, very little 
stock is fattened for market. Hogs are fattened generally in the au- 
tumn, and early part of winter; the greatest number are marketed 
from the middle of November to the middle of December. They are 
generally about 18 months old when killed; and average not far from 
300 lbs. dressed. The method of fattening very prevalent now, is to . 
boil or steam potatoes or apples, and mix with them provender made 
by grinding corn, buckwheat and barley or oats together. In tbiB 
manner, they are fattened off very rapidly, and at small expense. 
Peas are generally fed to them in the vine. If ground, they are fre> 
quently used in the place of corn, and make a very good aubatitute. 

Dig tized by 


No. 63.] 167 

Stall feeding is practiced to bat a small extent; within the last two 
years, it has been found a precarious bnuness, owing to the competi- 
tion by western farmers. Still, stall feeding might be made profita- 
ble by adopting a different mode. Instead of feeding meni as has 
hitherto been the practice, feed at least two-thirds of the time with 
roots. That is, give two feeds a day with roots, and one with meal. 

llth. Changes necuaary toitaprove the agricuiture of the County. 
—The changes necessary to improve our agriculture, are a greater at- 
tention to the improvements which science has enabled the intelligent 
ftrmer to make in the methods of cultivation. The attention of the 
fanner must be excited, correct information must be disseminated, and 
a standard of thought, if I may use the expression, erected. 

The first step requisite, is to place in every school district library, 
at the expense of the State, a well bound volume of the annual Tran- 
aactions of the State Society, A channel for thought will thus be 
opened, and a taste for agricultural literature created and encouraged. 
An increased circulation of agricultural periodicals would follow as a 
matter of course; and then the Agricnltural Society would be sus- 
tained in such a manner as to make itself permanent, and its useful- 
ness greatly increased. 

My own experience in the management of the County Agricultural 
Society, has convinced me tiiat nothing can be done that will be of 
more benefit at this time than to place the Transactions of the State 
Society within the reach of every fermer in the State. 

It would then be an easy task to form a Fanner's Club in every town, 
where stated meetings should be held forthe discussion of the various 
subjects connected with agriculture. The formation of these clubs 
in England is doing the cause immense service, by bringing out a 
mass of facts that could be collected in no other manner so well; and 
ikcts well authenticated, are the very things that the farmers want. 

A model farm properly conducted, in this part of the State, would 
exert a very salutary influence upon the agriculture not only of this 
but of all the counties in this region. There are few if any who 
have the capital requinte to establish such a farm; or having it, have 
the time or skill necessary for its successful prosecution. 



Oneida county has a population of about 90,000, and is divided 
Into twenty-five towns and the city of Utica. The surface of the 
county generally is diversified enough to give variety, and to ensure 
streams of pure living water, and an atmosphere remarkably salu* 
briouB. Some of the northern towns are considerably hilly, but the 
central and western parts of the county are sufficiently level, diver- 
sified with occasional undulations. 

, Google 

168 ISembik 

We have many Tarieties of soil, some admintbly adapted to grain, 
others to grazing, but all very productive. We nave in this county 
much more extensive public works than any county in the State. 
The Erie canal passes through the county from east to west, and on 
its borders have arisen Nourishing villages. The forest has been 
felled, and the rich products of the agriculturist are now reward- 
ing the labors of the farmer, where, when I first located in this 
county, almost impenetrable forests existed. The Chenango canal 
extends from Utica south to Madison; and the Black River canal 
commencing at Rome, passes through the northern section of the 
county to the Black River in Lewis county. The Syracuse and 
Utica and Schenectady rail-roads also traverse this county, affording 
to our inhabitants every facility which can be desired, and numerous 
valuable streams aGTurd mill sites, which are occupied by splendid 
manufacturing establishments exceeding any county In the State. 
The condition of agriculture, though not what it should be, is evi- 
dently improving; and in many respects the farmers of Oneida de- 
serve great praise for their economy, the neatness of their farms, tbeir 
judicious use of manures, a correct system of cropping and bounti- 
ful products. In this county the former efforts, under the auspices 
of the Agricultural Society of ISSO, resulted in much good, although 
in many respects their proceedings did not entirely secure the confi- 
dence of the farming interest. But no unprejudiced mind will doubt, 
I think, that the good effects of that association still remain among 
us, nnd is evident in the improvment of our animals, in more judi- 
cious cultivation of farms, and in an increased desire to become pos- 
sessed of information in relation to improved systems oi husbandry. 
The soil of the central and southern portion of the county is well 
adapted to all kinds of grain and roots, com, barley, rye, oats, po- 
tatoes; wheat, both spring and wioter, are raised in great abundance. 
The wheat crop is not as sure with us as in some of the western 
counties. The ravages of the fly often disappoiut the hopes of the 
farmer, and the severity of the winters at times being equally disas- 
trous. For the last four or live years, however, wheat has been 
raised in many of our towns of fair quality, and the yield very good; 
aud I am of opinion, after considerable re6ection and exammation, 
that if proper care is used in the selection of seed from the west, 
and a suitable preparation of the land for the crop, we may raise 
winter wfieat without difficulty, and realize a very liberal reward. 
The Italian wheat, which has become so celebrated as a spring wheat, 
was Qrst brought into notice by a merchant of this place, who pro- 
cured the seed from a gentleman lately from Florence, Italy, who 
without ever having seen the place, purchased a farm in the town of 
Florence in this county, doubtless supposing that he was about to 
witness (he sunny clime of his own dear native city; sad indeed was 
his disappointment, when he found himself In the midst of a Sibe- 
rian winter, with piles of snow deeper than ever his imagination had 
supposed to exist. Having had at the time the agency of the farot 
on which he lived, I remember the keenness of his disappointment. 

, Google 

No. 63.] 169 

the prostration of all his briglit hopes, as well ai the expenditnre of 
his property to the utmost farthing. 

The Italian wheat, however, was more coni^ial to our soil and 
climate, than was the climate to the Signor who introduced it. For 
eeveral jears it superceded almost entirely the winter crop, and 
large quantities of it were raised. For the last few years, howexer, 
it has not succeeded as well as formerly and is much less cultivated. 
In most of the northern towns of this county, the chief business of 
the farmers at this time is the dairy. Their lands being somewhat 
elevated, are rather too cold for successful cultivation of grain crops, 
but very superior for grazing; their attention has been turned that 
way, and the result has been a very rapid increase of wealth. Many 
of these farms are as productive as any in the county so far as pecu- 
niary results are concerned; and farms which but ten years since 
could have been purchased at a very moderate price, have been sold 
within the last three or four years at prices nearly, if not quite, as 
high as the best grain farms in the county. 

But a spell has come over all our farmers just at present, which 
we hope will soon pass away, so that we may again buy and sell, if 
need be, as in former times. The dairy business is pursued very ex- 
tensively, and is constantly increasing. A regular system is adopted 
for the purchase and sale of the pToducts of the dairy, hy agents from 
New- York and elsewhere; and where the dairyman is careful to feel 
the mint drops in his bands before be unloads his butter and cheese, 
to him it is profitable. 

The credit system has proved very disastrous to many a farmer, 
and has swept from him the entire earnings of his establishment at a 
nngle blow. In a neighboring county, while on a pleasure excur- r 
sion, having emerged from the woods after a Ion;; and wearisome 
march with my fishing rod and basket, I came upon a farm bouse, 
and found the farmer a former resident of Oneida, whom I knew. 
He was engaged in the dairy business, and gave me the results of the 
two precedmg years. The first, he sold bis cheese to one of the agents 
who were buying up dairies at a very high price, to be paid for after 
the cheese should be sold in market; but the concern failed, and be 
never received a single dollar for his year's stock. The next year he 
was offered a fair price for bis cheese by a gentleman from this coun- 
ty, who was ready to pay him the cash; but he thought he could do 
better — sent bis cheese to market to sell on commission, and realized 
three cents on a pound, after payine commission end charges. I ad- 
vised him to sell his cheese for cash for the future, (at the fair mar- 
ket price when ready for market,) and then all would be well. He 
has since pursued that course, 1 believe, and the result has been en- 
tirely to bis advantage. In my opinion, the farmers should adopt 
this practice generally; sell for cash to the merchants at fair prices; 
bay for cash their goods, and then avoid the hazards of failures and 
loss, and secure to themselves their goods at prices which yield to 
the merchants a fair retarn, instead of paying an advance, as they 
ever must when bought on credit, to compensate for bad debts and 
delay of payment. 

rSenate No. 63.] W 

Digitized by 


170 rSi»ATE 

Large quantities of beef and pork are made is this counter. The 
dailies furnish large supplies of pork early in the season, and the 
corn regions supply immense quantities- There is always a market 
for beef and pork in most of our villages and at Utica, though a 
rery large amount annually is shipped directly to New- York and 
Boston. Frequently purchasers from Boston and other eastern cities 
come on and purchase, and pack for themselves. 

In the southern towns in the county, sheep husbandry is attended 
to; and we have many fine flocks of sheep, both fine and coarse 
vooled. The extensive manufactories in the county afford a market 
for most of the wool grown in the county. 

In former times, when Albany ale was in greater demand than «nce 
the triumphs of Washingtonians, hops and barley were cultivated to 
a very great extent, and lai^e sums of money were realized from 
bops. The demand, however, is now much less than formerly, and 
tbe amount annually raised has very much decreased. The soil of 
this county is admirably adapted to Indian corn and potatoes, and 
perhaps few counties in the State produce better crops. Most of these 
crops are consumed amongst us. Some of our farmers who have 
been in tbe habit of marketing their crops at the distillery, have been 
very much alarmed al their decrease, fearful that they would have 
no market; but some of them have found out that it is quite as well 
for them to fatten their own cattle and hogs, and secure the profit to 
themselves, as it is to sell their cattle and grain to the distiller, and 
find their profits among the untold dividends of a bankrupt distiller's 
effects. But the cornstalk sugar and the lard oil, begin to excite 
tbe attention of farmers; and the time, I imagine, is not very far dis- 
tant, when tbe hills of Oneida will be waving with fields of corn for 
the manufacture of sugar, and when we shall be no longer under the 
necessity of purchasing an article rused by the untold agonies of ser- 
vile hands. 

Oats are raised in this county very extensively, and the canal fur- 
nishes aready market, though large quantitieaare shipped annually to 
the New-York market. 

Root crops ace receiving much attention latterly, and their impor- 
tance is becoming more and more apparent. For neat cattle and 
sheep they are admirably adapted, and tbe increased quantity of ma- 
nure from their use, renders the raising of them very advantageoas 
to the farmer. 

The culture of silk is receiving considerable attention, and there is 
no doubt that it will prove a profitable bu»ness — one that with a 
small outlay will produce a very ^r return, and employ females and 
children, who otherwise might not contribute much to the income of 
the farmer. From what I have seen of tbe establishments in this 
county, I am satisfied they will succeed; patience and care are all that 
is wanting. We can produce the silk we need — we must do it — and 
why should it not be donet Why should we pay tributes of millions 
to foreigners every year for an article of luxury merely, but which 
our habits have made almost necessary! The time will come, and I 

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No. 63.] 171 

trust ere lone;, when our dwd demand will not onljr be supplied, but 
a surplus for others be produced. 

We have in this count; some good breeds of cattle. Choice Dur- 
hams are to be found to some extent. A cross of the Holderness has 
produced some very excellent stock. We have Devons also which 
are very fine. The best working cattle are of that breed; and I am 
inclined to the opinion that a cross from the Durham with the Devons 
would give a breed better than either for our purposes. This county 
bns a very excellent native stock, and a cross with choice full bred 
animals, will give ua a stock of neat cattle equal to any in the coun- 
try. The attention of farmers is awakened to this subject, and it 
needs not a prophet to foretell that soon Oneida will exnibit as fine 
a stock as any of her ^ster counties. 

Horses, I regret to say,arenotGuch as they should be. For several 
years past less attention has been paid to a choice selection of the best 
breeds than formerly. The horse we want we have not amongst us. 
Very few first rate animals are to be found. I trust that this will not 
long be permitted to exist. We want " horses of good size, form and 
strength, clean limb, and good color and action," Horses of this 
description suited for coach horses, will not only be profitable for the 
farmer, but will always command a ready market. 

Our swine are good. The improved fierkshire is to be found in al- 
most every part of the county. The China and Leicester also are among 
us, and the crosses with good native breeds ant furnishing us with 
very fine animals. Indeed I have noticed the present season in our 
market very many bogs from a Berkshire cross, evidencing all the 
properties of that breed. Purchasers are beginning to learn that a 
h<^ whose meat is placed in the right spot, is worth more than one 
whose superior weight is made up of nose and legs large enough 
almost for an elephant, and hide thick almost as a niinoceros. 
The improvement in swine is most manifest, and is peculiarly grati- 

Of shaep we have the Saxony , Merino, and some of the Leicester, 
and many of the common sheep. Some flocks of fine woolled which 
I have seen, are equal to any which have come under my eye. It is 
hoped some measures will be adopted to raise the price of wool, so 
as to encourage its grovring, as at its present prices it is almost ruin- 

Of agricultural implements we have a great variety. The most 
improved plows are manufactured here, and the variety is such as to 
suit almost every taste. The Livingston county plow is probably more 
generally used than any other pattern. It works well, and for most 
of our land is preferred to any other. Improved cultivators, drill- 
barrows, hay-rakes, straw-cutters, threshing-machines, &c. are ge- 
nerally in use; and as their convenience and usefulness becomes 
known, they are supplying the place of less useful articles. 

We have m this county extensive tracts of wild land. This land, how- 
ever, is fast settling. Our improved land varies in price from |g20 to 
$100 per acre, though at the latter price but few farms comparative- 
ly are held. 

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172 [Sehatk 

The establishment of an Agricultural Sodety ia this county the last 
year, has been productive of the most beneficial results. It has 
awakened new interest among our farmers. ImproTcments are evi- 
dent in almost every town in the county. A better system of ma- 
nuring begins to prevail; and without this, all our efforts to improve 
will be ia vainj without a judicious application of manure, the best 
efforts will prove unsuccessful; many a farm which now only pro- 
duces half a crop, might at a very small expense be renewed, and 
gladden the owner with a crop, such as, it may be, he has hitherto 
in vain expected from it. 

I know that many farmers who are content to jc^ OD in the old 
way, who take no agricultural journal, who will not adopt any sug- 
gestion out of the ordinary course, are in the habit of opening wide 
their eyes at the announcement of a very large yield of any crop: 
why, they don't believe these statements,/or they never could raise at 
much ! 

Still the facts are multiplying around them, and they must see and 
be convinced. The crops are harvested; the result is exhibited in 
the granary or in the crib. The yield is there, and however won- 
derful it may appear, they will soon be overwhelmed with evidence, 
and they will begin at lasttoinquirehowis this accomplished. They 
will find that a judicious application of manure, a suitable rotation in 
crops, adaptation to the soil has produced the result. 

It is gratifying to observe that there is a very great improvement 
in farm buildings in this county. The neat painted farm house is 
supplying the place of the moss-covered, unsightly, weather beaten, 
unpainted house; good and convenient barns and out-houses for cat- 
tle are being erected; and although much more ought to be done in 
this respect, it is peculiarly gratifying to witness what an advance 
has already taken place. Draining is being practiced among our far- 
mers with the most happy results. This has in a measure, I presume, 
been advanced by the example of English farmers, who have pur- 
chased ferms amongst us. Wherever an Englishman plants bimself, 
if there is a wet cold spot on his farm, the ditch is at once opened, 
the land reclaimed, and good useful grasses supply the place of the 
unprofitable marsh. Our Yankee farmers have adopted the same 
practice, and they too are realizing the blessed results of improve- 

I might, were it desirable, give you the statistics of our county; 
but as they are connected with the census, it cannot be necessary. 

What shall be done to advance the interests of agriculture in this 
county 1 To this, I answer, a judicious rotation of crops — a careful 
attention 1o the preparation and application of manures — choice se- 
lection of seeds, adapted to our climate and soil, and the introduction 
of a thorough system of practical agricultural education, either in con - 
nezion with our ezist'mg schools and seminaries, or by the adoption 
of such a system in a school connected with a model farm. I deem 
this of vita! importance to a permanent and healthy advance in agri- 
culture. We need also, well selected yu// brtd animals to cross with 
our native stock; and no good reason now exists to prevent this be- 

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No. «a.] ns 

ing done. Our own country can furnish from the many (choice herds 
vhich are scattered over it, animals equal, probably, to any we tan 
€ver expect to procure from importations; certainly there are many 
that would prove of immense advantage to us. 

We need more system in all our operations connected with onr 
farms; we are realizing the effects of system and order in the man- 
agement of many of our farms; and when it shall become universal, 
and when prejudice shall have been overcome, agricultural science 
more generally diffused, the empire county will at least sustain in her 
agricultural relations that commanding «levatioD which is now award- 
ed to it for her wealth and resources. 

With a firm reliance upon Him, witboot whose blessing all our ef- 
forts will be in vain, I cherish the fond expectation that ere long we 
shall be permitted to witness an improved system of agricultural edu- 
cation, as well as such an improvement in agriculture generally as 
will gladden the heart of every patriot and every lover of the best in- 
terests of hia country. 



The present condition of agriculture in this oounty is promi- 
Mug, having undergone considerable change for the better, within 
the last few years. This change may be niainly attributed to the cir- 
culation of agricultural periodicals, and the improved method of cul- 
tivation brougbtahout by them,and the influence of ceitain individuals 
in different sections of the county who have given us occukr demon- 
stration of the benefit of a judicious rotation of crops and economy 
in collecting and applying manures. Oneida county has considera- 
ble level land lying east and west through the county from Utica 
east, to Oneida Lake west, and is admirably calculated for the pro- 
duction of grain as well as for grazing. The north and south is more 
uneven, especially the towns of Boonville, Lee, Western, Steuben, 
and part of some other towns in the north; and they are occupied 
mostly for dairying, except Lee and Western. 

There is as gr«at a variety of soils in this as in any county in the 
State. There is the rich, fertile, alluvial soil along the streams; the 
dry gpravelly; the wet cold upland or bill country, with a rich muclty 
surface, but a subsoil near the same; some very stony and some san- 
dy pitch pine plains. The products are as the soil. Those 
mostly produced for market, are beef, pork, butter, cheese and wool. 
The other products, such as oats, corn, rye, barley, hay, potatoes and 
other roots, are consumed mostly in our own county. Our marketing 
isdone at the villages along the Erie canal. The modes of cultivation 
are somewhat various, but new and improved ones are getting more 
and more in fashion; and I think the old skinning system will soon 

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174 [Sefate 

give place to a more impTOTed one. The breeds of horses are Tery 
numerons, but I am unable to give the name of the different varieties. 
There has not been any great tmprorement in horses for some years 

The native breed of cattle mostly prevail; but there is some im- 
provement by crosses of the Durham with the native going on, and it 
bids fair to be of great service to the grazing commnnily. The fine 
wooled sheep is fast giving place to the coarser varieties in this 
part of the county, such as the native, Bakewell and South Down, &C. 

The old large boned, long eared, loi^ snonted hog, is being ex- 
changed for the improved Berkshire, Leicester, &.C. The beef is al- 
most all fattened on grass, and mostly slaughtered and packed here; 
but some are sold to drovers and driven to market. 

A variety of plows are in use here, but those mostly esteemed for 
turning sod, are the Livingston county and Scotch plow. We have 
several other cast iron kinds esteemed for common use, manufactured 

The square harrow, some with joint and some without, are mostly 
in use. There are a great variety of threshing machines, straw cul- 
lers, hay rakes, &c. in use here, and each have their admirers and 

I cannot give yon any correct idea of the value of our lands, as 
there are locations which would command any price, and others that 
would be prized very low. 

The timber is of uvery variety almost which grows in this Slate; 
but the dry land is mostly covered with beech and maple. 

The only change needed to advance the prosperity of the county, 
19 an improved mode of farming by a regular course of rotation of 
crops and a strict economy in collecting, and a judicious application 
of manures, together with habits of temperance, industry and frugal- 
ity. These combined with honesty and integrity aud a spirit of in- 
quiry and emulation, will cause the desert to bud and blossom as the 
rose, and the solitary place to be glad. And nothing is better calcu- 
lated to bring about such a state of things, than the diffusion of agri- 
cultural information among farmers; and this can only be accomplish- 
ed through the influence of agricultural periodicals. 



Since the current of western emigration began to overleap the 
German settlements on the Mohawk, in 1783, and spread over the 
fertile districts of Western New-York, the county of Onondaga has 
held a distinguished place in its history; and has exerted a powerful 
influence in all matters connected with the prosperity of the state. 
To this its natural fertility, its central situation, its hardy, industri- 

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No. 63.] 175 

oos and intelligent population, mostly derived from New-England, 
and its great mineral stores of salt and gypsum, hare doubtless es- 
sentially contributed. The third county in population in the t^tate, 
its social, political, and agricultural influence is widely felt; but it is 
to a brief sketch of her resources in regard to agriculture, that this 
paper must be confined, 

Onondaga county contains, according to its assessment rolls, 454,700 
acres of land; of which 270,330 acres, according to the state census 
of 1835, was improved, and the quantity cultivated does not at 
the present time differ materially from that amount. The gain of 
improved land since the census, has been in the northern towns of 
the county. As there is but little land in the county incapable of 
improvement, the quantity of cultivated land may be estimated at the 
present time at 300,000 acresj leaving about 150,000 acres as wood- 
land, or such as is not fit for culture. A small part of this is covered 
by the lakes of the county, and another part, principally in the north- 
ern towns, by swamps which are as yet undrained. 

The agricultural character of Onondaga county cannot be clearly 
understood without some knowledge of its geological position, and 
the several causes that have been brought to bear upon and modify 
the qualities of the soil in its various parts. In the New-York sys- 
tem of rocks, extending from the primitive to the coal, as divided 
and classified in the elaborate and final reports of the Geological Sur- 
veyors of the state, Onondaga occupies a position extending from the 
Clinton group (the lower member of the Protean group of the early 
reports,) upwards, embracing the Niagara group, the Onondaga Salt 
group, the Water lime group, the Ori^any sandstone, the Onondaga 
limestone, the Corniferous and Seneca limestones, the Marcellus 
shales, the Hamilton group, the Tully limestones, the Genesee slatej 
and on the highest hills in the southern towns of the county, some 
of the Portage group. 

The Clinton group barely appears at Fort Brewerton, and along 
the outlet of the Oneida. Its mfluence on the soils is limited. The 
JViagara group shows itself in the towns of Cicero, Clay, and Ly- 
sander, and the limestones and shales composing it, have a decided 
influence on the soils overlying them. The mass oi limestone which 
here has a thickness of only from five to ten ieet, at Niagara has 
increased to eighty, and at Galena and Dubuque on the Mississippi^ 
to more than four hundred feet. The Onondaga Salt group contains, 
1st, the red shale. This mass occupies in connection with No. 2 of 
the same group, from which it does not widely differ, all the south 
part of Cicero and Clay, the whole of Salina and Van Buren, the 
south part of Lysander, and the north part of Camillas and Elbridge. 
Above this is No. 3 of the Ealt group, containing the plaster beds, and 
the hopper shaped cavities, proving the former existence of rock salt. 
This is narrow, and crosses Manlius, Onond^a, Camillus and El- 
bridge. No. 4 of this group, is a limestone of limited thickness, 
abounding in cavities formed by sulphate of magnesis. The salt 
group, in its several divisions, covers a larger part of the county than 
any other of its rock masses, and exercises a more than proportionate 

, Google 

rJ6 fSUATK. 

influence frcm thf miiKrals it cmitaiDs. The Water Hme group ha» 
a tbickness of only from tbirtjr to eighty feet, and passes across the 
county from east to west, imioediatety above the salt group. It is 
of more consequence to the arts than to agriculture, aSecting the 
soils but in a very limited degree. The Oriskany tandstone has a 
etill less thickness than the hydraulic limestooe, but from the nature 
of its constituents it occupies a conspicuous place among the modify- 
ing agents of the f^oits near ils outcrop. It passes across the county, 
in the towns of Maniius, (^ondaga, Camillus and Elt^idge. The 
Onondaga, limeslone is the stone so extensively used for quarrying^ 
yet rarely exct^eiis more than fourteen feet in thickness. It extend 
across the county, in connection with the sandstone, and though li- 
mited in area, exerts a favorable influence wherever it appears. It 
passes across the county near tht boundaries of Pompey and Manil- 
as, and north of the central parts of Onondaga, Marcellus and Skane- 
ateles. The Comiferous and ils upper member, the Seneca Ume- 
sltmes, appears above the Onondaga limestone, and pursues the same 
course across the county. Its influence is limited, but. good. The 
thick mass called the Marcellus thaies, lies above these limestones^ 
and occupies the northern half of Pompey and La Fayette, the south 
half of Onondaga, nearly the whole of Marcellus, and the north half of 
Skaneateles. The Hhtmlton group is above this, and covers the south 

Sarts of Pompey and La Fayeite, nearly the whole of Otisco, part of 
[arcellus, the south part of Skaneateles, and the north part of Spaf- 
ford. The Ihlly limestone follows, but its extent as well as its in- 
fluence is limited. It is found in Fabius, Tully, Otisco, and Spafford. 
The rocks which have been mentioned, are the ones which most af- 
fect the soil and i^riculture of the county, only a few of the highest 
bills in Fabius, Tully and Spafford, being capped with the rocks 
of the Portage group; the space between this and the Tully lime- 
stone being occupied by the Genesee shale, which covers a large part 
of Fabius, Tully and SpafiTord. A glance at the map will show the 
direction of strata named, and the parts of the county occupied by 
The thickness of these several masses may be estimated as follows: 

Clinton group, 100 feet. 

Niagara " I50 " 

Ououdajra salt, 800 " 

Water lime, 70 " 

Oriskany Sandstone, 20 " 

Onondaga limestone, ..■>,.. 14 *' 

Comiferous " 80 " 

Marcellus shales, 400 " 

Hamilton Group, 300 " 

Tully limestone 20 « 

Genesee slate 200 « 

Portage group, 150 " 

2,304 « 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



Hie height of the most elerBtedparta of the soutbeni towns over 
those of the north, or those on the Seneca river, may be estimated at 
1,200 feet. This shows a difference of 1,100 feet between the geo- 
lo^cal and the actual elevatioD, which is accounted for by the dip 
of the strata to the south, which is from thirty to forty feet per mile. 

Elevation ig found to be an important element in estimating the 
agticultnral capabilities of all countries, particularly in northern or 
sontherD ones, as it